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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 26 AUGUST 2019


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 26 AUGUST 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic:Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

1) Albeit migrants add significantly to the economy, they are always seen as a burden or unfavourable by the recipient regions. Critically analyse.  (250 words)

The hindu

Why this question:

The question is to evaluate the issue of migrants and their contributions to the Indian economy.

Key demand of the question:

One must discuss in detail the effects migrants have on the Indian economy and in what way they are often seen in negative sense.

Directive:

Critically analyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In short explain the concept of migration, provide facts for Indian scenario.

Body:

Have the following aspects covered:

Define migration – Migration is movement of people from one geographical area to another geographical area.  Factors like economic interests, unfavorable climate, political instability or war may prompt people to migrate.

Bring out the economic benefits of migration.

Describe the reasons why migration is not seen favorably by recipient states and cities.

Discuss with case studies if possible to substantiate better.

Conclusion:

Conclude with solutions as to what needs to be done to harness the potential that the migrants bring.

Introduction:

Migration is defined as the movement of people from one place to another across the political boundaries- national (internal) or international. It is an integral part and an important factor in redistributing the population over time and space. Migrants who move within the boundaries of their own country are known as internal migrants.

Body:

Positive impacts of migrants:

  • Labour mobility has a positive effect on the economy because they are engaged in the construction industry, domestic work, textiles, mines and quarries, agriculture, food processing and the hotel and restaurant business.
  • The rising contribution of cities to India’s GDP would not be possible without migration and migrant workers.
  • Migrants also take their skills and knowledge back with them, generally called ‘social remittances’.
  • The backbone of the Green Revolution in Punjab was actually migrant labour.
  • With rising incomes, migrant remittances also encourage investment in human capital formation.
  • Migration may provide an opportunity to escape caste divisions and restrictive social norms.
  • Migrants may return with renewed social attitudes and act as a channel of knowledge.
  • Migration and inter-cultural dialogue between populations bring in new ideas, energy, and diversity to urban spaces.

Negative impacts of Migration:

  • Internal migration has created a demographic divide among states.
  • Unplanned migration and urbanisation can also create serious development challenges.
  • The problem is multiplied in cases where there is a high level of segregation between the migrants and the host community.
  • There are examples where conflicts between the two have turned violent.
  • The host states are increasingly under pressure to keep up with the needs of the incoming migrants.
  • The source states suffer from outflow of human capital.
  • People’s ration cards are invalid in their destinations of work.
  • So a migrant family will lose out on their rations in their new homes and purchase food in the open market.
  • This significantly increases their cost of living and reduces the additional earnings they might hope to remit to their families.
  • A migrant’s family may also lose out on schooling and health.
  • Many smart city proposals identify slums as a “threat” to the city in their “SWOT” (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats) analysis while totally failing to account for migrant labour in the schemes.
  • Women migrants are victims of gender-based violence, physical, sexual, or psychological abuse, exploitation, and trafficking.

Way forward:   

  • A national policy on migration should facilitate the integration of migrants into the local urban fabric, and building city plans with a regular migration forecast assumed.
  • Lowering the cost of migration, along with eliminating discrimination against migrants, while protecting their rights will help raise development across the board.
  • It should distinguish between the interventions aimed at ‘migrants for survival’ and ‘migrants for employment’.
  • It should provide more space to local bodies and NGOs which bring about structural changes in local regions.
  • It should focus on measures enhancing skill development would enable easier entry into the labour market.
  • It should also distinguish between individual and household migrants, because household migration necessitates access to infrastructure such as housing, sanitation and health care more than individual migration does.
  • The policy should improve financial infrastructure to enable the smooth flow of remittances and their effective use require more attention from India’s growing financial sector.

Conclusion:

India must safeguard the rights of internal migrants. Continued dynamic interventions over long periods of time would yield better results compared to single-point static interventions. The need of the hour is for the government to consider the needs of this section of the economy and design special assistance for them.


Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

2) Quality of teachers play a pivotal role in minimising the dropout rates in the schools. Suggest measures to reform the teacher education system in the country.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question:

The question intends to examine the role played by teachers in curtailing the drop out rates in the schools of the country.

Key demand of the question:

One must discuss the importance of teachers, their quality and impact on controlling the dropout rates.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In short provide for some related facts that signify the link between quality of teachers and the respective effect in the dropout rates in schools.

Body:

Explain that quality of teachers is an essential foundation of a good education system.

Discuss the significance of teacher training – The best route for teachers to go from local to global, especially in pre-service training phase, is to enroll in skill development programmes such as global best practices, research, international curriculum, and performance measurements. They also need to acquire bi-lingual proficiency, especially in a foreign language. The government needs to introduce tests such as the CAT, harmonized across the country at national and state levels, as well as familiarize teachers with international cultures and cultural sensitivities training.

Relate with recent policies in direction and examples of arrest in dropout rates associated with increase in quality of teachers.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

“One child, one teacher, one book, one pen can change the world” – Malala Yousafzai. Quality education plays an important role in one’s life which helps him/her to be socially acceptable, increase in job opportunities, economically sound etc so role of educators is of immense importance in providing quality education.

Body:

Reasons behind poor quality of teachers:

  • Current teachers training in India is unable to cover tough spots and follows a ‘one-size-fits-all’ approach
  • Increased workload on the teachers (Mid day meal, election duty etc.) and not following standard Teacher student ratio (1:30).
  • Absence of proper monitoring system for evaluating the performance of the teachers and no proper feedback providing system.
  • Results of TET shows dismal figures of only 3-4 percent of them passing the eligibility test.
  • Around 20 percent of regular teachers and 40 percent of contact teachersdid not have professional qualifications for elementary education. (NCTE study).
  • Increase in the culture of the private coaching classes and involvement of teachers there.
  • Appointment of Ad-hoc teachers because of the lack to adequate number of qualified and properly trained teachers
  • Wide spread corruption at various levels in teaching (management level, Internal politics etc.)
  • National Council of Educational Research and Trainingstudy finds there is no systematic incorporation of teacher feedback into designing trainings, and little variation or consideration of local issues. There is no measure of whether this is translated into classroom practice.
  • Nearly half the teachersbelieve that not all children could achieve excellent educational outcomes because of their socioeconomic backgrounds.
  • Only 25% incorporate activity-based learningand 33% use storytelling or role-play in their pedagogic approach, either because these weren’t priorities or because they did not have time.

Government Initiative so far:

  • The Ministry of Human Resource Development (HRD) launched the National Initiative for School Heads’ and Teachers’ Holistic Advancements (NISHTHA) recently, aimed at training over 42 lakh teachers across the country.
  • The ministry of human resource development and the National Council for Teacher Education in collaboration with non-government stakeholders launched the National Teacher Platform or Diksha in 2017.
  • Diksha is envisioned as a one-stop solution to address teacher competency gaps through courses that address their skill gaps and by empowering them to “learn what they want, where they want”.
  • State initiatives like RISE (Rajasthan Interface for School Educators), Rajasthan’s version of Diksha.
  • National Council for Teacher Educationplans and co-ordinates the development of teacher education system throughout the country.
  • Justice Verma Commission and Poonam Batra Committeewas appointed to look into teacher education. Their recommendations were based on creating new teacher education programmed in multi disciplinary environments.

Way forward:

  • The World Development Report On Education (2018)states that “teacher skills and motivation both matter” and that individually-targeted, continued training is crucial to achieving learning improvements through teachers.
  • Better incentives for teachers:Post training, there should be no differences in the salary of teachers, public or private. This will attract the best young minds towards this profession and will help it regain lost ground.
  • Investments in teacher capacity through stronger training programmes. Teachers need to unlearn and relearn the subjectsand the way it should be taught. There is no point in teaching and employing rote learning, for just passing the examination.
  • Teacher training programmes should be complemented by focus-group discussions with local NGOs and community-based organizations.
  • The teacher training models should have the ability to provide continuous professional development through a blended modelcomplementing existing physical trainings.
  • technology-enabled platformwhich allows training to become a continuous activity rather than an annual event is necessary.
  • Apart from creating good content, it is also important to consider teachers’ technology consumption patterns, the potential of gamification to drive up engagementand the role of headmasters in promoting teachers’ professional development.

