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[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 07 September 2019

[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 07  September 2019

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General Studies – 1


Topic:  Indian Culture will cover the salient aspects of Art forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

1) The Chola Period marks a distinct and significant period in the art and architecture of India. Comment.(250 words)

Art and culture by Nithin Singhania

Why this question:

The question seeks to examine the significance and the uniqueness of Chola art and architecture.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the significance of the Chola art and architecture.

Directive:

Commenthere we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Introduce the distinctness of Chola art and architecture that is the Dravida style of architecture.

Body:

The body has to address to parts. First part as to why the Chola art was distinct. In this using salient and important features of Chola art tell the marked changes which started during the Chola art. The emphasis here should be on why these were distinct.

The next part of body should the significance of the Chola art and its uniqueness. Quoting examples from the Chola architecture and art this should be elaborately explained.

Conclusion:

The conclusion should say how Chola Art and architecture changed the scenario of India architecture and influenced the future architecture especially in the southern India.


Topic: Role of women and women’s organization, population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.

2) According to Global Gender Gap Report 2018, India ranks one of the worst in Gender wage disparity. Discuss the reasons and remedy. (250 words)

Economictimes

Why this question:

The question aims to discuss the findings of global gender gap report 2018.

Key demand of the question:

One must discuss the alarming issue of gender wage disparity in the country.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Highlight the issue of gender wage gap by giving data of WEF’s Global Gender Gap Report Rank of India is 108th. 

Body:

First state the reasons for gender wage gap in India. For eg. Legal restrictions, patriarchal attitude, biased human capital model, workplace insecurity, , inadequate travel and transport facilities, Societal perception of women who work long hours, lack of crèches facility at workplace etc.

In next part discuss what impact it is having on the development of country. For e.g. Impact on GDP of country, increasing gender disparity, low female labor force participation rate, financial dependence, etc.

In third part, discuss remedies to address the same. Formalization of Workforce to create better job opportunities for women and streamlining labor laws. 

Skill Development. Mandating parental leave rather than maternal leave will help women to reintegrate into the workforce after childbearing and allowing men to take on the responsibility of parenthood. Gender sensitization.

Conclusion:

Conclude by some of the constitutional provisions and laws regarding gender wage equality. For e.g. DPSP, Equal remuneration act, Maternity benefits act, etc. SP, Equal remuneration act ,Maternity benefit act, etc.


Topic:  population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies. Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

3) The sliding Liveability index of Indian cities urgently calls for reforms in urban management especially with the aspect of municipal governance. Elucidate in the context of recently released world liveability index 2019. (250 words)

Timesofindia

Why this question:

The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) has released the Global Livability Index 2019. The index ranks 140 global cities based on their living conditions. Thus important from the exam point of view for GS paper I.

 Key demand of the question:

One must bring out the inherent issues the cities of the country are facing in terms of livability and what needs to be done.

Directive:

ElucidateGive a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief narrate the findings of the report.

Body:

Explain the underlying causes of depriving livability in India cities.

Quote the examples of Delhi and Mumbai.

Explain that India needs to approach urban local government differently. State governments have centralized too much authority and devolve too little power and funds to municipal corporations. Consequently, civic bodies and town planners lack the capacity to handle rapid urbanization.

 The spurt of slums and landfills, encroachment on public land, non-existent drainage, groundwater exploitation, and clogged roads can all be traced to weak municipal corporations.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward while suggesting solutions.


General Studies – 2


Topic:  Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

4) What are Institutions of Eminence? Discuss the benefits of Institutions of Eminence to India.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question:

On 4th September 2019, the Ministry of Human Resource Development issued orders to 5 public Universities and Letters of Intent to 5 Private Universities related to Institutions of Eminence scheme.

Key demand of the question:

The question aims to evaluate the significance of Institutions of Eminence and the benefits of it.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief explain what are Institutions of Eminence.

Body:

Explain the following – 

The Ministry of Human Resource Development has issued orders to 5 public Universities conveying their declaration as Institutions of Eminence (IoE). These are IIT Madras, Banaras Hindu University, IIT Kharagpur, University of Delhi and University of Hyderabad.

In addition, Letters of Intent were issued to 5 Private Universities for accepting and sending their preparedness for being declared as Institutions of Eminence.

