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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 30 AUGUST 2019


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 30 AUGUST 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

1) Though India has been making efforts in terms of policies and programmes for the development of sports, it is yet to fulfil gaps on infrastructure front. Critically analyse.(250 words)

Financialexpress

Why this question:

The question aims to address the question of infrastructural gaps prevailing in the country’s development of sports.

Key demand of the question:

One must discuss in detail the lacunae, gaps that are being witnessed by the sports infrastructure in the country.

Directive:

 Critically analyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In short bring out the importance of sports for the country.

Body:

Explain that Sports infrastructure plays a crucial role in achieving excellence in the global arena of sports.

Explain the policies and programmes in this direction, why are there gaps in it.

Discuss the major initiatives in place – national sports policy, assistance for sports infrastructure etc.

Explain what are the points of deficit and what needs to be done.

Conclusion:

Conclude with need to revamp the policy paradigm for improving the infrastructural aspects in sports.

Introduction:

Sports in India refers to the large variety of games played in India, ranging from tribal games to more mainstream sports such as football and cricket. Sports infrastructure plays a crucial role in achieving excellence in the global arena of sports. It not only helps in producing sportspersons of international repute but also encourages the young population of a country to participate in sporting activities with the objective of creating a culturing of sports.

Body:

National policy for sports:

  • Broad basing of sport and achievement in excellence.
  • Upgradation of development and infrastructure
  • Support normal sports federation and other sports bodies.
  • Strengthening of scientific and coaching support to the sport.
  • Special incentives to support the sport
  • Enhanced participation of women and, scheduled tribes and rural youth.
  • Involvement of the corporate sector in sports promotion.
  • Promote sports mindedness among the public in large

Policies and Programmes for development of Sports:

  • Target Olympic Podium Scheme (TOPS) The Ministry of Youth Affairs & Sports is implementing TOPS within overall ambit of National Sports Development Fund (NSDF) for providing financial assistance to elite athletes included in TOPS for their customized training in world class training institutes/academies within the country and abroad.
  • Khelo India It has been formed after merger of Rajiv Gandhi Khel Abhiyan (RGKA), Urban Sports Infrastructure Scheme (USIS) and National Sports Talent Search Scheme (NSTSS). Objective of Scheme a) Mass participation of youth in annual sports competitions through a structured competition; b) Identification of talent c) Guidance and nurturing of the talent through existing sports academies and new set up either by the central Government or State Government or in PPP mode. d) Creation of Sports Infrastructure at mofussil, Tehsil, District, State levels, etc.
  • National Sports Development Fund The National Sports Development Fund (NSDF) was instituted by the Central Government with a view to mobilizing resources from the Government as well as non-governmental sources, including the private/corporate sector and non-resident Indians, for promotion of sports and games in the country. To make contributions to the fund attractive, 100 per cent exemption from income tax is available on all contributions. Further, Government contribution is on matching basis to the contributions received from other sources.
  • Scheme for Promotion of Sports among Persons with Disabilities The Ministry formulated a scheme for promotion of sports and games among disabled during 2009. The Scheme of Sports and Games for the Disabled has the following components:- (i) Grant for sports coaching and purchase of consumables and non-consumable sports equipment for Schools; (ii) grant for Training of Coaches; and (iii) grant for holding District, State and National level competitions for the disabled.
  • Assistance to National Sports Federations: the government has been providing financial assistance to the recognized National Sports Federations (NSFs) for supporting girls/women’s exposure, training and participation at national/ international level.

Reasons for poor infrastructure:

  • Lack of infrastructure: This is one of the most important factors for the apathy of the sport in India. Since infrastructure is necessary for training and organizing games, its non-availability and its access to only a few sections of the society have adversely impacted the sport participation and the quality of sports persons.
  • Corruption & Mismanagement of sports authorities: Corruption has become synonymous with sports administration in India. Whether it is the most popular cricket or hockey or weightlifting, most of the sports authorities in India have come under attack due to corruption charges.
  • State subject: sport is a State subject. The state governments allocate funds for the development of sports and sports infrastructure as per their priority. There is no comprehensive approach to the development of sports infrastructure uniformly throughout the country
  • Social and economic inequalities: Social and economic inequalities have a negative impact on the Indian sport. Denial of access to sports infrastructure due to poverty, concentration of stadiums and other sports avenues only in cities, lack of encouragement to girls to participate in sports, etc, have impaired the development of a positive sports culture in the country.
  • Policy lacunae: For the development of any sector, formulation and execution of an effective policy is a sine qua non. This is true for sports also. Till date, the sports policy planning and implementation is centralized in the country due to the paucity of resources and the expertise by the State and local governments. Moreover, the absence of a separate ministry of sports at the union level reflects the apathy towards sports.
  • Meagre allocation of resources: Compared to other developed and developing countries, allocation of financial resources is meager in India. In the Union Budget 2017-18, Rs 1943 crore allocated for sports. While it is Rs 450 crore higher than the previous year, it is much below than the around Rs 9000 crore spent annually by the UK for the sports sector.

