SECURE SYNOPSIS: 12 SEPTEMBER 2019
NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.
Topic: Role of civil services in a democracy.
1) Discuss the role of Academy of Administrations in systematically training the higher civil services in India? Does training institutions in India should be reshaped to cater the changing demands of 21st Century? Critically comment.(250 words)
Civil servants are considered Steel frame of our country. Their performance is reflected in our Nation’s progress. Therefore their training is very much necessary training improves once capability, capacity and performance.
The Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration was simply called the Academy of Administration when it was set up in 1959 in Mussoorie. It signalled a resolve to systematically train members of the higher civil services in order to equip them to be the change agents of a resurgent India.
The two All-India Services, the Indian Administrative Service (IAS) and the Indian Police Service, instituted earlier under a specific provision of the Constitution, as also other Services attracted some of the finest minds from the university system. The IAS motto, ‘Yogah Karmasu Kaushalam (proficiency in action is yoga)’, and the Academy song, ‘Hao Dharomete Dheer, Hao Karomete Bir (Be firm in your faith, courageous in action)’, symbolize the nation’s expectation from them.
Role of Academy of Administration (LBSNAA) –
- Provide training for skill, personality and leadership development, promote Team Spirit and Conquer fear.
- Foundation course instills a shared understanding of Government and built comaraderie among Civil Servants.
- Inculcates sense of discipline and professionalism. This is necessary as many of those who qualify the exam are freshers.
- It gives exposure to work ethics.
- It enhances the capacity of civil servants to act as a link between Government and the masses.
- Bharat Darshan part of training provides for a multifaceted view of vibrant India and enhances tolerance towards all people and community of the country.
- District training of one year give exposure to field experience.
- Mid-career training of policy implementation.
- There are 5 Research Centre for rural studies, disaster management, gender, public management system, leadership development and competency development.
- Joint civil military program.
Limitations of the academy –
On part of society
- New kinds of law and order situations have surfaced in recent past such as mob lynching that require special understanding and handling capabilities.
- Improved educational status of citizens has made them more aware of their rights and duties, thus making administration more challenging day by day.
- Cultural upliftment in the society has attacked many of the national laws such as Section 377 498 a 375 etc. this calls for change approach are civil servants towards the situation
On part of Academy
- No serious attempts have been made to record experience of officers and their experience.
- The in house journal the administrator does not seems to have great impact on academic discourses on governance.
- Academy has not yet realized the potential to emerge as a main think tank for Civil service reforms.
- Output from the five research centers has been low so far.
- The research in academic centers should come in Centre place to provide keystone as think tank.
- Mid-career training should focus more on specialization.
Thus any reform of the civil services, including that in the recruitment and training phase, should aim to create a band of diligent and fearless change agents whose loyalty lies primarily with the Constitution and laws of the land.
Topic:Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.
Primary health care is a whole-of-society approach to health and well-being centered on the needs and preferences of individuals, families and communities.
Alma-Ata Declaration 1978 was the first declaration which identified Primary Health Care as a key to the attainment of the goal of Health for All.
Importance of Primary health care
- Primary health care has been proven to be a highly effective and efficient way to address the main causes and risks of poor health and well-being today, as well as handling the emerging challenges that threaten health and well-being tomorrow. It has also been shown to be a good value investment, as there is evidence that quality primary health care reduces total healthcare costs and improves efficiency by reducing hospital admissions.
- individuals, families, and communities to optimize their health, as advocates for policies that promote and protect health and well-being, as co-developers of health and social services, and as self-carers and care-givers to others.
- Stronger primary health care is essential to achieving the health-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and universal health coverage.
- It will also contribute to the attainment of other goals beyond the health goal (SDG3), including those on poverty, hunger, education, gender equality, clean water and sanitation, work and economic growth, reducing inequality and climate action
Condition of primary health care in India
- In India, primary care infrastructure exists as a network of sub-centres, primary health centres and community health centres. But, they are inadequately provided for in terms of financial, infrastructural & human resources.
- The focus of primary healthcare services has remained narrow – prioritized around reproductive, maternal and child healthcare, and communicable diseases like malaria – rather than tackling broader determinants of health.
