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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 24 AUGUST 2019


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 24 AUGUST 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic:Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health.

1)  Discuss the significance of Oxytocin. What are the challenges associated with it that led to ban on manufacturing of it by the pharmaceuticals in India? Discuss the possible solutions to such concerns.(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question:

 Recently the final decision on whether the government can block private pharmaceutical companies from manufacturing and selling vital pregnancy drug oxytocin in India has been deferred, with the Supreme Court deciding the issue needs further deliberation.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the significance of oxytocin and challenges associated with the manufacturing of the same.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Define oxytocin – Oxytocin has also been dubbed the love hormone and the bliss hormone due to its effects on behavior, including its role in love and in female reproductive biological functions in reproduction.

Body:

Discuss first the issue involved – The Delhi high court had quashed the Centre’s December 14, 2018 notification, which had banned its sale by private manufacturers and retail chemists, saying the sale was allowed. Essentially, this meant that only KAPL could produce the drug as there is no other public sector enterprise doing so. However, Delhi high court quashed the amended order too. The central government moved Supreme Court against the Delhi high court order.

Explain why is oxytocin vital?

What reasons have necessitated the ban?

What needs to be done?

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

Oxytocin is a uterine stimulant hormone, prescribed for the initiation of uterine contractions and induction of labour in women, as well as stimulation of contractions during labour. The health ministry in April 2018 notified a ban on private firms from manufacturing and selling oxytocin, stating that it wanted to restrict the responsibility of supplying the drug to a Karnataka-based public sector manufacturer to avoid its misuse in the veterinary field.

Body:

Significance:

  • Oxytocin is a hormone that is made in the brain, in the hypothalamus. It is transported to, and secreted by, the pituitary gland, which is located at the base of the brain.
  • Oxytocin has also been dubbed the hug hormone, cuddle chemical, moral molecule, and the bliss hormone due to its effects on behavior, including its role in love and in female reproductive biological functions in reproduction.
  • It acts both as a hormone and as a brain neurotransmitter.
  • The release of oxytocin by the pituitary gland acts to regulate two female reproductive functions: Childbirth and Breast-feeding.
  • Oxytocin helps contract the uterus and induce delivery, control bleeding, and promote the release of breast milk (breast engorgement).
  • Its use is especially crucial to prevent new mothers from excessively bleeding after giving birth—a common cause of maternal deaths.
  • According to an India sample registration scheme survey conducted in 2001-2003, postpartum haemorrhage accounted for 38 per cent of maternal deaths.
  • It is also used to help abort the foetus in cases of incomplete abortion or miscarriage, and to control bleeding after childbirth.

Challenges that led to the ban are:

  • Misuse in diary industry: The drug is misused in the dairy industry where livestock is injected with Oxytocin to make them release milk at a time convenient to farmers.
  • This has increased the unlicensed facilities that are manufacturing the drug for veterinary use.
  • There is also a concern that oxytocin led to infertility in dairy animals.
  • It has also been linked to mastitis, a painful inflammation of the udder (mammary gland).
  • Another concern is the exposure of milk consumers to oxytocin drug through dairy products
  • Oxytocin is also used to increase the size of vegetables such as pumpkins, watermelons, eggplants, gourds, and cucumbers.
  • It is also misused on young girls to induce puberty.

However, the ban has also led to problems:

  • The proposed ban on private production raised an alarm on the possible shortfall of Oxytocin supply if only one company was permitted to make this drug.
  • The proposed ban could exacerbate the inflow of illegal versions of the drug makings its way into the Indian market from China and also drive out legitimate companies.

Measures needed:

  • Oxytocin is included as a lifesaving drug in the National List of Essential Medicines (NLEM). Thus, there is a need for strict implementation of the regulations on the uncontrolled sale of Oxytocin.
  • Most of the veterinary use comes from illegal import of oxytocin from neighbouring countries.
  • The misuse could be prevented through strict control in sale and end use of the drug especially prevention through clandestine channels.
  • There is a need for education and awareness among the farmers and cattle-rearers about the controversial but life-saving drug Oxytocin.
  • Oxytocin being of grave importance for maternal health should be made available to the needy mothers easily rather than blanket ban and single company manufacture.

