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Insights Daily Current Affairs + PIB: 12 September 2019


Insights Daily Current Affairs + PIB: 12 September 2019


Table of contents:

GS Paper 2:

  1. 6th schedule of the constitution.
  2. Atal Ranking of Institutions on Innovation Achievements (ARIIA).
  3. Government e Marketplace (GeM).
  4. 24th World Energy Congress kicks off in Abu Dhabi.
  5. Eurasian Economic Forum.

 

GS Paper 3:

  1. A case for differential global carbon tax.

 

Facts for prelims:

  1. Curriculum for Life Skills (Jeevan Kaushal).
  2. MPATGM missile.

 


 

GS Paper 2:

Topics Covered:

Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.

6th schedule of the constitution

 

What to study?

For Prelims and Mains: Overview of autonomous councils constituted under 6th schedule of the constitution, measures announced for the strengthening of these institutions, 125th Amendment Bill, need for inclusion of Ladakh.

 

Context: National Commission for Scheduled Tribes (NCST) Writes to Union Home Minister & Union Tribal Affairs Minister Conveying Its recommendation to Include Union Territory of Ladakh Under 6th Schedule of Constitution Of India.

 

The total tribal population in Ladakh region is more than 97%. The region is inhabited by following Scheduled Tribes, namely:

  1. Balti
  2. Beda
  3. Bot, Boto
  4. Brokpa, Drokpa, Dard, Shin
  5. Changpa
  6. Garra
  7. Mon 
  8. Purigpa

 

6th schedule:

It deals with the administration of the tribal areas in the four northeastern states of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram.

 

Key provisions:

  1. The governor is empowered to organise and re-organise the autonomous districts.
  2. If there are different tribes in an autonomous district, the governor can divide the district into several autonomous regions.
  3. Composition: Each autonomous district has a district council consisting of 30 members, of whom four are nominated by the governor and the remaining 26 are elected on the basis of adult franchise.
  4. Term: The elected members hold office for a term of five years (unless the council is dissolved earlier) and nominated members hold office during the pleasure of the governor.
  5. Each autonomous region also has a separate regional council.
  6. Powers of councils: The district and regional councils administer the areas under their jurisdiction. They can make laws on certain specified matters like land, forests, canal water, shifting cultivation, village administration, inheritance of property, marriage and divorce, social customs and so on. But all such laws require the assent of the governor.
  7. Village councils:The district and regional councils within their territorial jurisdictions can constitute village councils or courts for trial of suits and cases between the tribes. They hear appeals from them. The jurisdiction of high court over these suits and cases is specified by the governor.
  8. Powers and functions:The district council can establish, construct or manage primary schools, dispensaries, markets, ferries, fisheries, roads and so on in the district. It can also make regulations for the control of money lending and trading by non-tribals. But, such regulations require the assent of the governor. The district and regional councils are empowered to assess and collect land revenue and to impose certain specified taxes.
  9. Exceptions: The acts of Parliament or the state legislature do not apply to autonomous districts and autonomous regions or apply with specified modifications and exceptions.
  10. The governor can appoint a commission to examine and report on any matter relating to the administration of the autonomous districts or regions. He may dissolve a district or regional council on the recommendation of the commission.

 

Related- 125th amendment bill:

It seeks to increase the financial and executive powers of the 10 Autonomous Councils in the Sixth Schedule areas of the northeastern region.

  • The amendments provide for elected village municipal councils, ensuring democracy at the grassroot level.
  • The village councils will be empowered to prepare plans for economic development and social justice including those related to agriculture, land improvement, implementation of land reforms, minor irrigation, water management, animal husbandry, rural electrification, small scale industries and social forestry.
  • The Finance Commissionwill be mandated to recommend devolution of financial resources to them.
  • The Autonomous Councils now depend on grants from Central ministries and the State government for specific projects. At least one-third of the seats will be reserved for women in the village and municipal councils in the Sixth Schedule areas of Assam, Mizoram and Tripura after the amendment is approved.

 

Sources: pib.

 


Topics covered:

e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential.

 

Atal Ranking of Institutions on Innovation Achievements (ARIIA)

 

What to study?

For Prelims and Mains: Features and significance.

