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[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 16 September 2019

[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 16  September 2019

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General Studies – 2


Topic: Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary; Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.

1) In recent times, despite its judicial pronouncements in cases such as the entry of women into Sabarimala and Triple Talaq, the Supreme Court has not exactly covered itself with glory in cases of women on its own administrative side. Critically analyse with suitable examples. (250 words)

The hindu

Why this question:

The transfer of Chief Justice Vijaya K. Tahilramani from the Madras High Court to Meghalaya is shocking and disconcerting. She had presided over a court of 75 judges and administered a subordinate judiciary in 32 districts in addition to the Union Territory of Pondicherry. In contrast, the Meghalaya High Court has only three judges and a subordinate judiciary in just seven districts.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss the recent incidence of transfer of female judge and her resignation against the transfer made by the collegium.

Directive:

Critically analyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief discuss the context of the question.

Body:

Explain Supreme Court’s jurisdiction over transfer of judge, what are the provisions and how is it done?

Discuss what can be done – explain that the Supreme Court cannot function as a sentinel of justice unless it puts its own house in order. Its functions, both judicial and administrative, have to be transparent and accountable. The collegium is not a creation of the Constitution, but of the court itself. 

Yet, when the collegium’s decisions are called into question for having been influenced by extraneous considerations, there is no institutional check.

Conclusion:

Conclude that any arbitrary transfer by the Supreme Court collegium reduces the High Court judges to a subordinate status. Further, the collegium system, by its opacity, has failed to build a fearless and strong judiciary and serve the public interest.


Topic:Important International institutions, agencies and fora- their structure, mandate. Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.

2) Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership is considered a mammoth trade deal currently being negotiated. Discuss the possible apprehensions of India with respect to joining the RCEP trade deal.(250 words)

businesstoday

Why this question:

India’s indecisive stance on the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) and agreement to review the free trade agreement, or FTA with the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) indicates it has been evaluating options outside the larger regional group as well. Thus compelling us to analyse the apprehensions India has.

Key demand of the question:

One should discuss the relevant factors responsible for possible apprehensions of India with respect to joining the RCEP trade deal.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Explain the RCEP.

Body:

Discuss first the relevance of the recent RCEP meet held. What are RCEP and its objective?

Then move onto discuss what has been the relationship of India and RCEP from the past to present.

What are the recent challenges and factors that are compelling India to rethink upon joining the partnership?

Conclusion:

Conclude with possible way forward and what should India do.


General Studies – 3


Topic:   Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

3) Government has hiked ethanol procurement price for blending with petrol, allowed conversion of old sugar into ethanol. How is the move expected to address problems of the Sugarcane growers in the country? Discuss.(250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question:

The government approved an increase in the price of ethanol to be procured by public sector oil marketing companies (OMCs) from sugar mills for blending with petrol for the 2019-20. The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA) also allowed conversion of old sugar into ethanol, which again is expected to help mills deal with the current overproduction in the sweetener and make timely payments to farmers for the cane delivered by them.

Key demand of the question:

The answer should explain the effect of recent initiative taken by the govt. to address the sugar woes of the country.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief explain the recent initiatives taken by the govt. to address the sugarcane woes of the country.

Body:

What is ethanol and how do mills produce it?

How is using ethanol becoming a solution? Given the surplus sugar production in the country, the government has allowed mills to produce ethanol from molasses and directly from sugarcane juice. Explain that since the country is producing too much sugar and is importing oil, the ethanol-blending programme is beneficial both for mills and for the country’s balance of payments.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way ahead.


Topic: Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country, different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers

4) What is ZBNF? What are the benefits and how is it better than organic farming? Elucidate. (250 words)

The hindubusinessline

Why this question:

The article analyses in detail the effect of ZBNF and the effect of recent promotion of the concept in the annual Budget of the country.

Key demand of the question:

One must discuss the concept of ZBNF in detail and discuss its importance to Indian agriculture system.

Directive:

ElucidateGive a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Define the concept in brief.

Body:

Explain what is ZBNF in detail – It involves the application of nature’s principles in farming, It practices no-till, no chemical use in farming. Alongside, dispersal of clay seed balls to propagate plants is done. Explain the key aspects of it.

Discuss the advantages it holds, benefits and in what way it is better than organic farming; with examples/case studies of some successful states.

Conclusion:

Conclude that the dominant paradigm of chemical-based agriculture has failed and regenerative agriculture is the emerging new science.


Topic:  Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.

Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.

5) ISRO’s role has been immaculate in making India a global space power; however, there are many challenges and prospects in the new space age that ISRO needs to focus on. Discuss.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question:

The article discusses the role played by ISRO in making India a global power in the domain of space and the challenges and prospects it has for India’s future space.

Key demand of the question:

One should bring out the potential of ISRO in the global space race and the challenges and prospects associated.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief explain the context of the question.

Body:

Explain ‘new space age’ and mention the challenges and opportunities for ISRO. There is emergence of ‘new space age’ which is used to refer to a global sector of new aerospace companies and ventures working independently of governments to develop faster, better, and cheaper access to space for commercial purposes.

Discuss the opportunities in the new space age.

Conclusion:

With increasing competition, complexity and demand for space-related activities, there is a growing realization that national legislation is needed to ensure overall growth of the space sector. A New Space law for India should aim at facilitating growing India’s share of the global space economy to 10% in the coming decade.

 


General Studies – 4


Topic: Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.

6) Comment on the role of behavioural economics in India to bring social change and achieve the policy objectives of welfare programmes with suitable illustrations.(250 words)

Insightsonindia

Why this question:

The Economic Survey 2019 has drawn on Nobel Laureate Richard Thaler’s Behavioural Economics Theory to lay out what it describes as an “ambitious agenda” for behaviour change that will bring in social change, which in turn, will help India transit to a $5 trillion economy by 2024-25. Programmes such as Swachh Bharat Mission, Jan Dhan Yojana and Beti Bachao Beti Padhao, provide testimony to the potential for behavioural change in India. 

Key demand of the question:

One must explain the role of behavioural economics in India to bring social change and in what way recent policies and initiatives have followed the model to address various issues in the country.

Directive:

Commenthere we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief define what behavioral change is.

Body:

Explain the following aspects in detail – 

  • What is Behavioural Economics?

  • What are the learnings of the economic survey on Behavioral Economics?

  • How Behavioural Economics can be applied in the Indian context?

  • What are the limitations of Behavioural Economics?

Conclusion:

Conclude that the government regulation, taxes and free-market policies should be clubbed with a nudge effect to increase the efficacy of policymaking. If it is implemented diligently than Indian policymaking will be transformed.


Topic:  Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.

7) What do you understand by conscience? Discuss the different conceptions of conscience given by moral thinkers.(250 words)

Why this question:

The question is based on the concept of Conscience.

Key demand of the question:

One should brief upon the theme of conscience and different theories proposed by various moral thinkers.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Give a brief idea of conscience

Body:

Bring out the different approaches of philosophers on the concept of conscience.

Greek and Roman thought emphasized reason and knowledge in making moral decisions, a tradition beginning with Aristotle’s ideas about the development of virtuous character and wisdom through reason and practice.

Immanuel Kant also regarded critical reasoning as an important element of conscience, believing that moral truth could be evaluated objectively in light of his ‘categorical imperative.’

Also discuss the contributions of John Locke ,Sigmund Freud, St. Bonaventure and St. Aquinas etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance of the concept.



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

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