Conclusion:

The Supreme Court bench should look into various aspects like whether the government notification will result in monopoly, if the restriction on its manufacturing be in public interest, whether the government’s decision would achieve the objective and purpose of preventing the unregulated and illegal use of the drug, among others.


Topic:  Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health

2) What is lymphatic filariasis? Examine how it affects the poorest population in the Indian society and suggest what needs to be done to overcome the challenges of the same.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question:

Vector-borne diseases have gained significance in recent years with several States reporting a surge in malaria, dengue, chikungunya, etc., year after year. While there is awareness about these, not many know that lymphatic filariasis is another preventable vector-borne disease that needs to be tackled effectively to meet the Health Ministry’s target of eliminating it in India by 2020. 

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss what is lymphatic filariasis, in what way it affects the poorest the most and what needs to be done to overcome this challenge to achieve health for all goal of 2020.

Directive:

ExamineWhen asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Describe What is lymphatic filariasis?

Body:

The answer must first discuss what is the disease about, its prevalence in the country. Lymphatic filariasis, commonly known as elephantiasis, is a neglected tropical disease.

 Infection occurs when filarial parasites are transmitted to humans through mosquitoes. Infection is usually acquired in childhood causing hidden damage to the lymphatic system. The painful and disfiguring visible manifestations of the disease, lymphoedema, elephantiasis and scrotal swelling (hydrocele) occur later in life and can lead to permanent disability. These patients are not only physically disabled, but suffer mental, social and financial losses contributing to stigma and poverty.

Explain the policies and initiatives that are under progress to tackle the menace.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

Lymphatic filariasis, commonly known as elephantiasis, is a neglected tropical disease. Infection occurs when filarial parasites are transmitted to humans through mosquitoes. Infection is usually acquired in childhood causing hidden damage to the lymphatic system.  Lymphatic filariasis is a preventable vector-borne disease that needs to be tackled effectively to meet the Health Ministry’s target of eliminating it in India by 2020.

Body:

Impact of Lymphatic filariasis on the poor:

  • Over 40% of worldwide cases are found in India. Presently, India has 256 endemic districts across 16 States and five Union Territories including nine endemic districts in Karnataka.
  • According to Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), India still has over 2.3 crore people suffering with lifelong disability due to lymphatic filariasis (LF).
  • The painful and disfiguring visible manifestations of the disease, lymphoedema, elephantiasis and scrotal swelling (hydrocele) occur later in life and can lead to permanent disability.
  • These patients are not only physically disabled, but suffer mental, social and financial losses contributing to stigma and poverty.
  • LF has been a low priority among public health issues in the country and comprises only a minute portion of the overall health budget,
  • There is often no coordination between the various funding and research bodies to prioritise the research agenda and minimise duplication.

Measures needed to overcome the challenges:

  • Although the compliance rate (consumption of drugs) has gone up from 35% to 65% over the years, the need of the hour is to achieve 80%.
  • There is a need for an integrated approach with multi-sectoral involvement in tackling the disease.
  • Tackling the elimination of LF on a war footing, in June 2018, India renewed its commitment towards achieving the global LF elimination goal of 2020 with the launch of Accelerated Plan for Elimination of LF (APELF).
  • Greater emphasis needs to be placed in employing strategies tackling the source of the disease – preventing mosquitoes to human transmission.
  • The triple drug therapy, as recommended by WHO, with the long term aim of eradicating lymphatic filariasis should be implemented.
  • An institutional mechanism at a national level to identify gaps in neglected diseases research, set priorities, liaise with research institutions, or monitor research output is the need of the hour.

Conclusion:

Lymphatic filariasis poses a grave threat to India.  A unified programme on neglected diseases encompassing research and elimination measures is likely to have a greater impact in prioritising the matter in the health agenda and streamlining efforts towards disease elimination. Creating an enabling environment for research and innovation will be crucial if India is to achieve the target set in sustainable development goal 3.3 to end epidemics of neglected tropical diseases by 2030.


Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation. Disaster and disaster management.

3) Big data innovations, viz. large data sets from mobile phone tracking to satellite platforms reveal patterns, trends, and associations of disaster risks. Discuss the importance of Big Data in handling disasters.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question:

The question is based on the context of use of big data innovations in managing disasters in the country.

Key demand of the question:

One must relate the relevance of use of bid data technology and innovations to disaster management.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In short define what are big data innovations.

