Insights Daily Current Affairs + PIB: 10 October 2019
Table of contents:
GS Paper 2:
- The WHO India Country Cooperation Strategy 2019–2023.
- Mahatma Gandhi National Fellowship Programme.
GS Paper 3:
- Pradhan Mantri KisanSamman Nidhi (PM-Kisan).
- Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO).
- Rehabilitation package to 5,300 J&K displaced families.
Facts for Prelims:
- World Mental Health Day 2019.
- Gagan Enabled Mariner’s Instrument for Navigation and Information (GEMINI).
GS Paper 2:
- Issues related to health.
What to study?
For Prelims: What is CCS?
For Mains: India CCS, significance and other things necessary in this regard.
Context: ‘The WHO India Country Cooperation Strategy 2019–2023: A Time of Transition’ has been launched.
Overview of India CCS:
- The India CCS is one of the first that fully aligns itself with the newly adopted WHO 13th General Programme of Work and its ‘triple billion’ targets, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and WHO South-East Asia Region’s eight Flagship Priorities.
- It captures the work of the United Nations Sustainable Development Framework for 2018–2022.
- The CCS outlines how WHO can support the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare and other allied Ministries to drive impact at the country level.
- The strategy document builds on other key strategic policy documents including India’s National Health Policy 2017, the many pathbreaking initiatives India has introduced — from Ayushman Bharat to its National Viral Hepatitis programme and promotion of digital health amongst others.
What is Country Cooperation Strategy?
- CCS provides a strategic roadmap for WHO to work with the Government of India towards achieving its health sector goals, in improving the health of its population and bringing in transformative changes in the health sector.
- It builds upon the work that WHO has been carrying out in the last several years.
- In addition, it identifies current and emerging health needs and challenges such as non-communicable diseases, antimicrobial resistance and air pollution.
The four areas identified for strategic cooperation of WHO with the country encompass:
- To accelerate progress on UHC.
- To promote health and wellness by addressing determinants of health.
- To protect the population better against health emergencies.
- To enhance India’s global leadership in health.
- Besides the health priorities detailed in the strategy, focus needs to be given on other equally pertinent health areas of environmental and occupational health, accidents and road injuries, and good nutrition and food safety.
- A mechanism needs to be institutionalized wherein every ministry has a health section/department, so that every policy factors in its health implications.
WHO ‘Triple Billion’ targets:
It is a strategic plan for the next five years.
It aims for:
- One billion more people to be benefitted from Universal Health Coverage (UHC)
- One billion more people to be protected from health emergencies
- One billion more people to be covered for better health and well-being.
- Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.
What to study?
For Prelims: Key features of the programme, eligibility and targets.
For Mains: Significance and the need for the programme.
Context: Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship launches Mahatma Gandhi National Fellowship Programme with IIM Bangalore.
Details of the programme:
- It is a two-year fellowship programme to boost skill development at the district level.
- Designed under Skills Acquisition and Knowledge Awareness for Livelihood Promotion (SANKALP).
- It aims to address the challenge of non-availability of personnel for implementation of various programmes at national, state and district levels.
- It has an in-built component of on-ground practical experience with the district administration.
- Launched on a pilot basis in 75 districts across Gujarat, Karnataka, Meghalaya, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand.
- Eligibility: Eligible fellows for the programme have to be in 21-30 years age-group, have a graduation degree from a recognized university and be citizens of India. Proficiency in official language of state of fieldwork will be mandatory.
- In the course of their training, fellows will work under the close supervision of state skill development missions (SSDM) and will spend time and effort in understanding skilling challenges and gaps in the district.
- They are expected to enrich skilling programmes by bringing in fresh thinking to local planning, execution, community interaction and outcome management.
- Fellows will receive a stipend of Rs. 50,000 in the first year and Rs. 60,000 in the second year.
- On completion of their engagement, they will be awarded a Certificate in Public Policy and Management from IIM Bangalore.