- Increasing disease burden & mortality due to NCDs indicate failure in early detection & preventive interventions like lifestyle changes.
- no representation from primary care in decision making body causing policy concentrating more on secondary and tertiary health. E.g. – AYUSHMAN BHARAT scheme provides insurance only for secondary and tertiary care.
- practitioners of modern medicine (say medical assistants) trained through short-term courses, like those of a 2-3 year duration, can greatly help in providing primary health care to the rural population,
- train practitioners of indigenous systems of medicine, like Ayurveda, in modern medicine
- Nations like the U.K. and the U.S. are consistently training paramedics and nurses to become physician assistants or associates through two-year courses in modern medicine.
- generously incentivizing general practitioners (GPs) in both pecuniary and non-pecuniary terms
- Scrupulously designing a system that strongly favors primary health care.
- No one should be allowed to bypass the primary doctor to directly reach the specialist, unless situations such as emergencies so warrant. It is only because of such a system that general practitioners and primary health care have been able to thrive in U.K.’s health system.
- Adequately empower and ennoble PCPs and give them a prominent voice in our decision-making processes pertaining to health care.
Declaration of Alma-Ata, co-sponsored by the World Health Organization (WHO), is a brief document that expresses “the need for urgent action by all governments, all health and development workers, and the world community to protect and promote the health of all the people of the world.”
Topic:Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.
India-Russia ties in the post-Soviet era have acquired a qualitatively new character with enhanced levels of cooperation in almost all areas of the bilateral relationship including political, security, trade and economy, defense, science and technology, and culture.
There have been very strong relations between India and Russia from Soviet Union times. One of the dimensions of Russia – India relationship is to balance Chinese influence in the region, for example: The 1971 Treaty of friendship between India and Russia. Or be it the Russian support for India’s introduction to SCO as the member.
But the recent turmoil between China and US may trigger China and invigorate its outreach throughout the continent to toss American presence. India is concerned about Russia’s dependence on China and Russia doesn’t want rift between India China relations. Therefore, both the countries are exploring new areas of cooperation.
- India-Russia bilaterally decided to increase the trade to 30 billion dollars by 2025.
- Russia invited India to invest in its Far East region to balance Chinese domination there.
- India initiated new for East policy and Maritime corridor from Chennai to Vladivostok.
- India extended $1billion line of credit to Russia.
- India has to concentrate on export of its strength areas (sectors such as IT/ITeS, pharmaceuticals and healthcare) while gaining from Russia’s expertise in nuclear technology, defence, energy and hydrocarbons so that efforts like Make in India, Digital India and Smart Cities get aligned with India-Russia bilateral relationship.
- There are certain concerns that India is looking up to the West and trying to replace Pakistan as US pivot in the South Asian region as it aspires for Western defence equipment (including aircrafts) and Russia is warming up to Pakistan to counter the US in Afghanistan and Central Asia. Despite the concerns, if the two countries keep playing the balancing game the bilateral relations will endure.
Maritime cooperation – the two can work in exploration of minerals in Far East region & arctic region. The maritime security dimension considering the fact that India is net security provider in Indian Ocean region.
- FDI – Russia has invested 12.9 billion dollar through Rosneft in India
- Infrastructure – Nagpur Secunderabad High Speed Rail, construction of major energy and transport projects.
- Petrochemicals – Corporation for butyl rubber manufacturing in India (Reliance and Sibus entered into Joint venture)
- Defense – recently both countries signed agreement to carry payment through national currency to award USA sanction in defence deals
- Example – S400 deal, joint venture at Amethi for manufacturing AK 203 Rifles, Joint production of Kamov Ka 226T helicopter.
- Space – ISRO and ROSCOSMOS signed a MoU to train Indian astronauts for Gaganyaan mission.
The fact is that Russia has been a long standing, significant partner of India. The bilateral relationship with Russia forms a cornerstone of India’s foreign policy and it is likely to continue so despite occasional concerns. The two countries have a political understanding underpinned by a strong economic and strategic relationship which continues to evolve and endure.
