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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 29 AUGUST 2019


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 29 AUGUST 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic: Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism.

1) India needs a comprehensive law to deal with ‘honor killing’. Critically Examine. (250 words)

The hindu

Why this question:

The question must discuss the social evil of honor killing and need for comprehensive law to tackle the same.

Key demand of the question:

One must discuss in detail the need for comprehensive law for honor killing.

Directive:

 Critically examineWhen asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Explain in brief honor killing as a social evil in the country.

Body:

Explain that In India, honor killings take place if a couple marries outside their caste or religion.  Khap panchayats also oppose and mete out punishments to couples who marry within the same gotra (lineage) or transgress other societal norms.

The Supreme Court, in 2006, ruled that, “Inter-caste marriages are in fact in the national interest as they will result in destroying the caste system.”

Explain that We have the law, but unfortunately, the system doesn’t function properly. We need a special law that specifies what needs to be looked at during the investigation and prosecution of an honour killing case and that it is not tried broadly as a murder. There need to be detailed examinations, the forensic evidence needs to be collected keeping the motive of honour killing in mind and so on. They need to check what preceded the murder.

Discuss then the need for laws in place to tackle with such evils.

Conclusion:

Conclude with need for urgency of stringent laws to handle honor killing in the country.

 

Introduction:

The term ‘honour killing’ is being used widely to describe the class of murders that family members commit while seeking to impose on young couples their medieval view that all marriages should be within their community. The use of murderous violence in the face of imagined threats to family or community honour is an unfortunate reality in most parts of the country.

Body:

Causative factors:

  • The incidences of honour killing are common in the northern states of India such as Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. Honour killing also widespread in South Indian states and the western Indian states of Maharashtra and Gujarat.
  • The basic reason behind honour killings is the idea that a family’s honour is tied to a woman’s chastity.
  • A wide range of causes can trigger honour killing such as marital infidelity, pre-marital sex, having unapproved relationships, refusing an arranged marriage or even rape.
  • In India, honour killings take place if a couple marries outside their caste or religion.
  • Khap panchayats also oppose and mete out punishments to couples who marry within the same gotra (lineage) or transgress other societal norms.
  • Danger of losing Prestige and Status in society: A person’s ascribed status is more important than the achieved status.
  • Another characteristic of honour killings is that the perpetrators often do not face negative stigma within their communities, because their behaviour is seen as justified.

Need for a comprehensive law:

  • Honour killing violates article 14, 15, 19, 21, 39 (f) of the constitution.
  • According to National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) figures released in 2018, a total of 28 cases in 2014, 251 cases in 2015 and 77 cases in 2016 were reported with motive as honour killing.
  • In Past five years in Rajasthan, 71 cases of illegal diktat given by ‘Khap Panchayats’ (caste councils which function like kangaroo courts) were registered and 10 cases of honour killing occurred in which four men and eight women were killed.
  • Honour killing cases have increased in the past few years and have become a hurdle in societal development.
  • Sections of the IPC and the CrPc were not adequate in dealing with such cases.
  • Such crimes are also in violation of the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against Women which provide that women should have the right to freely choose a spouse.
  • These actions of honour killing are also violative of certain fundamental rights in the Constitution of India, including the right to life, and liberty which includes the right to bodily integrity, and the right to choose whom to associate with

Challenges to the law:

  • The death penalty award for honour killing doesn’t deter perpetuators as seen in previous instances.
  • The existing penalty for the offence of murder is sufficient if they are implemented strictly and effectively.
  • A new set of laws would not deter honour killings because the basic issue is social sanction for acts committed to curtail same gotra marriage, inter-caste marriage, inter-religion marriage.
  • Need for creating awareness among traditional communities through education.
  • Holding khap panchayats collectively accountable can be detrimental to members who do not support such killing.
  • Also, it could be misused for vindictive agendas.

Laws which exist to prevent such practices:

  • Section 302 of IPC: Perpetrators, family members & khap panchayats can be punished under it.
  • Special Marriage Act 1954: specially enacted to prevent atrocities arising out of marriages in India.
  • Protection of Human Rights (Amendment) Act 2006: to protect individual & constitutional rights of citizens.
  • Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act 2005: to protect against violence occurring within the family.
  • Article 14, 15(3), 19, 21: India has signed various international conventions like Human Rights, ICCPR, UN CEDAW

Way forward:

  • Administrators must give full effect to the various preventive, remedial and punitive measures recommended by the Supreme Court.
  • The Centre may also examine the need for a comprehensive law to curb killings in the name of honour and prohibit interference in matrimonial choice of individuals.
  • Media play a more crucial role in expressing their views in the front of whole of society, without any fear, even there is a right of freedom to express is also given in our Constitution.
  • It is necessary to improve sex ratio in the areas where females low in number and still practicing the female foeticide like Haryana, UP, and Punjab.
  • Literacy must be enhanced to curb this menace.
  • The laws should be clear and issues related to the validity of the Khap Panchayat should be clear to people.
  • There should be a provision of one or two women sitting in the Khap Panchayats so that equality right also follows.
  • It is imperative for the state to focus on such programmes and projects which help in gender equity.