 

Context: Atal Ranking of Institutions on Innovation Achievements (ARIIA) 2020 has been launched.

 

About ARIIA:

  • ARIIA considers all major indicators which are commonly used globally to rank most innovative education institutions/ universities in the world.
  • More than quantity, ARIIA will focus on quality of innovations and will try to measure the real impact created by these innovations nationally and internationally.

 

ARIIA will primarily focus on 5 main parameters:

  1. Budget Expenses and Revenue generated through Innovation and entrepreneurship development.
  2. Facilitating access to advance centres / facilities and entrepreneurial support system.
  3. Idea to Entrepreneurship.
  4. Development of Innovation Ecosystems Supported through Teaching & Learning.
  5. Best innovative solutions Developed In-house for Improving Governance of Your Institution.

 

Significance of ARIIA:

  1. Inspire Indian institutions to reorient their mind-set and build ecosystems to encourage high quality research, innovation and entrepreneurship.
  2. Set tone and direction for institutions for future development for making them globally competitive and in forefront of innovation.

 

Need for such a tool:

For India to emerge as a global innovation hub, the youth of our country, especially in higher education institutions (HEIs) need to play a crucial role to create a sustainable innovation ecosystem. Hence, ideally all HEIs should have a comprehensive and functional mechanism to convert research into innovations.

  • This ecosystem will encourage, inspire and nurture young students by exposing them to new ideas and processes resulting in innovative activities in their formative years.

 

Sources: pib.

 


Topics Covered:

Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance, e-applications, models, successes, limitations and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.

 

Government e Marketplace (GeM)

 

What to study?

For Prelims: About GeM and it’s features.

For Mains: Significance and the need for GeM.

 

Context: GeM and Punjab Government sign MoU for Setting up Project Management Unit.

 

About GeM:

What is it? GeM is a state-of-the-art national public procurement platform of Ministry of Commerce and Industries, that has used technology to remove entry barriers for bonafide sellers and has created a vibrant e-marketplace with a wide range of goods and services.

Aim: GeM aims to enhance transparency, efficiency and speed in public procurement.

Features: It facilitates online procurement of common use Goods & Services required by various Government Departments / Organisations / PSUs. It provides the tools of e-bidding, reverse e-auction and demand aggregation to facilitate the government users, achieve the best value for their money.

 

Sources: pib.


Topics Covered:

Important International institutions, agencies and fora, their structure, mandate.

 

24th World Energy Congress kicks off in Abu Dhabi

 

What to study?

For Prelims and mains: About WEC- objectives, composition and significance.

 

Context: Abu Dhabi is hosting the 24th World Energy Congress.

Theme: ‘Energy for Prosperity’.

 

About the World Energy Congress:

  1. It is the World Energy Council’s global flagship event.
  2. It offers a unique platform for global energy leaders to explore new energy futures, critical innovation areas, and new strategies
  3. Held every three yearsand positioned as the flagship event of the World Energy Council, the Congress is the longest-running and most influential energy event in the world.

 

About World Energy Council:

Formed in 1923, the Council is the UN-accredited global energy body, representing the entire energy spectrum,

Composed of more than 3,000 member organisations located in over 90 countries and drawn from governments, private and state corporations, academia, NGOs and energy-related stakeholders.

Roles: Informs global, regional and national energy strategies by hosting high-level events, publishing authoritative studies, and working through its extensive member network to facilitate the world’s energy policy dialogue.

 

Sources: the Hindu.


Topics Covered:

Important International institutions, agencies and fora, their structure, mandate.

 

Eurasian Economic Forum

 

What to study?

For Prelims and mains: EAEU- composition, objectives and significance.

 

Context: India has skipped a meeting of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU), which was organised by the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) at Xi’an in China.

 

Why India did not attend?

The entire event was organized to discuss and deliberate upon China’s Belt and Road Initiative.

 

Outcome:

The forum promoted the revival of the ancient Great Silk Road in Eurasia in a new, modern format.

 

Belt and Road Initiative:

It is a mammoth infrastructure project unveiled by China in 2017, which plans to connect the three continents of Asia, Europe, and Africa.

The ‘Belt’ part refers to the Silk Road Economic Belt, consisting of three overland routes.