Way forward:

  • Sports deserve to be recognized as human resource development (HRD) activity in the Indian context.
  • Extension of Justice Lodha Committee recommendations on BCCI to all other sports bodies will be a right step in this direction.
  • Sports complexes like the DDA’s Siri Fort one are the need of the hour as they provide much-needed sports infrastructure for the public.
  • To arrange a dedicated land bank for the setting up of sports infrastructure
  • To adopt the PPP model in which the government will provide institutional and financial support for the building of infrastructure and the private sector will manage and maintain its operations
  • Use these facilities for multiple purposes, such as organizing exhibitions, conferences or for the setting up of sports academies
  • To make these infrastructural facilities open for the use of the public against membership fees.

Conclusion:

Despite the above mentioned measures taken by the government, the sports ecosystem is of poor quality in the country. For a country of over 1.33 billion, the existing sports infrastructure is not satisfactory. The lack of world-class infrastructure and the inadequate support of the government is reflected in poor performance of Indian athletes in major international events like the Olympics. Tiny countries like Cuba, Croatia and Lithuania performed better in the 2016 Olympics compared to India. It is high time, the public and private sector should come together to lift the Indian sport sector from the present deplorable situation.   


Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

2) Should States have their own flags in India? Discuss the key provisions of Flag Code of India, 2002 and justify your opinion if possibilities of having a state flag would amount to the threat of national integrity. (250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question:

In March 2018, the government of former Chief Minister Siddaramaiah had unveiled the proposed official state flag for Karnataka, and sent it to the central government for approval, with a request to include it in the Schedule of the Emblems and Names (Prevention of Misuse) Act, 1950. Recently the issue is back in fore with the incumbent govt. not willing to pursue the fact further.

Key demand of the question:

One must discuss in detail the Questions of nationalism and sub nationalism in separate Kannada flag.

Directive:

 DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief narrate the background of the issue.

Body:

Explain that the only state in India so far to have a separate state official flag was Jammu and Kashmir, which enjoyed special status under Article 370 of Indian constitution.

Discuss the provisions in this context in the constitution – Supreme Court said that here is no prohibition in the Constitution for the State to have its own flag. However, the manner in which the state flag is hoisted should not dishonor the national flag.

Under the Constitution, a flag is not enumerated in the Seventh Schedule. However, Article 51A rules that every citizen shall abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the national flag, and the national anthem.

Then explain in what way assertion of regional identity has always been a tricky issue in a country as diverse as India.

Conclusion:

Conclude that there should be clear rule that flag of state cannot be a substitute of national flag and it should be smaller and fly lower. People against state flags say that the tricolor binds India together and any move to allow states to have flags would reduce the standing of the national flag. Allowing one state to have its own flag could trigger demands from other states too.

Introduction:

In March 2018, the government of former Karnataka Chief Minister Siddaramaiah had unveiled the proposed official state flag for Karnataka, and sent it to the central government for approval, with a request to include it in the Schedule of the Emblems and Names (Prevention of Misuse) Act, 1950. The Karnataka state government set up a panel to explore if the state can have its own separate flag in 2018.

Body:

States and own flag:

  • State flag can be allowed:
    • The state flag can be the representation of regional culture, aspirations and local representation.
    • Allowing display of state flag can be an innovative way to have expression of regional aspirations at national level.
    • The question arises that, if the state can declare its state animal, State plant and flower, the permission can also be given to have a State flag.
    • There has no mention of provision in constitution of India, that the state has restrictions to display its flag.
    • Thus even if any state adopts and displays any flag as a state flag, it is not unconstitutional.
  • State flag must not be allowed:
    • India does not have any specific history of state flags and thus the demand of such flag must be of recent origin.
    • It has been observed that, the recent demands are highly separatist in nature and affect the internal security of the country.
    • The state flag which displays regional aspirations that goes against unity and integrity of the country must not be allowed.
    • The display of flag by one state may create a chain-link that can lead to more state opting for this course of action.