Conclusion:

Economist Eric Hanushek finds that a child taught by a good teacher gains 1.5 grade-level equivalents, while a child taught by a bad teacher only gets half an academic year’s worth. Teacher Education is a crucial area which urgently needs focus in order to develop the standards of pedagogy in India.


Topic: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests

3) In an undefined world order, India and France are natural partners in building the new coalitions. elucidate.(250 words)

Economictimes

Why this question:

The question is about evaluating India and France bilateral relations.

Key demand of the question:

One must explain in detail how in a more uncertain world order, India and France are natural partners in building the new coalitions.

Directive:

ElucidateGive a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In short explain the current context of the question.

Body:

In brief first explain the historical relations that India and France have been sharing.

Discuss that India and France recognize the urgency of constructing coalitions that can provide a measure of stability in an increasingly unstable world. France, which had sought strategic autonomy within the framework of its alliance with the US, and India, which has valued independent foreign policy, are natural partners in building the new coalitions for an uncertain era. 

Discuss the ties between the two countries on various fronts.

Explain the effect of other factors that have a potential of affecting India-France relations and in what way the two countries have still been in friendly relations with each other. 

Conclusion:

Conclude with way ahead.

Introduction:

The recent visit of Indian PM to France reflects the strong strategic partnership which the two countries deeply value and share. India and France have excellent bilateral ties, which are reinforced by a shared vision to cooperate for further enhancing peace and prosperity for the two countries and the world at large. The strong strategic and economic partnership is complemented by a shared perspective on major global concerns such as terrorism, climate change, etc.

Body:

India –France relations in the past:

  • For nearly four decades, successive French presidents — Francois Mitter and in the 1980s, Jacques Chirac from the mid-1990s to the mid-2000s and Nicolas Sarkozy after that — made repeated efforts to elevate the engagement with India to a higher level.
  • If Paris was an eager suitor, Delhi was distracted by the preoccupied relations with other major powers — US, Russia and China
  • Delhi could hardly appreciate the pivotal value of France, and more broadly that of Europe, in transforming India’s international position.
  • However, this trend has begun to change as Prime Minister Narendra Modi paid greater strategic attention to France and Europe in the first term.

Significance of India-France relations today:

  • The relative harmony between the major powers witnessed after the Cold War is now becoming a distant memory.
  • The growing tensions between the US on the one hand, and China and Russia on the other seems to make wider ramifications.
  • Meanwhile, due to Trump administration’s disruptive moves, the cracks in the political West are widening.
  • In this wider context of the slow breakdown of the post-War order, India and France could make coalitions that can provide a measure of stability.

India-France: Natural partners:

  • Enhancing bilateral cooperation in strategic sectors:
    • France has always been an important partner in the development of advanced technologies.
    • This is set to advance further with the consolidation of civil nuclear cooperation and enhancing space cooperation.
    • The summit this week saw the placing of artificial intelligence and the unfolding digital revolution at the top of the bilateral agenda.
  • Defence:
    • The new commitment to go beyond the buyer-seller relationship in the field of weapons procurement.
    • Synergies between India’s large defence market and the French strengths in armament production
    • The signing of Agreement regarding the Provision of Reciprocal Logistics Support
    • Political cooperation began with French support for India in limiting international sanctions on Delhi after its 1998 nuclear tests.
    • Today, France has emerged as India’s most reliable partner on issues relating to terrorism and Kashmir.
  • Regional Cooperation:
    • To intensify maritime and naval cooperation in the Indian Ocean and more broadly the Indo-Pacific.
    • There is a sweeping and ambitious ocean agenda awaiting the two countries — from maritime governance to oceanographic research and from interoperability between their armed forces to capacity building in the littoral.
  • Bilateral trade and Economic relations:
    • The India-France Administrative Economic and Trade Committee (AETC) provides an appropriate framework to assess and find ways to further promote bilateral trade and investment as well as to speed up the resolution of market access issues to the benefit of economic operators
  • Global agendas:
    • Climate change, biodiversity, renewable energy, terrorism, Cybersecurity and digital technology, etc:
    • There have been joint efforts to limit climate change and develop the Solar Alliance
    • Both countries have agreed on a road map on Cybersecurity and digital technology.

