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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 14 SEPTEMBER 2019


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 14 SEPTEMBER 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


 

Topic:  Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country.

1) Environmental movements in the post independent India did not have pan Indian character as they were mostly outcomes of local issues. Critically Analyse.(250 words)

post-independence India by Bipin Chandra

Why this question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper I.

Key demand of the question:

Answer should explain in detail the Environmental movements in the post independent India and the reasons for its lack of pan Indian presence.

Directive:

Critically analyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief discuss the environmental movements that started in post-independence India.

Body:

Explain first what environmental movements are.

Discuss how they were different in the past (post-independence) and how are they today.

Explain why the movements were localized? Discuss the causes and consequences.

Explain few examples – Bishnoi Movement, Chipko Movement, Appiko Movement etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with today’s times and how movements are different.

Environmental movement refers to mass mobilization for environmental causes.

Post-independence movement was mainly for improvement of quality of life not for changing power sharing arrangement as was there before independence. Similar was the case with environment movement

Various environment movement of post-independence India were –

  • Chipko Movement
  • No forest exploitation contracts to be given to outsider.
  • Local communities should have effective control over natural resources like land water and forest.
  • Narmada Bachao Abhiyan
  • A proper cost benefits analysis of the major developmental projects completed in the country so far.
  • Social cost should be calculated too with respect to such projects. Social cost meant forced settlement of project affected people, serious loss of means of livelihood and culture, depletion of ecological resources
  • Appiko movement
  • Against the felling and commercialization of natural forest and the ruin of ancient livelihood.
  • Silent valley movement: Against dam construction on Kuntipuzha river.

All these movements started from local issues and mostly local people only took part in them. These movements can be seen as competition between environmentalism and industrialization

 

 

 

Reason for Limited participation

  • The issue over which the movement started had direct impact over the particular region only. For example in Chipko Movement the movement was against issue of license to a private company to cut down trees which were the source for livelihood of the locals.
  • The awareness about environment were not widespread, during those times people were not aware that environment at one place could impact environment of other places.
  • There was not much clarity for referring environment to development.
  • Environment movement work considered anti-development in some part of the countries which were more industrialized.
  • These movements were mostly during the time of emergency and while political churning of our country was going through various other political movements like JP Andolan.
  • Responsive government work quick government responded to local demand before the movement could spread outside the region example in silent valley movement Prime Minister of India himself inaugurated Silent Valley National Park to fulfill the demand of people

However though the movements were concentrated in local regions there impact was Pan Indian.

  • They made people more aware about environment, appiko movement made villager aware throughout the Western Ghats. Jungle bachao andolan of Singhbhum district of jharkhand spread all over to Odisha.
  • They forced government to make policies to protect environment. For example appiko movement forced Government of India to change forest policies like concession to login company was stopped.
  • These movements motivated people of other region to take similar sentences for example Chipko movement has motivated Appiko movement and Beej Bachao movement.
  • It changed the colonial tradition of forests being controlled solely by bureaucrats.

Presently environment movement is gaining Global prominence. NGOs like Greenpeace and organizations like United Nations are taking steps to save environment at Global scale and mitigate climate change. Different nations are also making their effort to save the environment and develop sustainable example International solar Alliance by India and France.


Topic:Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, IndianDiaspora.

2) In the emerging multipolar world order, India is a natural leader in the Indian Ocean region. Comment. (250 words)

Indiatoday

The hindubusinessline

Why this question:

The Fourth Indian Ocean Conference recently took place in the Maldives, with leaders of about 40 countries participating in it.

Key demand of the question:

The question aims to analyse the India’s emergence as a natural leader in the changing dynamics of the world powers.

Directive:

Commenthere we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In first explain the current conditions of the multipolarness of the world.

Body:

Explain how the advent of the globalisation era had coincided with a significant geo-political development. Starting with the late ‘80s, fissures started erupting in the USSR body politic, ultimately leading to its dismemberment and collapse in the early ’90s. And then discuss how Countries world over are increasingly turning inwards as of today and all the global institutions are losing their relevance and influence over large parts of the world.

Then explain where does India stand today in the world.

Discuss the relevance of Indian Ocean Conference and changing leadership of India and its centricity.

Conclusion:

Conclude with its importance and India’s emergence as a world leader.

 

Since independence, India has progressive approached towards Indian Ocean region. After 1990 US emerge as an uncontended Maritime power because of Soviet Navy withdrawal. In recent years the Indian Ocean has become arena of strategic competition among regional as well as extra regional powers. China, India and Japan’s naval potential has grown exponentially.