Conclusion:

The Supreme Court, which has been intervening repeatedly to preserve the freedom of marital choice of individuals, once remarked that there is no ‘honour’ in ‘honour killing’. Various judgments have highlighted the need to come down on such crimes, as well as the social structures that keep such a communal outlook alive.


Topic: Women empowerment, gender issues, Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

2) “To ensure genuine gender equality, we need a fundamental reform of beliefs upheld by the institutions of family and faith “, analyse. (250 words)

Livemint

Why this question:

The article discusses the root cause of gender inequality in the world.

Key demand of the question:

One must discuss in detail the root causes of gender inequality.

Directive:

 analyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief bring out the context of the question statement.

Body:

Explain why women are still being treated as unequal to men, discussion should suggest the causes for such disparity and its existence even today, to ensure genuine gender equality, we need a fundamental reform of beliefs upheld by the institutions of family and faith.

According to the World Employment and Social Outlook Trends for Women 2018 report, more women than ever before are both educated and participating in the labour market today. Even as opportunities for people without a college education shrink, men’s rates of graduation remain relatively stagnant, while women across socioeconomic classes are increasingly enrolling for and completing post-secondary degrees.

Explain why is it that women are still not accepted as equals although so many women are educated and entering the work force in larger numbers? What are the significant forces that hinder our progress towards gender parity?

Conclusion:

Conclude with way ahead.

Introduction:

Gender equality is when women and men enjoy the same rights and opportunities across all sectors of society, including economic participation and decision-making, and when the different behaviours, aspirations and needs of women and men are equally valued and favoured.

Body:

Factors leading to gender imparity:

  • The unequal treatment of women by religion has exerted a very strong influence on every society’s gender norms.
  • All the key functions of organized religion, such as conducting religious ceremonies and heading the religious hierarchy, are reserved for men. No organized religion treats women equal to men.
  • Countries where the majority of inhabitants have no religious affiliation display the lowest levels of gender inequality, and countries with the highest levels of gender inequality are those with high levels of religious affiliation.
  • For millions of years, except in few matriarchal societies, the man has always been considered the head of the family. The provider-role he played was always seen superior to the nurturer-role that women played in a family. The man’s decision was always the final word. Gender parity was not a norm in families across societies.
  • Marriages in which the woman earned more were less likely in the first place and more likely to end in divorce.
  • Women who out-earned their husbands were more likely to seek jobs beneath their potential and do significantly more housework and child care than their husbands, perhaps to make their husbands feel less threatened. The norms in our families act as a huge deterrent to achieving gender parity.
  • Stereotypical thinking and Patriarchal mindset is the biggest challenge.
  • Declining child sex ratio (CSR), the practice of gender-biased sex selection, and child marriage.
  • Domestic violence against women is also high.
  • Women being exposed to violence by their partners
  • Judicial remedies or police reforms, though absolutely necessary, are mostly curative, rather than being preventive.
  • Benefits like maternity leave or related facilities will not be accessible to her in the informal sector

Measures needed:

  • We cannot achieve gender parity if religion, one of the strongest forces in most societies, continues to turn its back on women.
  • The agenda of creating a planet 50-50 cannot come true if religion, religious leaders, and faith actors remain outside the conversation.
  • Need to create avenues and opportunity with conscious effort for empowering women rather than giving freebies.
  • Gender Neutral laws.
  • Implementation to full potential of laws is the key.
  • Infrastructure to be put in place and proper efforts to go ahead.
  • Favouring women gives rise to inequality in society so even men should be given avenues.
  • Article 15 should be considered and positive discrimination should be there wherever needed.

Conclusion:

Achieving gender parity is not about organizing awareness programmes and pasting a few posters in offices. It is all about fundamentally altering beliefs upheld by the two strongest institutions of any society: the family and religion.


Topic: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

3) Discuss the issue of child well- being in India, what are the challenges faced by the children and list down measures to ensure their well- being.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question:

Recently the states of Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Himachal Pradesh and Puducherry topped the charts in the child well-being index, a tool designed to measure and tracks children’s well-being comprehensively.

Key demand of the question:

One must discuss in detail the issue of child well- being in India and suggest suitable measures that need to be taken.