Way forward:

  • France also opens the pathway for deeper engagement with Europe on global issues.
  • Since independence, India has experimented with different institutions including the NAM and BRICS to shape global norms.
  • The new partnerships with France, Germany and other like-minded countries like Japan would hopefully be significant for India’s influence on the global stage.

Topic:  Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

4) What is Development Finance Institution? In what way is it different from commercial banks? Discuss the need for India to have DFIs to Fund Infrastructure.(250 words) 

The hindu

Why this question:

Recently The government has proposed to set up a development financial institution (DFI) to solve the infrastructure financing needs of the country.

Key demand of the question:

The question is straightforward and is about discussing the significance of development financial institution (DFI) and how it is different from commercial banks and its relevance in infrastructure funding.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In short explain DFI.

Body:

Explain what is DFU, what are the advantages of having DFI.

Discuss in what way they are different from commercial banks.

Then move onto discuss why India needs DFIs to Fund Infrastructure? 

Conclusion:

Conclude with the significance of DFI for Indian infrastructure sector.

Introduction:

A Development Financial institution (DFI) is defined as “an institution endorsed or supported by Government of India primarily to provide development/Project finance to one or more sectors or sub-sectors of the economy.  The first DFI was the Industrial Financial Corporation of India (IFC) that was launched in 1948. IDBI, UTI, NABARD, EXIM Bank, SIDBI, NHB, IIFCL etc are the other major DFIs.

Body:

The government has proposed to set up a development financial institution (DFI) to solve the infrastructure financing needs of the country.

DFI vis-à-vis banks:

  • The institution differentiates itself by a thoughtful balance between commercial norms  of  operation,  as  adopted  by  any  financial  institution  like  commercial  bank  and  developmental 
  • It emphasizes  the long term financing of a project rather than collateral based financing apart  from  provision  of  long-term  loans,  equity  capital,  guarantees  and  underwriting functions, a development institution normally is also expected to upgrade the managerial and the other operational requirements of the assisted   
  • Its association  with  its  clients  is  of  an  on-going  nature  and of being a companion in the project than that of a plain lender like banks.
  • The basic stress of a DFI is on long-term finance and support for activities to the sectors of the economy where the risks may be higher that may not be feasible for commercial banks to finance them.
  • Role of DFIs is not just long term financing but more of development of significant sectors of our economy for hastening growth.

DFI and Infrastructure Funding:

  • To boost economic growth which would increase capital flows and energise capital markets.
  • To improve long term finances.
  • To provide credit enhancement for infrastructure and housing projects
  • As India does not have a development bank, DFI would fulfil the need for us to have an institutional mechanism.
  • Debt flow towards infrastructure projects would be improved.

Conclusion:

The RBI had also specified in 2017 that specialised banks could cater to the wholesale and long-term financing needs of the growing economy and possibly fill the gap in long-term financing. Thus, it would be wise to revive the concept of DFI if the government wishes to keep societal, cultural, regional, rural and environmental concerns intact.


Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

5) Beyond health costs, air pollution can also hurt the economy in other ways. Elucidate in the backdrop of alarming air pollution issue in the country.(250 words)

Livemint

 

Why this question:

The article provides for a detailed coverage of the ongoing air pollution crisis the country is witnessing.

Key demand of the question:

One must elaborate as to how the problem of pollution no more is only about the health but is also about the cost it bears on the economy in multiple other ways.