India and China have border dispute and have occasional standoff situation in this relation Russia’s balancing role is necessary. They want balance diversify and policy that keep enough space for maneuvering.
Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.
4) India’s record in promoting occupational and industrial safety remains weak even with ears of robust economic growth. In this context, discuss the key provisions the Occupational Safety, Health and Working Conditions Code, 2019. To what extent, it deprives the basic rights of workers in Industrial ecosystem?(250 words)
Occupational safety refers mainly to health safety and welfare of the people at work. Status of occupational safety in India has not been robust in preceding years.
Every year 48000 fatal accidents occur in India. Only 20% working population was covered under any occupational safety regulation. For instance fire crackers Factory at Batle Punjab claimed 23 lives this year; Sivakashi factory explosion – 2012, 40 died and 70 injured.
Reason for weak record in occupational safety
- High competition in market – to make more profit Industries tends to do cost cutting which impacts occupational safety at workplace.
- Large availability of cheap workforce – due to high unemployment people get ready to compromise on their safety in order to get a job.
- Lack of coverage – 90% of the workforce in India is under informal sector and majority of employer in informal sector are not covered under occupational safety regulation.
- Lack of awareness – employed tend to ignore operational safety at workplace and concentrate more on completing the target
Therefore to enhance the operational safety in India, government has passed operational safety health and working condition code 2019 which combines 13 different labour laws and regulation regarding operational safety and health at workplace in the country.
What is the Code for?
- A healthy workforce would be more productive and the occurrence of fewer accidents and mishaps at work would be economically beneficial.
- So, safety, health, welfare and improved working conditions are pre-requisite for wellbeing of the worker and the country’s economic growth.
- With this in mind, the Code repeals and replaces 13 labour laws relating to safety, health and working conditions.
- These include the Factories Act, 1948, the Mines Act, 1952, and the Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Act, 1970.
- The Code enhances the ambit of provisions from existing about 9 major sectors to all establishments having 10 or more employees.
- It does not apply to apprentices.
- Further, it makes special provisions for certain types of establishments and classes of employees, such as factories, mines, and building and construction workers.
Key Provisions of the Code
- Relevant authorities – All establishments covered by the Code must be registered with registering officers.
- Further, Inspector-cum-facilitators may inquire into accidents, and conduct inspections of establishments.
- Both these authorities are appointed by the central or state government.
- Additionally, the government may require certain establishments to set up safety committees comprising representatives of employers and workers.
- Advisory Bodies – The central and state governments will set up Occupational Safety and Health Advisory Boards at the national and state level, respectively.
- These Boards will advise the central and state governments on the standards, rules, and regulations to be framed under the Code.
- Duties of employers – The Code specifies several duties of employers which include –
- providing a workplace that is free from hazards that may cause injury or diseases
- providing free annual health examinations to employees, as prescribed
- In case of an accident at the workplace that leads to death or serious bodily injury of an employee, the employer must inform the relevant authorities.
- Rights and duties of employees – Duties of employees under the Code include –
- taking care of their own health and safety
- complying with the specified safety and health standards
- reporting unsafe situations to the inspector
- Every employee will have the right to obtain from the employer information related to safety and health standards.
- Working Hours – Work hours for different classes of establishment and employees will be provided as per the rules prescribed by the central or state government.
- For overtime work, the worker must be paid twice the rate of daily wages.
- Female workers, with their consent, may work past 7pm and before 6am, if approved by the central or state government.
- Leave – No employee may work for more than 6 days a week.
- However, exceptions may be provided for motor transport workers.
- Workers must receive paid annual leave for at least one in 20 days of the period spent on duty.
- For sales promotion employees, medical leave must be provided for at least one-eighteenth of the period of service.
- During medical leave, the worker must be paid half his daily wages.
- Working conditions and welfare facilities – The employer is required to provide a hygienic work environment.
- These include ventilation, comfortable temperature and humidity, sufficient space, clean drinking water, and latrine and urinal accommodations.
- Other welfare facilities may be provided as per standards prescribed by the central government.
- These facilities may include separate bathing places and locker rooms for male, female and transgender employees, canteens, first aid boxes, and crèches.