Though, there are many emerging powers in Indian Ocean region India still is a natural leader in the region because of the following reasons:

  • Strategic position of India in the heart of Indian Ocean.
  • Vast coastline around 7500 km in Indian Ocean.
  • Two Island groups – Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshadweep extend India’s reach to Indian Ocean.
  • It is the largest economy among littoral States of this region.
  • India maintains good relationship with most of the littoral state in Indian Ocean.
  • India was successfully able to get Maldives and Seychelles into its sphere of influence. Example India convinced Seychelles for Indian Naval base in Asuncion Island.
  • Recently India has started many projects some of them are following: –
  • Blue economy – India is operating with Mauritius, Maldives, Bangladesh Seychelles and Sri Lanka to promote blue economy in the region.
  • Sagar – it is India’s most ambitious project which deals with security as well as growth of this region.
  • IORA (Indian ocean regional Association) – for the first time IORA Action Plan 2017 21 has been accepted

Challenges

  • In recent time China has been emerging as a biggest threat because of its debt trap policy China is working on Humbantota port of Sri Lanka. China is also negotiating with mamma to get stronger in Indian ocean region.
  • String of pearls which China is making do circumscribe India is another big challenge for India
  • Erratic behaviour of allies like USA.
  • Piracy in Indian Ocean.

 Way forward

India should promote rule-based order in the region and follow the policy of reconciliation with China.

Conclusion

India should respect this status given by its Peer Nations of the region and should work for progress of region as a whole in faster pace.


Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out oftheir design and implementation.

3) Discuss the possible factors that inhibit India from enacting a uniform civil code (UCC) for its citizenry as provided for by the Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP) of the Indian constitution. (250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question:

There have been various calls for a uniform civil code in the country, right since the independence. The debate involves several issues and it is important to analyze the nature of the debate, various issues involved therein etc. 

Key demand of the question:

Discuss the need for UCC in India and explain in detail the possible factors that have hindered the coming of UCC in the country.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Write a few introductory lines about the UCC in India. E.g. the Constituent Assembly debates reveal a lack of consensus on what a potential uniform civil code would entail. While many thought the UCC would coexist alongside the personal law systems, others thought that it was to replace the personal law.

Body:

Explain briefly first the Uniform civil code and the respective constitutional provisions. Discuss the need for a UCC and how imposing a UCC will affect democracy and personal freedom.

Also discuss what should be the way ahead, what steps should be taken.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward, what should be the next step ahead.

Ans:

The Uniform Civil Code (UCC) in India proposes to replace the personal laws based on the scriptures and customs of each major religious community in the country with a common set of laws governing every citizen.

The constitution has a provision for Uniform Civil Code in Article 44, as a Directive Principle of State Policy which states that “The State shall endeavor to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India.”

Factors obstructing the passage of UCC:

  • Practical difficulties due to diversity in India –It is practically tough to come up with a common and uniform set of rules for personal issues like marriage due to tremendous cultural diversity India across the religions, sects, castes, states etc.
  • Perception of UCC as encroachment on religious freedom – Many communities, particularly minority communities perceive Uniform Civil Code as an encroachment on their rights to religious freedom. They fear that a common code will neglect their traditions and impose rules which will be mainly dictated and influenced by the majority religious communities.
  • Interference of state in personal matters – The constitution provides for the right to freedom of religion of one’s choice. With codification of uniform rules and its compulsion, the scope of the freedom of religion will be reduced.
  • Sensitive and tough task – Such a code, in its true spirit, must be brought about by borrowing freely from different personal laws, making gradual changes in each, issuing judicial pronouncements assuring gender equality, and adopting expansive interpretations on marriage, maintenance, adoption, and succession by acknowledging the benefits that one community secures from the others. This task will be very demanding time and human resource wise. The government should be sensitive and unbiased at each step while dealing with the majority and minority communities. Otherwise, it might turn out to be more disastrous in a form of communal violence.
  • Time is not yet suitable for this reform – Considering a major opposition from Muslim community in India over this issue overlapping with controversies over beef, saffronization of school and college curriculum, love jihad, and the silence emanating from the top leadership on these controversies, there needs to be given sufficient time for instilling confidence in the community. Otherwise, these efforts towards common will be counterproductive leaving minority class particularly Muslims more insecure and vulnerable to get attracted towards fundamentalist and extremist ideologies.

Way forward

  • Major sensitization efforts are needed to reform current personal law reforms which should first be initiated by the communities themselves.
  • Current institutions need to be modernized, democratized and strengthened for this change. Sincere efforts towards women empowerment have to be taken for all women of all religions.
  • UCC can only emerge through an evolutionary process, which preserves India’s rich legal heritage, of which all the personal laws are equal constituents.