About SANKALP scheme:
What is it? SANKALP is a Centrally sponsored scheme of Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship (MSDE). It is an outcome focused scheme marking shift in government’s implementation strategy in vocational education and training from inputs to results.
It will provide market relevant training to 3.5 crore youth.
Objective: To enhance institutional mechanisms for skills development and increase access to quality and market-relevant training for the work force.
- It provides the required impetus to the National Skill Development Mission, 2015 and its various sub missions.
- It is aligned to flagship Government of India programs such as Make in India and Swachhta Abhiyan and aims at developing globally competitive workforce for domestic and overseas requirements.
Under SANKALP four key result areas have been identified viz: (i) Institutional Strengthening (at National, State & District level); (ii) Quality Assurance of skill development programs; (iii) Inclusion of marginalised population in skill development; and (iv) Expanding Skills through Public Private Partnerships (PPPs).
GS Paper 3:
- Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing.
What to study?
For Prelims: Key Features of the scheme.
For Mains: Significance, relevance and need for the scheme, concerns and challenges over its implementation, is it sufficient?
Context: Cabinet approves relaxation of Aadhaar seeding of data of the beneficiaries under Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi (PM-Kisan).
What’s the issue?
Under the scheme, funds were to be released on the basis of Aadhaar seeded database.
However, it has not been possible to get 100% Aadhaar seeding for release of funds as per the prescribed time schedule before release of instalments after 1st August, 2019.
About Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi:
- Under this programme, vulnerable landholding farmer families, having cultivable land upto 2 hectares, will be provided direct income support at the rate of Rs. 6,000 per year. This income support will be transferred directly into the bank accounts of beneficiary farmers, in three equal installments of Rs. 2,000 each.
- The complete expenditure of Rs 75000 crore for the scheme will borne by the Union Government in 2019-20.
What is a small and marginal landholder family?
It comprises of husband, wife and minor children up to 18 years of age, who collectively own cultivable land up to two hectares as per the land records of the concerned states.
Around 12 crore small and marginal farmer families are expected to benefit from this. It would not only provide assured supplemental income to the most vulnerable farmer families, but would also meet their emergent needs especially before the harvest season. It would pave the way for the farmers to earn and live a respectable living.
Similar programmes by states:
- Bhavantar Bhugtan Yojana in Madhya Pradeshwas sought to provide relief to farmers by providing the differential between MSPs and market prices.
- The Rythu Bandhu scheme of the Telangana provides ₹4,000 per acre for every season to all the farmers of the state. Similar initiatives have also be framed in Jharkhand and Odisha.
- Krushak Assistance for Livelihood and Income augmentation (KALIA) of Odisha is more complicated in design and implementation. It commits to give Rs 5,000 per SMF, twice a year, that is Rs 10,000 a year.
Benefits of direct cash transfers:
- Immediate impact on reducing hunger and rural poverty.
- Help households to overcome credit constraints and manage risk. This can increase productive investment, increase access to markets and stimulate local economies.
- Income support can be used to make a repayment or at least activate a bank account which can then receive a loan.
- Increase investment in agricultural inputs, including farm implements and livestock.
- Serve as an important complement to a broader rural development agenda, including a pro-poor growth strategy focusing on agriculture.
Challenges with cash transfers- criticisms:
- Cash transfers are not greatly superior in terms of leakages compared to other schemes of in-kind transfer such as the public distribution system (PDS).
- A targeted cash transfer scheme envisions the role of the state to only providing cash income to the poor. This kind of approach seeks to absolve the state of its responsibility in providing basic services such as health, education, nutrition and livelihood.
- Cash transfer scheme cannot be substituted for subsidies and other institutional support systems such as the National Food Security Act-powered public distribution system. In fact, such cash transfer schemes could be counterproductive and may lead to more distress.
- Cash transfer is neither a substitute for the structural reforms needed in agriculture, nor does it adequately compensate the farmer for the risks and uncertainty of crop cultivation.
- In the absence of proper tenancy records, it will benefit the absentee landlords.