Flag code of India, 2002 provisions:

  • The Flag Code of India, 2002 is a compilation of all the laws, conventions, practices, instructions and guidelines that govern the display of the National Flag. Knowingly or unknowingly, many citizens violate the Flag Code.
  • The National flag should be hoisted at a height in a suitable manner.
  • Whenever the flag is hoisted, it should occupy the position of honour and be distinctly placed.
  • Where the practice is to fly the flag on any Government building, it should be flown on that building on all days including Sundays and holidays from sunrise to sunset, irrespective of the weather conditions.
  • The flag should always be hoisted briskly and lowered slowly and ceremoniously. The hoisting and lowering should be simultaneous with the bugle calls.
  • When the flag is displayed horizontally or at an angle from the window or balcony, of a building, the saffron band must be upper most.
  • When the flag is flown during a public meeting, the speaker should face the audience and the flag should be displayed behind and to the right of the speaker or flat against the wall above and behind the speaker.
  • When used on occasions like the unveiling of a statue, the flag shall be displayed distinctly and separately.
  • When the flag is displayed on a car, it should be attached to a staff, which should be affixed firmly on the bonnet of the car.
  • When the flag is carried in a procession or a parade, it should be held in the right hand. If there is a line of other flags, the National flag should be in the middle.
  • The flag should not be stooped downwards in respect to any person or thing.
  • No other flag should be hoisted higher than the National flag.
  • The flag should not be used to cover or decorate the speaker’s desk during any meeting.
  • The National flag should never be displayed with the saffron band down.
  • The flag should not be allowed to touch the ground or trail in water.
  • The flag should not be displayed or fastened in a manner which might damage it.

Constitutional provisions about state flag:

  • The Indian National flag represents the hopes and aspirations of the people of India.
  • Supreme Court said that here is no prohibition in the Constitution for the State to have its own flag. However, the manner in which the state flag is hoisted should not dishonour the national flag.
  • Under the Constitution, a flag is not enumerated in the Seventh Schedule.
  • However, Article 51A rules that every citizen shall abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the national flag, and the national anthem.

Way forward:

  • Assertion of regional identity has always been a tricky issue in a country as diverse as India.
  • People against state flags say that the tricolour binds India together and any move to allow states to have flags would reduce the standing of the national flag.
  • Allowing one state to have its own flag could trigger demands from other states too.
  • Arguments in favour of the decision stresses on the fact that states in both Germany and USA have their own flags without any danger of their imminent disintegration.
  • The committee that is being setup has to look into legal ramifications of having a separate state flag.
  • State government’s move to have a committee to look into the possibilities of having a state flag is anything that would amount to the threat of national integrity.
  • However, there should be clear rules that flag of state cannot be substitute of national flag and it should be smaller and fly lower.

Topic:  Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

3) Discuss the key features of Fit India campaign, in your opinion to what extent can it help tackle rise in lifestyle disorders and diseases? elucidate. (250 words)

Livemint

Why this question:

Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Thursday launched the “Fit India Movement”, highlighting the need to stay healthy amid rising instances of lifestyle disorders and non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The campaign was announced at an event organized to celebrate the National Sports Day.

Key demand of the question:

The question aims to bring out the significance of the newly launched fit india campaign.

Directive:

 DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Discuss the importance of being fit and its impact on several other aspects of life.

Body:

First discuss that physical activity has reduced due to the advent of technology, leading to disorders such as cardiovascular diseases, stroke, cancer, diabetes and obesity.

 The World Health Organization (WHO), too, blames unhealthy diet and lack of physical activity for increasing instances of high blood pressure, increase in blood glucose, elevated blood lipids and obesity. 

Then discuss the idea of fit India – It aims to encourage Indians to include fitness activities and sports in their daily lives to pave way for a healthy and fit lifestyle.

Explain in what way root cause of most lifestyle diseases are lifestyle disorders and there are many diseases that can be overcome by making small changes in our lifestyle.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance of such a campaign and in what way it will have long term impact on the growth and development of the country.

Introduction:

Fit India Movement, envisioned by the Prime Minister, is a nation-wide movement which aims to motivate every Indian to incorporate simple, easy ways of staying fit in their everyday life. Prime Minister launched the movement on the occasion of National Sports Day.