Conclusion

The codification and implementation of UCC may not necessarily usher in the expected equality among genders and religions. The plural democracy is an identity of the modern India. Therefore, efforts should be focused on harmony in plurality than blanket uniformity for flourishing Indian democracy.


Topic:Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.

4) The recent suspension of U.S.-Taliban talks has opened the space for the global community and India to reset the peace process, do you agree? Analyse and give your opinion. (250 words)

The hindu

Why this question:

The article discusses in what way The suspension of U.S.-Taliban talks has opened the space for the global community and India to reset the peace process.

Key demand of the question:

One has to explain the recent changing dynamics with Taliban and the Afghan-India scenario with a chance for the global countries to have stakes in the peace process associated.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.  

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Explain the withdrawal of talks by Trump.

Body:

Explain the context and situation currently being witnessed in the peace process involving Taliban.

Discuss the conditions in which such a decision was made by US.

What should be India’s role in such a scenario? Discuss India’s relations and stakes in the region.

Conclusion:

Conclude with possible future outcome as a result of withdrawal of US from the peace talks with Taliban.

 

Ans:

Taliban is a political Fundamentalist faction in Afghanistan which was thrown out of power in 2001 by USA invasion after 26/11 attack. Since then USA and NATO had stationed their military in Afghanistan, a democratic government had been installed with the help of USA.

 

 

What is the recent happening?

  • While calling-off the talks, Trump also revealed that he had secretly invited the Taliban and the Afghan President separately to clinch a deal personally.
  • The Khalilzad-brokered deal had been in the making over nine rounds of talks, largely in Doha, Qatar. (The Afghan government was not a part of this due to a Taliban veto that the U.S. implicitly accepted.)
  • The salient details of the agreement were revealed on a private television channel.
  • They centered on an initial timetable for the withdrawal of around 5,400 out of nearly 14,000 U.S. troops from 5 Afghan bases in 135 days.
  • A tight timeline of two weeks to kick-start intra-Afghan talks before the Afghan presidential elections (scheduled on September 28) was also included.

Was the deal fair?

  • The deal as negotiated was one-sided, partial and highly flawed.
  • It was loaded heavily towards Mr. Trump’s goal of a withdrawal of all U.S. troops by November 2020.
  • It was weak in guarantees against terrorism aimed at the U.S., and lacking safeguards for the security and stability for Afghanistan.
  • The comprehensive ceasefire was diluted to a limited ‘reduction’ in violence.
  • Unresolved differences over many other issues were among the reasons for Mr. Trump’s decision to call-off the talks.
  • Notably, the agreement was also widely criticized in the U.S. and elsewhere.
  • It was seen as a “negotiated withdrawal”, “abdication”, and even “surrender” rather than a peace agreement.
  • It has sacrificed the political, military and economic investments and civic gains of the last 18 years including democracy and the advancement of women.
  • This would create the conditions for civil war, promoting radical extremism.
  • In Afghanistan too, the agreement was widely perceived as a sell-out and a betrayal of Afghanistan to the Taliban and Pakistan.

What opportunities does suspension of talks offer?

  • The suspension of U.S.-Taliban talks has opened the space for the holding of Afghan presidential elections.
  • The Afghan election authorities and security forces should now be supported to conduct free and fair elections as an exercise of sovereignty.
  • Concerns about misuse of government apparatus should be addressed as the Taliban will try to disrupt the elections.
  • The election outcome could provide a stronger foundation for talks with the Taliban that are Afghan-led, Afghan-owned and Afghan-controlled.
  • It may not be dictated from Washington, Islamabad, Doha or Moscow.
  • India should be able to support such talks.
  • Also, free from elections, the Afghan government could take the lead in forging a national consensus behind talks with the Taliban
  • Besides these, the international community should support this peace process.
  • It should focus its efforts on the Taliban to demonstrate their ‘nationalism’ by –
  • Distancing themselves from Pakistan’s Inter-Services Intelligence
  • Halting attacks against fellow Afghans.
  • Agreeing to a ceasefire.
  • Negotiating directly with a representative Afghan delegation.

What should way forward:

Afghanistan and the world may breathe a sigh of relief that the deal has been aborted for now.

But, this is short-lived as the mindset of a unilateral pullout without being aware of its consequences for Afghanistan and the region and the danger of Trump’s uncertain decisions remain.

For now, Mr. Trump has proclaimed the talks to be “dead” and ordered offensive operations. But he still needs a counter-terrorism strategy for which he would have to look for options. On the other hand, crucial to Afghanistan’s future is its ability to stand on its own feet economically.