Directive:

 DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start by explaining that in India recently child well-being index has been released by the non-government organization World Vision India and research institute IFMR LEAD.

Body:

Explain what is child well-being.

In terms of health, it has to be ensured that the child is taken care of in the first 1,000 days of life. Stunting is a big issue in India and this is linked to poor sanitation and lack of safe water.

States should look at their respective scores on the dimensions of child well-being, and prepare for priority areas of intervention with specific plans of action.

This should also trigger policy level changes, seek better budgetary allocations and initiate discussions with all stakeholders, which can help in enhancing the quality of life of all children in the country.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

The Child Well-Being Index, released recently, is a tool designed to measure and track children’s well-being through three dimensions of healthy individual development, positive relationships and protective contexts. The report highlights the multi-dimensional approach towards measuring child well-being — going beyond mere income poverty. The NITI Aayog cited the report as crucial & significant in securing the rights of children and achieving the goal of child well-being, using a composite Child well-being Index.

Body:

The index has been developed by NGOs World Vision India and IFMR LEAD. Focusing on the three key dimensions, 24 indicators were selected to develop the computation of the child well-being index.

Key findings of the report:

  • Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Himachal Pradesh and Puducherry topped the charts.
  • Meghalaya, Jharkhand and Madhya Pradesh featured at the bottom.
  • The data shows that even states that are performing best in overall child well-being, are not doing so well in indicators of health.

Challenges faced:

Health:

  • unequal sex ratio
  • stunted-underweight children
  • access to institutional delivery is low
  • low child survival rate: a higher number of children were dying before they turned five
  • sanitation facilities
  • immunisation

Social:

  • Incomplete schooling, since more children were dropping out of school
  • budget for children
  • Gender gap in education for girls

Rights:

  • juvenile crimes and crimes against children
  • child marriage
  • child labour
  • pornography
  • child adoption

Measures needed:

  • Effective implementation of the laws and programs available in the country.
  • There is a need for regionally-targeted policy reorientation to better cater to children’s needs.
  • To ensure that India’s future generation is physically healthy and mentally sound
  • States should look at their respective scores on the dimensions of child well-being, and prepare for priority areas of intervention with specific plans of action.
  • This should also trigger policy level changes, seek better budgetary allocations and initiate discussions with all stakeholders, which can help in enhancing the quality of life of all children in the country.

Conclusion:

Children have the potential to transform the country, but if neglected, they will exacerbate the burden of poverty and inequality. It is imperative that all stakeholders prioritise and invest in the well-being of our children


Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment. . Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.

4) Discuss the key features of e-commerce presently witnessed in India, in what way do you think e-commerce 2.0 could significantly expand India’s online market and make it truly inclusive?(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question:

The article captures a discussion on e-commerce 2.0 and its significance.

Key demand of the question:

One must discuss in detail the coming of more and more people in terms of mobile usage and in what way it could significantly impact India’s online market and make it inclusive.

Directive:

 DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief state facts to justify the rising online presence of the people online.

Body:

Explain that by 2022, half a billion Indians are expected to come online through their mobile phones, a population we refer to as India’s Next Half Billion (NHB). Their internet journey starts with them gaining internet access, then moving forward step by step to eventually making commercial transactions online.

Briefly discuss the coming of e-commerce in the country, differentiate how e-commerce 1.0 is different from the upcoming e-commerce 2.0.

Discuss the role played by it in expanding the Indian online markets.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance.

Introduction:

Electronic commerce (e-commerce) is burgeoning as a means to doing business at a very rapid rate and is also showing every sign of continuing to expand. The rise of this new medium is attracting increasing attention by both private and public sector in order to remain upgraded and competitive so as to give 100 per cent services to their customers efficiently and effectively. India’s new e-commerce policy came into effect on February 1, 2019.

Body:

Current e-Commerce scenario in India:

  • The existing customer base of e-commerce 1.0 is relatively small about 40-50 million.
  • Existing e-commerce platforms are better suited to sell structured and branded products (mostly electronics like mobile phones, televisions and air-conditioners).
  • They mainly appeal to relatively sophisticated shoppers, for whom convenience and selection are important.
  • Their English-first approach and user interfaces are constraints for the Next half billion segment.
  • Moreover, the format does not enable an important mechanism for building trust, such as information on what others are doing on the platform.
  • For sellers too, e-commerce is designed to cater to larger, organized players, whereas most sellers in India, even online, are small.
  • Overall, online shopping is at present more about price discovery than product discovery.
  • E-commerce has made important strides, but its penetration is still low in India.

e-Commerce 2.0 and its potential:

  • E-commerce 2.0 will expand the market beyond the e-commerce 1.0.
  • However, the new version will look, feel, and operate differently from the first wave of online shopping.
  • It is expected by 2022, half a billion Indians are expected to come online through their mobile phones, a population we refer to as India’s Next Half Billion (NHB).
  • The NHB differs considerably from the initial waves of internet users. They have very different income profiles, education levels, language skills, and social/cultural milieus.
  • In the last 18-24 months, there has been considerable progress in addressing various barriers they face in their internet journey, due to efforts by entrepreneurs and various government initiatives.
  • Consequently, the NHB is now at an inflexion point for online shopping.