Body:

Key features of Fit India campaign:

  • It aims to encourage masses to include fitness activities and sports in daily lives in order to keep themselves hale and hearty.
  • Fit India should be seen as a household movement, a daily routine, and the nation will only become fit when each citizen becomes fit.
  • Fitness aims to improve cognition in children and elderly, and improve mental health and lower depression and improve productivity.
  • This will also lower our health care costs and improve economic productivity.
  • Sports has a direct relation to fitness but ‘Fit India Movement’ aims to go beyond fitness.
  • Fitness is not just a word but an essential pillar to a healthy and prosperous life.
  • Fitness is zero percent investment with infinite returns.
  • Many lifestyle diseases like diabetes, hypertension is increasing in India and small lifestyle changes can prevent these diseases. He asserted that the Fit India Movement is to inspire the country for these changes.

Relevance of Fit India Movement:

  • Fewer than 10% adults in India follow the World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended regimen of at least 150 minutes of moderate aerobic activity or 75 minutes of vigorous activity through the week, according to an ongoing pan-India study across 25 states by the Madras Diabetes Research Foundation.
  • The study, which is part of the Indian Council of Medical Research-India Diabetes (ICMR-INDIAB) study and the most comprehensive analysis of physical activity patterns across states, has found that women are far less active than men.
  • The burden of NCDs is considerable in India. According to the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), the estimated proportion of all deaths due to NCDs has increased from 37.09% in 1990 to 61.8% in 2016. WHO has recognized diabetes as a growing challenge in India with an estimated 8.7% diabetic population between the age group of 20 and 70 years.
  • As per the National Family Health Survey 2015-16, 11% of women (1 in 10) and 15% of men (1 in 7) of 15-49 years are hypertensive. In India, the Global Disease Burden (GBD) 2015 ranks chronic kidney disease as the eighth leading cause of death.
  • Only 3% women meet the minimum healthy levels of physical activity, which brings a clutch of health benefits such as the reduced risk of hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes, breast/colon cancer, obesity, depression and falls, as well as improvement in bone and functional health.
  • Physical inactivity damages health as much as obesity and smoking. It is the fourth-leading risk factor for death (6% of deaths globally) and the leading cause of 21-25% of breast and colon cancers, 27% of diabetes, and 30% of cardiovascular disease.

Measures needed:

  • Lower and middle income countries such as India also face environmental and social challenges that become deterrents to activity, such as rapid urbanisation, which leads to unplanned growth of cities, high migration, large populations, chaotic transportation, encroached pavements, air pollution, and high ambient temperature.
  • Trees and green spaces within a 0.5km radius of homes, workplaces, and schools have been shown to lower the risks of death, cardiovascular disease, prostate cancer and depression, and better cognitive development in children.
  • Apart from adequate quality public transport and wider pavements, there is need for more tree cover on active transport roads, green spaces to lower the ambient air temperature and mitigate noise pollution, and lower air pollution to make outdoor activities more comfortable.
  • Instead of widening roads for motorised transport at the cost of trees, pavements and green spaces, governments should focus on pedestrians and other active transport priorities like public transport. A measure of development of a country is how well we treat pedestrians and those using active transport.
  • Progressive interventions, especially those targeting women, are needed to create a safe space for women.
  • Physical activity, which is defined as at least 30 minutes of sustained walking, dancing, running, swimming, or playing a sport, can take any form.
  • Kerala made headlines in 2016 for its 5 percent ‘fat tax’, hoping to reduce the consumption of NCD causing junk food by making it pricier. However, even then public health experts had pointed out that sugar was a bigger culprit

Conclusion:

‘Fit India’ Movement’ initiative is the need of the hour and will take the country towards a healthier future.


Topic: Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.

4) The evolution of the mobile phone to smartphone has brought about a radical change in our everyday life, discuss how much more, and how much quicker can social robots shift societal paradigms? How should we prepare ourselves to meet the AI and social robotics revolution? Examine.(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question:

The question is based on the theme of societal effects that the robotics and AI are bringing into the society of today.

Key demand of the question:

One must discuss in detail the impact of social robots on the world society in detail.

Directive:

 ExamineWhen asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Set the context of the question briefly.

Body:

Explain that the question “man or machine?” has been replaced with “man and machine”.

Discuss and opine whether humanoids can go beyond the industrial world to become part of our personal lives.