Benefits of Institutions of Eminence: 

  • Government Institutions to get additional funding upto 1000 Crore.
  • The selected Institutions under IoE shall have complete academic, administrative and financial autonomy.
  • Academic collaborations with foreign higher educational institutions (in top 500) would be exempt from government approvals; Freedom to recruit faculty from outside India (limit of 25% of its faculty strength for public institution).
  • Freedom to admit additionally foreign students on merit subject to a maximum of 30% of the strength of admitted domestic students. Freedom to fix and charge fees from foreign students without restriction.
  • Freedom to have own transparent merit based system for admission of students.
  • Flexibility in fixing of curriculum and syllabus, with no UGC mandated curriculum structure.
  • Freedom to offer online courses as part of their programs with a restriction that not more than 20% of the programme should be in online mode.
  • UGC Inspection shall not apply to Institutions of Eminence.

Conclusion:

Conclude by reiterating its benefits to the education system of the country.


Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

5) Comment on the urgency to have necessary police reforms in India. (250 words)

Reference

Why this question:

The article highlights the sorry state of policing prevalent in the country and the findings in the latest report on the Status of Policing in India, produced jointly by Common Cause and the Centre for the Study of Developing Societies.

Key demand of the question:

One must explain the issues with Police system in India and highlight the urgency of reforms.

Directive:

Commenthere we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief highlight the findings of the report.

Body:

Explain first the issues associated and then suggest solutions – 

Huge vacancies: With the phenomenal expansion of the geographic area to be policed and the increase in the number of lives to be guarded, the Indian police, more than in many western democracies, have been stretched and outnumbered. There are only about 140 policemen per 100,000 people, a very poor ratio when compared to other modern democracies.

Over-burden: Police force is over-burdened especially at lower levels where constabulary is forced to work continuously for 14-16 hours, 7 days a week. It adversely impacts their performance.

Risk to life: The risk to life in Police is very high. Policemen are killed in India in the performance of duties than in any other country of the world. There’s no indication that in future the risk element would be less.

Police Infrastructure: The weaponry, vehicles etc. used by police force at lower level is obsolete and is unmatched with the modern weaponry used by the criminals and anti-social elements.

Qualifications and training of police personnel’s: Police training methods have been out dated and aspects of human rights are largely ignored in training modules. Training of police officials is heavily biased in favor of higher level officials. 94% of the total training expenditure is on IPS officers’ training.

Politicization of Police: Politicization of a police force is a major problem as it affects the autonomy of police force making them to sub serves the interests of political executive at the cost of ordinary citizens. CID at the state level has failed to perform because of political cases led by the ruling parties against their opponents and because of excessive political interference by political executive.

Ineffectiveness against new forms of crimes: Police force is not in the position to tackle present days’ problems of cyber-crimes, global terrorism, naxalism because of its structural weaknesses.

Underutilization of funds for modernization: Both center and states allocate funds for modernization of state police forces. These funds are typically used for strengthening police infrastructure, by way of construction of police stations, purchase of weaponry, communication equipment and vehicles. 

Prevailing Corruption: The pay scales of police personnel especially at the lower levels are very low and they are forced to adopt corrupt means to earn their livelihood etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.


Topic:   Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation. Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

6) Do you agree that India’s employment crisis calls for more government expenditure in education, adequate training? Critically comment by weighing the success of the skill India program in the context of the statement.(250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question:

The article weighs the success of Skill India program amidst the job crisis India is facing.

Key demand of the question:

One should bring out the gaps in education system, skill development and employability in the country and the causes and consequences of it.

Directive:

Critically commentWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘comment’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief explain the issue.

Body:

First explain why is the issue, despite having all the programs in place why can’t the job crisis situation be addressed in the country.

Explain the underlying causes – the fact that demography brings a dividend only if the youth is trained properly. Without proper training, instead of benefits, the country gets massive joblessness.

Analyse the problems with skill development programs in the country.

Suggest solutions to overcome.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.


General Studies – 4


Topic:Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.

7) Explain the concept of ‘Saam, Daam, Dand, Bhed’.also discuss to what extent is it relevant today in determining ethical conduct of an individual?(250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon publications

Why this question:

The question aims to analyse the chanikya neeti of Saam, daam, dand, bhed and its significance in shaping ethics. 

Key demand of the question:

One must elaborate on the philosophy and its significance to ethics as a subject.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief narrate the meaning of saam,daam,dand,bhed.

Body:

The modern global diplomacy revolves around the principle of ‘saam, daam, dand, bhed’ (persuade, purchase, punish, and exploit the weakness). His Arthashastra elevates the state to a position where service to it entails imperatives unknown to morality. 

Then move onto explain the application of this philosophy  in day to day life, governance, international relations etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance.



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

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