Directive:

ElucidateGive a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In short define air pollution, explain with facts how it affects in multiple fronts.

Body:

Explain that Beyond health costs, air pollution can also hurt the economy in other ways. In a 2018 study, Jamie Hansen-Lewis of Brown University finds that air pollution hurts productivity in India’s labor-intensive industries. 

It estimates that bringing the country’s air to global standards would lead to a small increase in profits of 0.3% across manufacturing companies with more pronounced effects in labor-intensive firms.

 Similarly, pollution is also hurting agriculture by stifling crop productivity. One 2014 study estimated that air pollutants were responsible for 19% of the loss in yields in wheat production in India in 2010.

Discuss that air pollution is also linked inextricably to climate change. Some of the same particles that clog up the lungs can clog up the atmosphere and contribute to the changing weather patterns.

Suggest solutions to tackle the problems. 

Conclusion:

Conclude that India’s air pollution policy needs to be more systematic and solutions need to be put in place with a multi-pronged approach.

Introduction:

According to WHO, of the 20 most polluted cities in the world, the top 14 are Indian cities. The problem of air pollution disrupts not only the NCR area but many other prominent urban areas like Allahabad and Ludhiana which figure above Delhi in the pollution ranking across the world. In India, air pollution is the third highest cause of death among all health risks, ranking just above smoking.

Body:

Impact of air pollution on the economy:

  • Beyond health costs, air pollution can also hurt the economy in other ways.
  • According to a report by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), India had the highest share of welfare costs (or a loss of income from labour), of about $220 billion (about ₹1.4 trillion), in South and South-East Asia of a combined total of $380 billion from mortality due to air pollution.
  • In addition to human lives lost, there’s an estimated global cost of $225 billion in lost labour, and trillions in medical costs, Greenpeace report says.
  • Government is keen to ascend the World Bank’s “ease of doing business” chart, but images of people walking around Delhi in safety masks do little to attract investment.
  • In a 2018 study, Jamie Hansen-Lewis of Brown University finds that air pollution hurts productivity in India’s labour-intensive industries.
  • She estimates that bringing the country’s air to global standards would lead to a small increase in profits of 0.3% across manufacturing companies with more pronounced effects in labour-intensive firms. Similarly, pollution is also hurting agriculture by stifling crop productivity.
  • A 2014 study estimated that air pollutants were responsible for 19% of the loss in yields in wheat production in India in 2010.

Government efforts in dealing with air pollution:

  • The government acknowledged air pollution as a pan–India problem with the drafting of the National Clean Air Programme (NCAP), which was intended to build and strengthen the institutional capacity to monitor air quality across India, carry out indigenous studies to understand the health impacts of air pollution and create a national emission inventory.
  • Banning the use of private vehicles from November 1 onwards in Delhi, although drastic, will definitely not be enough to curb pollution.
  • Odd-even schemes and, recently, the allowance by the Supreme Court (SC) for only green or zero-emission firecrackers, are the episodic measures that have been used, and still continue to be, to combat this methodical pollution.
  • There have also been instances of ban on construction activities.
  • States have got nearly Rs.650 crore to help farmers buy subsidised equipment such as Happy Seeder, Paddy Straw Choppers and Zero Till Drill.
  • There is a 50% subsidy to farmers, and a 75% waiver to cooperative societies, agencies that rent out equipment, farmers’ interest groups or gram panchayats to buy such machines.