- It is no substitute for the lack of investment in agriculture, which has declined at 2.3% per annum in real terms.
- Awareness in space.
What to study?
For Prelims and Mains: About LRO- mission objectives, components and significance, Significance of Lunar water and benefits.
Context: Ten years ago (Oct. 9), NASA slammed a hunk of space junk into the moon, forever changing our perception of Earth’s nearest neighbour.
The space agency’s Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) missions launched together on June 18, 2009, riding atop a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket.
LRO sped to lunar orbit, where it continues to operate today. But LCROSS remained attached to the Atlas V’s Centaur upper stage and went into a long, elliptical path around Earth that put it on an intentional collision course with the moon.
About Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO):
It is a NASA mission to the moon within the Lunar Precursor and Robotic Program (LPRP) in preparation for future manned missions to the moon and beyond (Mars).
LRO is the first mission of NASA’s `New Vision for Space Exploration’.
The objectives of LRO are to:
- Identify potential lunar resources.
- Gather detailed maps of the lunar surface.
- Collect data on the moon’s radiation levels.
- Study the moons polar regions for resources that could be used in future manned missions or robotic sample return missions.
- Provide measurements to characterize future robotic explorers, human lunar landing sites and to derive measurements that can be used directly in support of future Lunar Human Exploration Systems.
Sources: the hindu.
- Security challenges and their management in border areas; linkages of organized crime with terrorism.
What to study?
For Prelims: Overview of the rehabilitation programme.
For Mains: Challenges present, need for and significance of the programme.
Context: Cabinet has approved Inclusion of 5,300 Displaced Persons (DP) families of Jammu & Kashmir in the Rehabilitation Package approved by the Cabinet on 30.11.2016 for Displaced Families of Pakistan-occupied Jammu and Kashmir (PoJK) and Chhamb under the PM’s Development Package 2015 for Jammu & Kashmir.
These families initially opted to move outside the State of Jammu & Kashmir but later on returned and settled in the state.
- The approval will enable such Displaced Families to become eligible to get one-time financial assistance of Rs 5.5 Lakhs under the existing scheme, and in turn, be able to get some sustained income which the existing scheme is aimed at.
- This will also enable them to earn a reasonable monthly income and be part of mainstream economic activities.
- This will also upgrade the Government’s capacity to respond effectively to such DP families need of financial assistance.
In the aftermath of partition of the country in 1947, thousands of families from Pakistan occupied areas of Jammu and Kashmir migrated to Jammu and Kashmir. Subsequently, during Indo-Pak Wars of 1965 and 1971, a large number of families were displaced from Chhamb Niabat area of Jammu and Kashmir.
Series of relief and rehabilitation packages have been extended by the Government of India/State Government of J&K from time to time to mitigate the hardship of displaced persons from PoJK and Chhamb and to rehabilitate them.
Facts for prelims:
World Mental Health Day 2019:
Observed on October 10 every year.
Objective: to mobilize efforts in support of mental health and provides an opportunity for everyone to talk and discuss mental health issues, and what more needs to be done.
Theme: ‘Mental Health Promotion and Suicide Prevention.’
It was first celebrated in 1992 at the initiative of the World Federation for Mental Health, a global mental health organization with members and contacts in more than 150 countries.
Gagan Enabled Mariner’s Instrument for Navigation and Information (GEMINI) device:
- It is a device that used for seamless and effective dissemination of emergency information and communication on disaster warnings, Potential Fishing Zones (PFZ) and Ocean States Forecasts (OSF) to fishermen.
- The device will help to provide information related to disaster warnings when fishermen move away from the coast beyond 10 to 12 kilometres.
- The GEMINI device receives and transfers the data received from GAGAN satellite/s to a mobile through Bluetooth communication. A mobile application developed by INCOIS decodes and displays the information in nine regional languages.
- It has been developed by Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS), and Airports Authority of India (AAI).
- It is electronically designed and manufactured by a private industry M/S Acord, Bangalore under Make in India Program.