This could be through investment in Afghanistan’s mineral sector to generate revenues, and militarily, through a progressive ‘Afghanisation’ of security forces at a lower budget. India should be able to help in this.


Topic:   Linkages between development and spread of extremism. Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security.

5) Global Co-operation and intelligence-sharing have become quintessential to fight the new age terrorism which has global reach and sophisticated tools at its disposal. Discuss.(250 words)

Newindianexpress

Why this question:

Defense minister Rajnath Singh recently suggested that bio-terrorism is among new threats facing Armed Forces, at the Medical Services of SCO countries. He called on them to find effective ways to deal with new threats posed by advancing battle field technologies.

Key demand of the question:

The question intends to examine the changing techniques and tools of terrorism with coming of technology and rising expanse of terrorism.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief explain why terrorism is becoming a difficult domain to handle day by day.

Body:

First discuss what factors are making terrorism so dynamic – coming of newer technologies, newer techniques of warfare etc.

Then explain the urgency of the global community to come together to tackle the menace.

Quote examples such as that of bioterrorism and how one can handle the threats arising from it.

Conclusion:

Conclude with what actions should countries across the world should take and what should be the way ahead in future.

Ans:

With advancement in technology the nature of globalization has changed from traditional to new forms. New forms of terrorism are emerging which is acquainted with the use of new technology. New age of terrorism is spread through network of loosely connected cells and support groups.

Different faces of terrorism:

  • Religious fundamentalism – terror attacks motivated by the religion or class of Civilization theory. Example Isis are Islamic Fundamentalist
  • Biological and chemical terrorism – includes use of Biological agent like virus bacteria fungus are chemical agents like Agent Orange etc.
  • Loan wolf attack – using social media loan words are prepared by terror groups to attack.
  • Cyber terrorism – large scale destruction of computer network using computer virus like stuxnet.
  • Nuclear weapons and other mutually destructive weapons

 

 

Why new-age terrorism is difficult to fight?

  • Globally spread through sleeper cells network rather than local groups
  • There is no consensual definition of terrorism in the international convention to combat terrorism
  • Multiplier effect and attraction of used to it apps and website that trigger religious.
  • Terrorist groups are exploiting conflict zones and ungoverned territories to find new recruits.
  • Pakistan occupied Kashmir is a major terror hub for Jaish-e- Mohammed.

 Solution

  • Hamburg statement in G20 summit on combating terrorism and Allianz the need for International cooperation in intelligence sharing.
  • All countries should proportionately contribute to fund International investigative Agencies like Interpol
  • Public private partnership- particularly with communication service provider and administration of various social media platform like WhatsApp Facebook.
  • Efficient implementation of decisions of financial action task force car financing of terrorism.
  • Bilateral and multilateral agreements am at sharing Intelligence and security inputs. Example India has provided security alert before the Easter bombing in Sri Lanka
  • Strengthening sanitary and phytosanitary laws under WTO to prevent bioterrorism

Conclusion

Terrorism in developing country is a menace to the social economic and political development. Given the Global expense it can only be detected by forging anti-terrorism Alliance on a global scale.


Topic: Concept of public service; Philosophical basis of governance and probity; Information sharing and transparency in government, Right to Information, Codes of Ethics, Codes of Conduct, Citizen’s Charters, Work culture, Quality of service delivery, Utilization of public funds, challenges of corruption.

6) “In the era of information transparency must be accompanied by accountability”, discuss how far the statement is true in the context of recent Jan Soochna Portal (JSP) launched by the government of Rajasthan. (250 words)

The hindu

Why this question:

The article talks about the recently launched program by the government of Rajasthan and in what way the launch of the Jan Soochna Portal in Rajasthan is a vital cog in access to the right to information.

Key demand of the question:

One must discuss the significance of transparency and accountability in the government systems.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief narrate the present context of the question.

Body:

Explain the salient features of Jan Soochna Portal.

Discuss the effects of the move taken upon the significance of Section 4 (2) of the Right to Information Act 2005.

Discuss the advantages of such a move.

Explain any possible concerns associated and challenges thereafter that need to be looked into.

Explain the significance in detail.

Conclusion:

Conclude that Such a process of dialogue should be practiced in all spheres to genuinely harness the benefits of information technology. Digital divide is indeed a serious problem in India. To bridge this, care should be taken to ensure that access points are open and free.

Transparency and accountability are the two major pillars of good governance. Both of them are complementary to each other. Without one another will be function less. Example – when National judicial data grid was launched it found 70000 cases are pending for more than 30 years. These figures meant nothing if judiciary did not took account of it to dispose them on a mission mode.