Vision of e-Commerce 2.0:

  • Value consciousness: E-commerce 2.0 will be dominated by smaller, unbranded items catering to value-conscious buyers.
  • Trust and confidence: this is best built by social validation. To achieve this, e-commerce 2.0 players will leverage social communities and influencers on WhatsApp, Facebook, Instagram, and YouTube.
  • Resonance with the NHB context: Products will be “pushed” to users instead of being discovered through search. This replicates the NHB’s offline shopping experience of being actively assisted and served by shop assistants on retail premises.
  • The second wave of e-commerce could change the way Indians shop online, which will evolve from being a hobby to a habit.
  • A significant rise in women shoppers in smaller cities is expected.
  • Most importantly, e-commerce 2.0 could significantly expand India’s online market and make it truly inclusive.

Enablers of e-Commerce 2.0:

  • Affordable data to access the various e-Commerce websites and portals.
  • Frugal innovation is helpful as well, with low-cost digital payment infrastructure as the prime example.
  • Leveraging the communities on social media will help generate trust and confidence in the internet.
  • Relatable language and creating inclusive user experiences such as mobile number-based log-ins, apart from simple navigation and purchase recommendations.
  • Vernacular platforms and videos have recently emerged as the dominant mode of content consumption

Conclusion:

e-commerce 2.0 will differ from its earlier version in many ways. It will be intent and “impulse-driven”, rather than being only intent-driven; make product discovery easier by offering a curated selection instead of a wide selection; focus on smaller and unbranded items instead of larger, branded ones; prioritize value over convenience; leverage influencers and social media; offer bulk-buying for better pricing; use Hinglish and Indic languages with a user interface built for India, and use the viral nature of content and social media platforms to drive customer acquisition.


Topic: Probity in Governance: Concept of public service; Philosophical basis of governance and probity; Information sharing and transparency in government, Right to Information, Codes of Ethics, Codes of Conduct, Citizen’s Charters, Work culture, Quality of service delivery, Utilization of public funds, challenges of corruption.

5) Explain any four generally accepted probity principles that serve to maintain the integrity of the process.(250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon publications

Why this question:

The question aims to discuss the probity principles that serve to maintain the integrity of the process.

Key demand of the question:

One must discuss in detail any four principles of probity.

Directive:

 Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Define what is probity.

Body:

Explain that Probity is the evidence of ethical behaviour in a particular process. The term probity means integrity, uprightness and honesty. For Government employees and agencies, maintaining probity involves more than simply avoiding corrupt or dishonest conduct. It involves applying public sector values such as impartiality, accountability and transparency.

Explain principles – 

Accountability: It is the obligation to be able to explain or account for the way

duties have been performed. Government should have appropriate

mechanisms in place to show that they are accountable for their practices and

decisions.

Transparency: It is important that the process is transparent to the maximum

extent possible so that all stakeholders can have confidence in the outcomes.

Transparent, open processes also minimize the opportunity for, and the risk

of, fraud and corruption.

Confidentiality: As a condition of employment, all public servants are under a

general obligation of confidentiality to their employer. All Government

advisors, members and any other third party that is privy to commercially sensitive information must provide a formal undertaking to Government that

they will keep this information confidential.

Management of Conflicts of Interest: A conflict of interest arises where an

individual associated with the process is, through their particular associations

or circumstances, influenced, or perceived to be influenced, to obtain an

unfair advantage for him or herself or another party.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance of probity in general.

Introduction:

Probity is “the quality or condition of having strong moral principles, integrity, good character, honesty, decency”. It is the act of adhering to the highest principles and ideals rather than avoiding corrupt or dishonest conduct. It balances service to the community against the self-interest of individuals.

Body:

Probity principles:

Accountability is taking ownership for outcomes (successes or failures) while addressing performance issues fairly and promptly. The ability of citizens to demand accountability and more open government is fundamental to good governance.