Discuss the case studies of humanoid robots – Sophia and Han.

Explain in what way robots can impact the society. Give case studies from the article and substantiate to form a stand.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance of AI and robotics and its potential and that however the ethical concerns related to it remain a grey area that require diligence.

Introduction:

Advances in artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning (ML) and natural language processing (NLP) have enabled humans to create humanoid news anchors, psychologists, personal assistants, and more. While we are yet to see a fully-functional humanoid robot become mainstream, the day is not far away.

Body:

The question “man or machine?” has been replaced with “man and machine”. The interesting possibility, however, is whether humanoids can go beyond the industrial world to become part of our personal lives.

Social robots and shift in societal paradigms:

  • Geriatric care: The Japanese government has moved in early on this possibility, and is funding the development of care robots for the elderly. Tokyo’s Shin-tomi nursing home already deploys 20 types of robots for such care.
  • Personal use: Samsung’s Bot Care—enables users to check their blood pressure, heart rate and sleep patterns. It also reminds them to take medications, alerts family members in case of emergencies. Bot Air assesses air quality and takes remedial measures.
  • Shopping: Bot Retail offers support to customers while shopping. Piaggio’s Gita is a cargo bot that can be used as an autonomous shopping trolley
  • Help for disabled: The GEMS (Gait Enhancing and Motivating System) exoskeleton supports people who have trouble walking, running or standing up, and prevents overworking of their muscles.
  • non-humanoid social robots are crossing the experimental stage to mass production. MiRo is one of the world’s first robots that has a brain-inspired biomimetic operating system.

Humanoids influence on Humans:

  • Research strongly indicates that as humans we can be influenced by robots, much like we are by fellow humans.
  • True, we develop robots with our knowledge and mastery over the human mind.
  • The recent instance of Facebook having to shut down its AI engine (after it was found it had developed its own language that could not be understood by humans) does venture into the grayer and darker side of AI.
  • The fear of loss of jobs due to increased robotization.
  • Al powered bots have also been used to influence humans perceptions, views and opinions. Such activities are rampantly being promoted through social media platforms for various ulterior purposes using fake news, unethical advertisements, etc which then have huge negative consequences.
  • AI based weapons are fast gaining currency. Since humans can be replaced by such machines, declaring war would become more convenient. These machines can wreck havoc if uncontrolled endangering the human race itself.
  • AI is being used for extensive surveillance as in China which violates right to privacy. Such intelligence can be even used to selectively target and eliminate opponents which instil deep fear among people who would like to raise voice against injustice.
  • Humans can pass on their limitations to robots. E.g.: biases, prejudices, discrimination, etc. A recent report in USA revealed that robot can be racist

Measures needed to meet the AI and social robotics revolution:

  • With the proliferation of AI, it is important for us to know the ethical basis of every AI system that we use or is used on us.
  • Sometimes, even an inclusive intention may need careful scrutiny.
  • Ethical norms regarding uses of AI and our ability to regulate them in an intelligent and beneficial manner should keep pace with the fast changing technological capabilities.
  • Understanding and discussing the ethical basis of AI is important for India.

Conclusion:

The transformative capability of AI in India is huge, and must be rooted in an egalitarian and humanitarian basis. Any institutional framework for AI should have a multidisciplinary and multi-stakeholder approach, and have an explicit focus on the ethical basis.


Topic: Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.

5) The idea of providing Biometric Seafarer Identity Document (BSID) by Government of India is an accomplishment in the field of science and technology and is valuable on multiple fronts. Discuss.(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question:

India recently became the first country to launch world’s first facial biometric-based ID for seafarers.

Key demand of the question:

One must discuss in detail the achievement India has made through the launch of such a technology that can have positive impacts in multiple dimensions.

Directive:

 DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

First explain the importance of identification to Indian seafarers.

Body:

Explain that in a move to boost employment in the coastal shipping sector, India has become the first country in the world to issue a Biometric Seafarer Identity Document (BSID) to its seafarers.

Discuss the key features of BSID – The BSID has the dimensions of a smart ID card. It introduces modern security features like an embedded biometric chip, as well as optical security features such as micro prints/micro texts and Unique Guilloche pattern. The security of the BSID card is ensured at various levels and through different methods. At the time of data capturing the live face is cross matched through passport photo using a face matching software. A software has been developed for capturing the facial biometrics and its authentication through the public key infrastructure.