Way forward:

  • Short term measures should be accompanied by measures that increase the forest cover of the land and provide farmers with an alternative to burning the remains of their crops.
  • An innovative approach could be to use climate change funds to turn farm residues into a resource, using technological options such as converting them into biofuels and biofertilizers.
  • Proactive engagements are necessary to persuade and reassure farmers.
  • It is important to find other uses for stubble such as biomass, which may encourage farmers to look for alternative sources of income.
  • India should at least now give high importance to the WHO warning about air pollution being the new tobacco. Sharply escalated, deterrent parking fees can be implemented.
  • From an urban development perspective, large cities should reorient their investments to prioritise public transport, favouring electric mobility.
  • Incentives for adoption of alternate mobility technologies should be promoted.
  • The World Bank has said it is keen to enhance its lending portfolio to tackle air pollution, opening a new avenue for this.
  • Governments should make the use of personal vehicles in cities less attractive through strict road pricing mechanisms like Congestion tax, Green-house Gas tax
  • Need to speed up the journey towards LPG and solar-powered stoves.
  • Addressing vehicular emissions is within India’s grasp but requires a multi-pronged approach. It needs to combine the already-proposed tighter emission norms (in form of BS VI), with a push for shared mobility and public transport and adoption of alternate mobility technologies.
  • NCAP should take precedence from emerging practices in the country—pollution cess in Delhi on truck entry, big diesel cars, and diesel fuel sales and the coal cess—to generate dedicated funds to finance clean air action plan.
  • Tackle road dust by mechanised sweeping and water-sprinkling but what would be more beneficial is if the sides of the roads could be paved or covered with grass that holds the soil together and stops the production of the dust in the first place.
  • Attention to non-technological aspects such as urban planning, to reduce driving, and to increase cycling, walking, and use of public transport are needed.

Topic: Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.

6) What is meant by Voice conscience? How do you prepare yourself to heed to the voice of conscience? Discuss.(250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon publications

Why this question:

The question is straightforward and based on the concept of voice of conscience.

Key demand of the question:

Explain in detail the concept and its relevance in one’s ethical conduct.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Define what you understand by voice of conscience.

Body:

Voice of conscience corresponds to an inner voice that judges your behavior. Explain Voice of conscience is the source of ethical decision making for many.

Discuss in what way you can prepare yourself to heed to the voice of conscience?

Pause and think about the dimensions of issue.

Practice the power of silence.

Meditation and prayer.

Free yourself from external influences and selfish interests.

Conclusion:

Conclude by suggesting importance of voice of conscience.

Introduction:

Conscience is inner moral sense of a person which guides him/her to regulate his behaviour. It is a cognitive process that elicits emotion and rational associations based on an individual’s moral philosophy or value system.  Often Conscience is related to religious text and supreme command to be followed by one’s inner self. Conscience comes to play when a person is in moral dilemma and need deep assessment of scenario and his behaviour.

Body:

Voice of conscience:

It corresponds to an inner voice that judges your behaviour. Voice of conscience is the source of ethical decision making for many.

A person can prepare himself/herself to heed to the voice of conscience by

  • Pausing and thinking about the dimensions of issue.
  • Practicing the power of silence.
  • Meditating and prayer.
  • Free yourself from external influences and selfish interests.

Crisis of conscience:

  • It is a situation in which it is very difficult to decide what is the right thing to do.
  • The term is also used when someone is worrying because they think that they have done something unfair or morally wrong.
  • It is a case of ethical dilemma, but often in a more strong sense.
  • When there is a crisis of conscience, the individual fear that his action may be against the voice of conscience and hence ethically wrong.

Conclusion:

To quote Gandhiji, “There is a higher court than courts of justice and that is the court of conscience. It supersedes all other courts.” Thus, the voice of conscience guides a person in treading the moral highway. Conscience is a concept in national and international law, is increasingly conceived of as applying to the world as a whole.


Topic: Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.

7) Critically examine the importance of ethics in International relations and elucidate with suitable illustrations.(250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon publications

 

Why this question:

The question is based on the theme of ethics in international relations.

Key demand of the question:

One must discuss the relevance of ethics in international relations.

Directive:

Critically examineWhen asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

What do you understand by ethics in international relations.