Accountability involves three key concepts: 

  • Transparency: citizens have access to information about commitments that the state has made and whether it has met them.  Example: Right to Information Act.
  • Answerability: citizens  are  able  to  demand  that  the  state  justifies  its 
  • Enforceability: citizens  are  able  to  sanction  the  state  if  it  fails  to  meet  certain standards.

Managing the Conflict of Interest: A “conflict  of  interest”  involves  a  conflict  between  the  public  duty  and  private  interests  of  a  public  official,  in  which  the  public  official  has  private-capacity  interests which could improperly influence the performance of their official duties and responsibilities. Handling the conflict of interest involves the following:

  • Transparency
    • Declaring one’s conflict of interest to the concerned authorities is the best way.
    • It helps civil servant to come clean and concerned authorities can decide further.
  • Assure integrity
    • The concerned authority should be assured of integrity and willingness to serve no matter what the decision is made on the declaration.
  • Maintain objectivity
    • If given the chance to continue working on that case, work with objectivity.

Conclusion:

According to Second Administrative Reforms Commission, apart from the traditional civil service values of efficiency, integrity, accountability and patriotism, it is necessary for civil servants to inculcate and adopt ethical and moral values including probity in public life, respect for human rights and compassion for the downtrodden and commitment to their welfare.

Probity in governance is the antithesis of corruption in public life. Probity is emphasised by the UN Convention against corruption. Probity is the evidence of ethical behaviour in a particular process. For Government employees and agencies, maintaining probity involves more than simply avoiding corrupt or dishonest conduct. It involves applying public sector values such as impartiality, accountability and transparency.


Topic: Probity in Governance: Concept of public service; Philosophical basis of governance and probity; Information sharing and transparency in government, Right to Information, Codes of Ethics, Codes of Conduct, Citizen’s Charters, Work culture, Quality of service delivery, Utilization of public funds, challenges of corruption.

7) What are professional codes of ethics? Discuss the relevance of it in public services. (250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon publications

 

Why this question:

The question is based on the theme of professional code of ethics and its relevance to public services.

Key demand of the question:

One must discuss in detail the significance of professional code of ethics.

Directive:

 DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief explain what are ethics.

Body:

code of ethics and professional conduct outlines the ethical principles that govern decisions and behavior at a company or organization. 

They give general outlines of how employees should behave, as well as specific guidance for handling issues like harassment, safety, and conflicts of interest.

Use suitable examples and justify in what way ethics are significant to the professional aspects even in civil services for that matter.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance of holding onto professional ethics.

Introduction:

Professional Code of ethics is a written set of rules issued by an organization to its workforces and management to help them conduct their actions in accordance with its primary values and ethical standards based on the nature of job or profession.

Body:

Relevance of Code of ethics:

  • Code of ethics defines the minimum requirements for conduct, and behavioural expectations instead of specific activities.
  • Example: if an organization is committed to protecting the environment and “being green”, the Code of Ethics will state that there is an expectation for any employee faced with a problem, to choose the most “green” solution.
  • When faced with ethical dilemmas or debatable situations, what’s articulated in the Code of Ethics can help guide decision making.
  • Sets benchmark for appropriate behaviour. Provides a framework for reference in case discretionary powers are to be used.
  • Code of Ethics regulates the judgment of the organisation and is publicly available.
  • The relevance is more in present society where values and ethics are on decline either seemingly because of greater awareness or in reality
  • Code of ethics acts as a moral compass during decision making.
  • Huge Prevalence of corruption and Lack of probity in public life can be reduced.
  • Officials taking prejudiced decisions or favouring a ideology while discharging official duties will affect the socio-economic justice as envisaged by our Constitution.
  • It increases the accountability and transparency of the officers and politicians in their work.
  • Helps to curb the politician- bureaucrat nexus which leads to favouritism, crony-capitalism, conflicts of interest.

Way forward:

  • The 2nd Administrative Reforms Commission (ARC) had proposed the inclusion of a Public Service Code in the draft Public Service Bill, 2007.
  • The commission outlines the desirable qualities that make the civil services efficient. They include impartiality, integrity, dedication to public service, political neutrality, adherence to the highest standards of probity, objectivity, empathy for the weaker section of the public.
  • It highlighted that efforts made by individuals in leadership positions in organization to inculcate these values in within the organization can make a difference.
  • The Public Service code would facilitate the employees to discharge their official duties with competence and accountability, care and diligence, honesty , without discrimination and in accordance with law
  • The statutory backing through Civil Services bill to the Code of Ethics would guide the civil servants towards behaviours, choices and actions that benefit the community.

Conclusion:

In a democracy, all persons holding authority derive it from the people. All public functionaries are trustees of the people. Thus, a code of ethics must be present, however the legal enforcement is a topic which must be well deliberated before implementation.