- Offences and penalties – An offence that leads to the death of an employee will be punishable with imprisonment of up to 2 years, or a fine up to Rs. 5 lakh, or both.
- Further, courts may direct that at least 50% of such fine be given as compensation to the heirs of the victim.
- For any other violation where the penalty is not specified, the employer will be penalised with a fine between 2 and 3 lakh rupees.
- If an employee violates provisions of the Code, s/he will be subject to a fine of up to Rs 10,000.
- It increased the Ambit of application of occupational safety regulations by including migrant workers, electronic media etc. under it.
- It reduced the threshold for its application to 10 workers.
- It enabled employing women in night shifts.
- Rationalize the compliance mechanism with organization now required to obtain only one license.
- Formation of safety committee and appointment of safety officer the letter in the case of establishment with 500 employees are at the state’s discretion.
- Maximum working hour’s fixation is left to government to decide which was earlier fixed at 8 hours a day.
- Maximum permissible limit of working condition at hazardous place is also left at the mercy of government.
- No special provision regarding transgender employees.
- Equal pay for equal work finds no explicit mention.
- Maximum working hours and limits for working condition should not be left at the discretion of the government it should be e aligned with best International practices.
- Implementation of management information system MIS should be made mandatory for hazardous industries.
- The standards of occupational safety and health should be quantified.
- Time to time inspection by third party should be made necessary so that there is no deviation from safety standards.
With the ultimate aim of extending the safety and healthy working conditions to all workforce of the country, the Code enhances the ambit of provisions of safety, health, welfare and working conditions from existing about 9 major sectors to all establishments having 10 or more employees.
It is evident that the Occupational Safety, Health and Working Conditions has some unique new initiatives for both workers and employers.
It promotes health, safety, welfare and better working conditions of workforce by enhancing the ambit of a dynamic legislation as compared to the existing sectoral approach limited to few sectors.
Besides, it also drastically rationalizes the compliance mechanism with one license, one registration and one return for the establishments under the ambit of the Code thereby saving resources and efforts of the employers.
Thus, it balances the requirements of worker and employer and is beneficial to both the constituents of the world of work.
Topic:Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment
5) The IPCC says total global emissions will need to fall by 45% from 2010 levels by 2030 and reach net zero by 2050. In this context, elaborate how differential carbon tax would be able to finance climate mitigation strategies across the world?(250 words)
Climate change is a global problem, and a global problem needs a global solution. The most recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report suggests that we, as humankind, might have just over a decade left to limit global warming.
The IPCC says total global emissions will need to fall by 45% from 2010 levels by 2030 and reach net zero by 2050. If these targets are not met, tropical regions of the world, which are densely populated and happen to be mainly concentrated in the global South, are likely to be most negatively affected because of their low altitudes and pre-existing high temperatures. Some impact of this was already felt during the Tamil Nadu water crisis this year.
Research shows that carbon taxes effectively reduce greenhouse gas emissions. There is overwhelming agreement among economists that carbon taxes are the most efficient and effective way to curb climate change, with the least adverse effects on the economy.
What are the benefits?
- The burden of impact is shared in a just manner among the countries
- Example – most of the carbon emission was done by countries of the north USA, China, and UK etc. But the most IMP acted are tropical countries ( Samoa Maldives Congo Nigeria)
- These countries do not have enough resources to switch to green technology to get to lower the emission level
- To fulfill the emission target Global contribution will be necessary. At the same time burden of adjustment must be in proportion to contribution in Global emission.
Advantages of having Global carbon tax:
- Countries emitting more than that of global average per capita emission will pay. The tax, countries that are emitting less than Global average will receive money from the tax paid.
- The tax paid and received will be in proportion to the distance of national per capita emission from global average per capita emission.
- Under this tax those countries that have brought down their per capita emission will also get sum from the tax pool. Example France and UK who earlier contributed much to Global emission will be in the list of 135 country who are the receivers too, because they have brought down their per capita emission.
- The tax wants the entire nation to climb down the mission ladder without necessarily having to give up on their standard of living.
Global warming is a concern for survival on earth Global partnership on equitable basis is necessary to award global warming some of the method for doing this are global carbon tax on principle of Common but differential responsibility.
