Topic: Issues relating to poverty and hunger.
4) What do understand by Disability-adjusted life year (DALY)? Why has Malnutrition still remained a leading cause of death among Indian children under the age of five? Critically analyse. (250 words)
Why this question:
Malnutrition continues to be the leading cause for death among Indian children under the age of five, according to a study led by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR).Thus it is important to understand the underlying causes and solutions to address the situation.
Key demand of the question:
Explain the concept of DALY and discuss in detail the causes of malnutrition prevalent in the country.
Critically analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.
Structure of the answer:
Two-thirds of the 1.04 million deaths in children under five years in India are still attributable to malnutrition, according to the first comprehensive estimate of disease burden due to child and maternal malnutrition and the trends of its indicators in every State from 1990.
Explain first what is DALY? – The disability-adjusted life year (DALY) rate is measured by financial cost, mortality, morbidity, or other indicators.
Then explain the reasons for rising malnutrition incidences in the country.
Suggest what measures are required to address the problem.
Conclude by suggesting need for a multi-pronged approach and reforms in the policies and programmes to address the issue effectively.