Body:

Explain first that Ethics is the study of the moral code of conduct or the ideal behavior to be sought by the human beings. It provides guidance to the realm of international relations as well.

significance of ethics in the international relations can be understood as:

adherence to the human rights -eg- lack of ethics in the international relation has been the cause of wars & genocide many times in history like the first world war.

accountability – eg- an irresponsible behavior of north Korea has raised the concerns of the whole world.

ethics helps to avoid the “ego clash” & “ideological clash” between two or more nations.

eg- the disruption between india & Pakistan relation can be avoided if both take a decision based on ethics.

ethics aim at “peaceful world”, “respect for all” & “equality” while forming international organizations, declarations & forums. 

ethics of cooperation in the issues like combating law and order problems, with cross-border impacts.

ethics of standing by the countries that are facing insurgencies, and domestic civil wars.

ethics of pitching for a transparent system in the international financial administration.

globalization has rendered borders, useless. increasing trade balance between developed and underdeveloped countries is the cause of concern. mindless exploitation of these countries’ resources cannot be ignored. it requires a more empathetic view from developed nations.

it reduces tensions between countries and avoids war-like situations.

eg: Doklam issue between india & china has been solved through cooperation.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

In today’s borderless world, there are a lot of interactions at various levels (country, professional, personal). The difference in the value systems and diversity makes Ethics in International relations imperative. Ethics provides guidance to the people in their international affairs.

Body:

Importance of ethics in IR:

  • Legitimacy:
    • Ethics does its work in the world by granting and withdrawing legitimacy. History shows that the mitigation and cessation of unjust practices ultimately comes from the assertion of core values.
    • The end of slavery began with various revolutions and rebellions—yet the source of its ultimate demise was its loss of moral legitimacy.
    • Communism, for the most part, ended in similar fashion. The Soviet Union collapsed when the values that held it together were no longer credible and sustainable. Its legitimacy evaporated.
  • Rights and Responsibilities:
    • Rights are protections and entitlements in relation to corresponding duties and responsibilities.
    • There have been many attempts at forging general agreement on the composition of human rights—the best known being the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as well as the United Nations Charter, the Geneva Conventions, and additional international agreement such as the Refugee Convention.
  • Pluralism:
    • Ideology presents a significant hurdle. Many political ideologies—”isms” and doctrines that are absolute and universal—result in what Hans Morgenthau called “the crusading spirit.”
    • Absolutes and moral abstractions in politics can be problematic for the ethicist. Ideologies like nationalism, Marxism, communism, religious fundamentalism and even Western liberalism in the wrong hands, have been great simplifiers, prone to excesses of political operators who use them to cloak their political interests in the guise of high-minded moral purpose.
  • Peace and Harmony:
    • Ethics aim at “Peaceful World”, “Respect for All” & “Equality” while forming international organizations, declarations & forums. E.g.: The demand for equality in IMF & UNO shows the demand of adhering to ethics in a way.
  • Solidarity:
    • Natural disasters and refugee crisis situations require a more compassionate view of the global community. These are not isolated events and rather, a duty of every global citizen to help in the times of crisis.
    • g.- Aid during natural disasters (Nepal earthquake)
  • Fairness:
    • Fairness addresses normative standards for appropriate contribution, equal regard and just desert.
    • Contemporary methods for thinking through these standards include John Rawls’s “difference principle,” Amartya Sen’s “capabilities approach,” Peter Singer’s “one world,” and Kwame Anthony Appiah’s “cosmopolitanism” just to name a few.
  • Others:
    • Ethics helps to avoid the “Ego Clash” & “Ideological Clash” between two or more nations.
    • For instance, the disruption between India & Pakistan relation can be avoided if both take a decision based on ethics.

However, there are instances where ethics in IR has gone overboard:

  • The alleged just war cause where a country thinks it’s their moral responsibility to save the world. E.g.: USA and Iraq war.
  • Threat to the Rules based order of the world by sidelining of the Global bodies like UNSC, WTO etc.
  • Increasing Multilateral groupings to satisfy their personal interests.

Conclusion:

Ethics helps to avoid undue wars, conflicts and provide an ecosystem where there is mutual trust, goodwill, and confidence among all the Countries and helps to foster International Relations.