It can be said that without transparency accountability will be hard to establish and without accountability transparency will be meaningless. Recently the Jan Soochna Portal launched by Rajasthan government is remarkable achievement in furtherance of the right to information.

The launch of the Jan Soochna portal in the Rajasthan is vital for access of the right to information. Section 4 (2) of the Right to Information Act 2005, provides for voluntary disbursal of information.

Features of Jan Soochna portal

  • It will have information pertaining to 13 departments of the government on a single platform form in a lucid language.
  • The information will also be available on self-service E-Mitra plus kiosk.
  • It will have information about food grain availability its distribution ration shops etc.
  • People can have real-time information about mining contracts hence they can trace whether the mining is legal or illegal.
  • Various welfare schemes and their beneficiaries related information will also be available it will help in detecting those beneficiary who are not availing the benefits so that they can be replaced with their consent you include other needy person.
  • There will be no need to file RTI.

 

Challenges

  • Penetration of internet is still not very high in India.
  • Most of the people who are availing the welfare scheme are not acquainted with use of internet.
  • Keeping Jan Soochna portal updated with real time information from the departments will need extensive training to the Government employees.
  • Complete Digitization of government records is also challenging thing.

Conclusion

In this era, information is power. The free access of information by public would lead to more awareness in them regarding government action and its result. This would help them in choosing a more proactive and accountable government as a representative. This would also make the ruling government more accountable and responsible.

The best practices in the field of RTI must be followed by all the states so that there will be free flow of information from government to the citizens. Transparency and accountability inseparable duo if they are separated another will die out automatically. Therefore in the age of information transparency must be accompanied by accountability


Topic: population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.

7) India is on the path of becoming the most populous nation of the world. In such a context discuss the consequences of the soon to be acquired distinction.(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question:

The question is in the backdrop of World Population Prospects 2019 that has been recently released by the Population Division of the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs.

Key demand of the question:

One must discuss in detail the causes and consequences in terms of the implications the booming population numbers of India will have on its future.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief narrate the highlights of the report.

Body:

Discuss the following facts in detail – 

World’s population is expected to increase by two billion people in the next 30 years, from 7.7 billion currently to 9.7 billion in 2050.

India is projected to become the most populous country by 2027 surpassing China, and host 1.64 billion people by 2050.

At the national level, achieving a reduction in fertility rates in States such as Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh — which are high as per Sample Registration System data — is a challenge for India as it seeks to stabilize population growth.

Explain what should be the way forward? Discuss both at global level and national level.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Ans:

According to United Nation India could surpass China and will become most populous country by 2027 and will have 1.64 billion people

The average age of population in 2020 will be 29 years; also 65% of population will be below 35 years of age. India will have peak of 59% of population in working age bracket by 2041. Thus there is huge potential locked in our demography.

 

Consequence of being most populated country-

Positives

  • With greater portion of population in working bracket there will be more savings, hence it will provide stimulus for growth in the economy.
  • More population means more working hands for taking the nation forward on growth path.
  • With improved education and health India can become Centre for human capital India will be exporter of skill to the world where in most other countries the working age population is on decline.

Negatives

  • Per capita availability of resources will decline causing resource stress example malnutrition etc.
  • Rise in poverty – with more population, the wages will fall as there will be increased supply of workforce and falling demand.
  • Problem at aging – when the big population process the productive age it will turn into a burden on the economy.
  • Law and order problem – rising population will lead to resource crunch thus leading to rise in crime. Handling such a big population will be challenging.

Reasons for high population

  • Low use of contraceptives – only 48% of married women use contraceptive measures in India.
  • Poor families tend to have more children to supplement the family income
  • High mortality – high mortality pushes family to produce more children as only some of them would survive.

Government initiatives in response to population growth –

  • For growth control
    • Mission Parivar Vikas
    • Sterilization compensation scheme
  • Skill and education development
    • Sarv Shiksha Abhiyan
    • Mid day meal scheme
    • skill India machine
  • For Employment generation
    • Make in India initiative
    • Mudra Yojana
  • For Poverty eradication
    • Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act
  • For mortality control
    • Janani Suraksha Abhiyan
    • mission indradhanush
    • poshan abhiyaan

Way forward

  • Increasing awareness about family planning.
  • Proper implementation of schemes which have potential to tackle cause of rising population example – Make in India, MGNREGA, Fit India campaign.

Conclusion

India is a developing country which is endowed with a potential population, instead of seeing this as a liability; it must be realized as an asset which will provide the boost – much needed for our growing economy. Special focus must be on health and education sector because without healthy and skilled population there is no chance of growth.