Explain how the technology is a major boost in various ways to the seafarers.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance. 

Introduction:

India recently became the first country to launch world’s first facial biometric-based ID for seafarers (BSID). The new document will give a foolproof identification to Indian seafarers which will facilitate their movement and help in identifying them from any location in the world. The new card is in confirmation of the Convention No. 185 of the International Labour Organisation on BSID. India ratified the Convention in October 2015.

Body:

BSID project:

  • In India the BSID project has been taken up in collaboration with Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (CDAC), Mumbai.
  • The Government notified the Merchant Shipping (Seafarers Bio-metric Identification Document) Rules in 2016.
  • Every Indian seafarer who possesses a valid Continuous Discharge Certificate issued by the Govt. of India will be eligible for issue of a BSID.
  • Nine data collection centers have been setup at Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Noida, Goa, New Mangalore, Kochi, Vizag & Kandla for issue of BSID.

Working of BSID:

  • It introduces modern security features.
  • It will have a biometric chip embedded in it.
  • The security of the BSID card is ensured at various levels and through different methods.
  • At the time of data capturing, the live face is cross matched through passport photo using a face matching software.
  • The card has two optical security features- Micro prints/micro texts and Unique Guilloche pattern.
  • A software has been developed for capturing the facial biometrics and its authentication through the public key infrastructure.

Significance of BSID:

  • The BSID with new facial biometric technology is a marked improvement over the two finger or iris based bio-metric data, with modern security features.
  • It will make the identification of the SID holder more reliable and efficient, while protecting their dignity and privacy.
  • It will give a foolproof identification to our seafarers which will facilitate their movement, provide ease of getting jobs and help in identifying them from any location in the world.
  • A record of each SID issued will be maintained in a national database and its related information will be internationally accessible.
  • The total number of Indian seafarers who were employed on Indian or foreign flag vessels increased from 154349 in 2017 to 208799 this year, showing an unprecedented increase of 35%

Conclusion:

                With Sagarmala on the anvil and security of the long coastline of India, BSID will help secure the seafarers as well as safety of India from transgressors.        


 

Topic: Probity in Governance: Concept of public service; Philosophical basis of governance and probity; Information sharing and transparency in government, Right to Information, Codes of Ethics, Codes of Conduct, Citizen’s Charters, Work culture, Quality of service delivery, Utilization of public funds, challenges of corruption.

6) Discuss the core principles of citizens charter. How should an organisation formulate citizen’s charter? explain. (250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon publications

Why this question:

The question is straightforward and is based on the concept of citizen charter.

Key demand of the question:

One must discuss in detail the relevance and significance of citizen’s charter.

Directive:

 DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Define citizen’s charter, explain what is it. 

Body:

Explain the basic objectives of citizen’s charter.

Discuss what aspects are essential for an organization to be covered in its citizen’s charter.

Explain the do’s and don’ts that the organization must consider while drafting its charter. 

Provide for a roadmap that the organization should follow while drafting its charter.

Explain with possible examples.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance of citizen charter in ethical governance and good governance of the country.

Introduction:

A Citizens’ Charter represents the commitment of the Organisation towards standard, quality and time frame of service delivery, grievance redress mechanism, transparency and accountability. The concept of Citizens Charter enshrines the trust between the service provider and its users.

                Department of Administrative Reforms and Public Grievances in Government of India (DARPG) initiated the task of coordinating, formulating and operationalising Citizen’s Charters

Body:

The core principles of a Citizen’s Charter in India are:

  • Vision and Mission Statement
  • Details of business transacted by the organization
  • Details of clients
  • Details of services provided to each client group
  • Details of grievance redress mechanism and how to access it
  • Expectations from the clients.

An organization must take care of the following to make citizen’s charter a success:

