- Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies.
- Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.
District mineral foundations
What to Study?
For Prelims: About DMFs, composition, funds and jurisdiction, about PMKKKY.
For Mains: Why they should be placed under respective planning departments of the state, significance, concerns and challenges.
Context: Amendments to District Mineral Foundation (DMF) Trust Rules, 2015, by Chhattisgarh government has made it more inclusive, people-centric and will also empower people affected by mining in the state, according to Centre for Science and Environment (CSE), a New Delhi-based non-profit.
Chhattisgarh became the first state in July 2019, to amend DMF rules.
- The new rule mandates the inclusion of 10 Gram Sabha members directly from mining-affected areas in the DMF Governing Council (GC).
- In Scheduled Areas, at least 50 per cent of the Gram Sabha members must be from Scheduled Tribes (ST).
- To ensure better public accountability, a two-step social audit process has been mandated.
- Provisions have also been introduced for five-year plan, which can be subjected to a third party review if the secretary of the mines department considers it to be necessary.
- The rules have also specified ‘sustainable livelihood’ as a high priority issue, including for forest rights holders.
- DMFs were instituted under the Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) (MMDR) Amendment Act 2015.
- They are non-profit truststo work for the interest and benefit of persons and areas affected by mining-related operations in such manner as may be prescribed by the State Government.
- Jurisdiction: Its manner of operation comes under the jurisdiction of the relevant State Government.
The various state DMF rules and the Pradhan Mantri Khanij Khestra Kalyan Yojana (PMKKKY) guidelines stipulate some “high priority” issues for DMFs, including:
- Drinking water.
- Women and child welfare.
- Livelihood and skill development.
- Welfare of aged and disabled.
Pradhan Mantri Khanij Kshetra Kalyan Yojana (PMKKKY):
The programme is meant to provide for the welfare of areas and people affected by mining related operations, using the funds generated by District Mineral Foundations (DMFs).
Objectives of the scheme:
- To implement various developmental and welfare projects/programs in mining affected areas that complement the existing ongoing schemes/projects of State and Central Government.
- To minimize/mitigate the adverse impacts, during and after mining, on the environment, health and socio-economics of people in mining districts.
- To ensure long-term sustainable livelihoods for the affected people in mining areas.