Topic: Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems;
Impartiality is a behavior which means not taking any side and acting solely on the basis of merit of the case, without any prejudice. Example- law and justice system functions only when judges delivering the judgment are impartial for both accused and the prosecution.
According to 2nd ARC report it is considered as one of the fundamental values for civil servants.
Importance of impartiality for civil services:
- To uphold constitutional values – soul of our constitution lies in equality, justice, secularism etc. Without the Civil Servant showing in partial behaviour equality justice and secularism can never be issued to the citizen of India as promised by constitution.
- To establish rule of law – everyone regardless of their position are equal under law therefore prerequisite for establishing it is impartial behaviour of all in law and justice system (from police to judge).
- Build public confidence and trust for the government – impartial behaviour insurance no undue discrimination towards any section of the community. This results in improve confidence towards policymaker and implementer. It make sure that justice will always be served no matter who is the perpetrator. Example- in IMX media case even former finance minister is being tried under Court of law.
- Deepening of democracy – with improve confidence in government machinery the public feels more enthusiastic to take part indecision making.
- Efficient use of resources – an impartial officer will never divert any of the available resources at his or her disposal in favour of anyone hence he or she will always try to use the resource in best possible manner to bring out maximum benefit to the nation.
- Bringing down inequality – impartial behaviour insurance equitable distribution of resources and help in bringing down the inequality present in the society and throughout the nation.
Without impartiality, first the law and justice system will break, then the whole governance system will get inclined towards any one section of the community. In extreme cases the absence of impartiality leads to fascism example – governance under Hitler was far too partial against Jews.
Therefore for peaceful and progressive society impartiality is very necessary attribute of civil servants.
Topic: Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics;
Environmental ethics is a part of environmental philosophy which deals with ethical and moral dimension of human environment relationship.
Environmental ethics is a branch of ethics that studies the relation of human beings and the environment and how ethics play a role in this. Environmental ethics believe that humans are a part of society as well as other living creatures, which includes plants and animals. These items are a very important part of the world and are considered to be a functional part of human life. Thus, it is essential that every human being respect and honor this and use morals and ethics when dealing with these creatures.
Global warming, global climate change, deforestation, pollution, resource degradation, threat of extinction are few of the issues from which our planet is suffering. Environmental ethics are a key feature of environmental studies that establishes relationship between humans and the earth.
Importance of environmental ethics:
- Human-environment relationship – Humans in course of their development has damage environment allot example deforestation, species loss- passenger pigeon has been lost only because of human action, global warming, etc.
- We have the moral obligation to preserve environment for the future generations to come
- Sustainability of development – or development can only sustain if we protect environment example- continued depletion of water resources is endangering our development sequence environmental disasters drag the development.
- Environmental justice – there is an balance sharing of impact of environmental degradation among different regions example island countries of tropical region share the most birthday of Climate Change while contributing least to it.
- Applications towards other species – we share our earth with other species also therefore we must consider the morality of attraction which are impacting the survival of other species. Conservation of biodiversity becomes our duty if our action is taking toll over that.
- Application – environmental ethics is very important in designing policy for sustainable development for example environmental impact assessment requirement, CSR funding rule, Project Tiger, INDC at Paris conference.
Environmental issue and ethics:
Climate change – inquest for development human have long ignored the impact of the activity on the environment. The imitation due to development has caused global warming and has endangered the survival of every species. Global warming has set the clock running for 6th mass extinction (we are losing approximately 1000 species per year).
- Coral bleaching- rise in Global City temperature is making sea inhabitable for oral which is considered as rain forest for Marine ecosystem. This is causing corals to die out in mass
- Erratic weather phenomena – in Western Ghats according to IMD Malappuram received 500% more rain and Wayanad receive 400% more rain in 2019 this is cause flood in Kerala causing unacceptable damage to ecology there and caused several landslides.
Environmental ethics says humans have no right to endanger the survival of others who have no contribution to environmental damage. Therefore we must control global warming to conserve environment.
Only human species is conscious enough to understand the relation between them and the environment therefore the moral obligation lies only on humans for their action.