  1. A link between China, Central Asia, Russia and Europe.
  2. A link through Central Asia and West Asia linking China with the Persian Gulf and the Mediterranean Sea.
  3. A connection from China to Southeast Asia, South Asia, and the Indian Ocean.

The ‘Road’ part refers to the 21st century Maritime Silk Road, creating maritime trade channels from China through the South China Sea, the Indian Ocean, and the South Pacific.

 

India’s opposition:

The China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, an important part of the BRI, passes through Pakistan Occupied Kashmir (PoK).

 

About Eurasian economic union:

  • It is an international organization for regional economic integration.
  • It has international legal personality and is established by the Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union.
  • Composition: Includes Russia, Belarus, Armenia, Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan.
  • It has free movement of goods, services and labour.
  • It has its own bureaucratic structure.

Various bodies under it:

  1. Supreme Council is the Union’s supreme authority. The Heads of the Member-States form the Supreme Council.
  2. Intergovernmental Council is a Union’s body consisting of the Heads of the Member-States Governments.
  3. Eurasian Economic Commission is a permanent supranational regulatory body of the Union. The core tasks of the Commission are fostering the conditions to support the operation and development of the Union, and drafting proposals in the field of economic integration within the Union.
  4. Court of the Eurasian Economic Union is the court of justice of the Eurasian Economic Union, which ensures the uniform application of the EAEU Treaty and other Union treaties by the Union Member-States and bodies.

 

Sources: the Hindu.

 


 

GS Paper 3:

Topics Covered:

Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

 

A case for differential global carbon tax

 

What to study?

For Prelims: About carbon tax and features of it.

For Mains: Challenges due to uneven sharing of burden, what needs to be done?

 

Concerns raised by the Recent IPCC report:

  1. Total global emissions will need to fall by 45% from 2010 levels by 2030 and reach net zero by 2050. 
  2. If these targets are not met, tropical regions of the world, which are densely populated in the global South are likely to be most negatively affected because of their low altitudes and pre-existing high temperatures. 

 

What’s the issue now?

The global South has always contributed less to the problem and even at present its per capita carbon emissions are much smaller in comparison to the countries in the global North. But, the price being paid it to changing climate is huge.

Some impact of this was already felt during the Tamil Nadu water crisis this year.

 

What needs to be done?

  1. At this point, burden of adjustment cannot be equal when the underlying relationship between the two worlds has been historically unequal. 
  2. A just approach would involve a global sharing of responsibility among countries according to their respective shares in global emissions
  3. Just Energy Transition (JET) model: Premised on a sense of global justice in terms of climatic fallouts and the respective contributions of the countries. It will also help the resource-poor developing countries to make the energy transition without having to worry about finances unduly.
  4. Burden sharing: Apart from funding their own energy transition, countries should partially support the transition for the countries at the bottom. This sharing of the burden of development should be done in a way that inverts this injustice funnel. Countries have to spend around 1.5% of their GDP

 

Need of the hour:

  1. A genuine global consensus on the mitigation of this problem.
  2. Both worlds need to contribute to averting this danger in their self-interest. 

 

Sources: the Hindu.


 

Facts for prelims:

 

Curriculum for Life Skills (Jeevan Kaushal):

Designed by University Grants Commission (UGC).

Objectives: The curriculum is designed to impart and strengthen the knowledge, skills and dispositions believed to be the best requisites of the current Industry and thereby empower the talent inherent in each learner.

Life skills (JeevanKaushal) curriculum cover the set of human talents acquired by an individual via classroom learning or life experience that can help them to deal with problems encountered in day to day life. This includes the core skills each individual must possess internally as well as externally for the betterment of self and the society as a whole. Adoption of life skills is the key to success and quality in life.

 

MPATGM missile:

Man Portable Anti-Tank Guided Missile is an Indian third-generation fire-and-forget anti-tank guided missile.

Developed by DRDO.

Incorporated with state-of-the-art Infrared Imaging Seeker along with advanced avionics.

List of India’s Anti Tank guided missile:

  1. DRDO Anti Tank Missile.
  2. Amogha missile.
  3. Nag missile.
  4. Man-Portable Anti-tank Guided Missile (MPATGM).