  • Creating guarantees and redressal policies.
  • Building service standards into your performance management system.
  • Publicizing and comparing performance against the standards.
  • Creating awards for meeting tough customer service standards.
  • Involving customers in the creation of guarantees, standards, redress policies, complaint systems, and customer service agreements: It is prudent not to assume what the customer wants. Customer surveys are useful here, but   face-to-face   contact   with   customers   is   even   more  
  • Educate customers  about  your  services,  so  they  will  have  realistic  notions of what is possible and will understand their own responsibilities: Often services won’t work unless customers uphold their end of the deal. Example: tax agencies can’t send speedy refunds if taxpayers don’t fill out their returns completely and accurately.
  • Keep pressure  on  from  outside  the  organization  to  create  meaningful  guarantees, standards, redress policies and complaint systems: Most  organizations  won’t  be  able  to  accomplish  both  setting  meaningful  standards  and  fulfilling  the 
  • Create an outside review process to approve guarantees, standards, redress policies, complaint systems, and the performance measurement processes associated with them.
  • Publicize your   standards,   guarantees,   redress   policies,   complaint   systems, and results: If  people  don’t  know  about  these  policies,  they  will  have  far  less  effect  than  they should. Example: the U.S. Postal Service has publicized its first-class-on-time delivery  standards  (three  days  within  the  continental  S.,  one  day  locally)  and  reported  quarterly  on  its  performance.
  • Involve frontline employees in creating standards and other tools – and in figuring out how to meet them – to help them buy in.

Conclusion:

Thus, it is imperative to develop citizen’s charter which is citizen-centric, people-participative for them to be successful. This will ensure that the guidelines are set for better service delivery by the government.


Topic: Probity in Governance: Concept of public service; Philosophical basis of governance and probity; Information sharing and transparency in government, Right to Information, Codes of Ethics, Codes of Conduct, Citizen’s Charters, Work culture, Quality of service delivery, Utilization of public funds, challenges of corruption.

7) Utilization of public funds in a country must obey to the principles of transparency and efficiency. do you agree? Give your opinion with suitable examples.(250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon publications

 

Why this question:

The question is aimed at analyzing the aspects of utilization of publice funds in a country.

Key demand of the question:

One must discuss in detail the aspects of transparency and accountability associated with utilization of public funds of the country.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Discuss the importance of public funds.

Body:

Explain what is meant by public funds – Public funds includes all the money that belongs to the public and is held by the government as a custodian and not an owner. Its utilization must adhere to the principles of transparency and efficiency.

Discuss the significance of Transparency and efficiency as tools for monitoring and supervising distribution of public fund.

Explain various mechanisms through which it can be done – Public Fund Management System, Auditing agencies – CAG, Budgeting – Outcome based budgeting, zero base budgeting, Participation and transparency – Social Auditing and Citizen Charters, Financial Prudence – FRBM act etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance accountability and transparency in utilization of public funds.

Introduction:

‘Public money ought to be touched with the most scrupulous conscientiousness of honour. It is not the produce of riches only, but of the hard earnings of labour and poverty.’ – Thomas Paine

Body:

Four principles underpin trust in the public finances:

  • Transparency −accurate records that show where money is raised and spent.
  • Assurance − figures and processes are checked by independent experts.
  • Accountability −decision makers are clearly identified and subject to strict rules and review of performance and outcomes.
  • Objectivity − policies are based on accurate information and rigorous analysis

The question of utilization of public funds has different aspects.

  • The first aspect relates to efficiency.
  • The second aspect concerns the manner of fund utilization.
  • The third aspect relates to the outputs and outcomes which result from the fund use.
  • The fourth aspect is the source of funds.
  • Finally, any fund utilization or expenditure has to meet the audit requirements.

Need to obey principles of transparency and efficiency:

  • It is vital to uphold the ‘social contract’. Citizens must be confident that they are protected by the law and that public institutions and servants will act in accordance with it.
  • Public institutions with operational independence from political control are more likely to be trusted to act in the public interest.
  • A well informed population is far more likely to be confident about investing for the future. This means both providing appropriate information in ways that are accessible and easy to understand, and educating citizens as well as inviting them to participate in decision making.
  • Effective public financial management requires that decision makers, citizens and other stakeholders, are able to ‘follow the money’ to see how taxes were raised, why decisions to spend it were made, how the money was actually spent and what was bought.
  • Where government plans and activities are measured against expected outputs and outcomes, citizens and other stakeholders will be able to judge the performance of government. This in turn provides the basis for feedback and continuous improvement mechanisms.
  • For the public to believe that public officials will do the right thing, a range of controls to promote integrity and ethical behaviour and to tackle fraud and corruption are required.
  • Most importantly, the public must believe that individuals will be held responsible for their actions, no matter who they are.
  • A climate for investment is created when investors believe a state is stable, well run and that political and fiscal risks will be managed effectively.

Conclusion:

It is important for citizens to trust that the government will act in their interest, if they are to invest their own private resources and so create economic activity and employment.