Body:

Explain that Disasters are dangerous, but Big Data can help improve disaster relief and preparedness to cut back on lives lost and community damage. Over the last two decades, remarkable innovations such as the Internet of things (IoT) have entered the mainstream. While the intensity of natural disasters is increasing, advances in communications because of this technology has greatly reduced casualties and injuries. Big Data technology has proven its merit as a resource for disaster relief and preparedness. It helps emergency responder agencies identify and track populations such as elderly communities or areas with high concentrations of babies and children. 

Additionally, Big Data systems help rescue workers identify support resources and plan logistics during emergencies. Big data also facilitates real-time communication during a disaster, and emergency managers use the technology to forecast how residents will react to crises.

Substantiate your answer by quoting recent examples.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

Disaster management is a systematic process with primary aim to reduce the negative consequences and effect of disasters, hence safeguarding people and social infrastructure. Effective management as well as monitoring of disasters is a global challenge. As the number and access to different datasets is expanding rapidly, the potential and utility of big data is growing for disaster management.

Body:

Importance of Big Data in disaster management:

  • Empower decision-makers to make accurate assessment during a disaster.
  • Big data generated from geo-informatics and remote sensing platforms can contribute to early warning systems for disasters.
  • Integration of different data streams, along with data processing and storage is effective for disaster preparedness.
  • Help in the development of effective strategies and contribute to minimize the potential effects of disasters.
  • Significance of big data analytics to predict occurrences of the floods and for flood management.
  • It will help for timely humanitarian response to different disasters.
  • Using geospatial datasets along with big data paradigm can provide location based services to avoid hazardous situations.
  • It will also benefit in the identification of regions which need the most urgent attention.
  • Enhance disaster recovery by utilizing community information and connecting victims with emergency responders and family.
  • Connecting Missing People with Their Families. E.g.: Facebook mark safe.
  • With big data, safety professionals can better prepare disaster simulations for more accurate implementations.
  • Big Data opens up new career opportunities for those who want to find innovative ways to help others

Limitations:

  • Understanding how to link different datasets with different kinds of disaster
  • The potential of big data technology has not been fully explored for disaster management.
  • Not all big data is public and freely available.
  • Network security threats and vulnerabilities.
  • Challenges related to protection of personal information and privac

Way Forward:

  • Integration of datasets along with providing access to information to agencies managing disasters is crucial to enable effective decision making.
  • It’s important to protect individuals’ identifications and efforts should be put to anonymize the collected datasets.
  • Leverage techniques from artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) to understand, correlate and draw findings from the disaster related data.
  • Analysis from processed disasters information can help to identify the most effective strategies to respond future disasters.
  • Ensure data consistency, accuracy and completeness for decision making processes.
  • Need to investigate data mining challenges as well for disaster management.
  • Security as well as privacy issues in data transmission and storage also need to be under constant investigation.

Conclusion:

Big data has a significant role in all phases of disaster management. Big data from sensor networks, social media, and from other sources are available and shows its usefulness in disaster management already. These big data help policy makers and first responders to come with quick and concrete decision on the number of people affected, type and nature of the damage and where to allocate the resource. Many natural hazard forecasting systems rely on big data. Early warning system for tsunami, storm, forest fire, and flood can be more accurate and reliable from these huge volumes of data. Crowd-sourcing, cyber infrastructure, and cloud computing approach can be used to get required information for emergency management by analysing big data. Machine learning approach and parallel processing approach might save valuable processing time during an emergency. The big data archive can be helpful for model development and validation to ensure more efficient disaster management. Despite having these challenges, research and data gathering on the usefulness of big data in disaster management are ongoing. The disaster managers and policy makers will get more confidence on the usefulness of big data in disaster management.


Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation. . Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

4)  Comment upon state of teachers training and education in India. What according to you are the reasons for poor quality of teachers training? Discuss the recent policy initiatives taken in this direction. (250 words)

The hindubuisnessline

Why this question: 

The Ministry of Human Resource Development (HRD) launched the National Initiative for School Heads’ and Teachers’ Holistic Advancements (NISHTHA) recently, which is aimed at training over 42 lakh teachers across the country.

Demand of the question:

The answer must evaluate in detail the current conditions of teacher training and education in India. One must discuss the reasons for poor quality of teacher training and suggest solutions.

Directive word: 

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

In brief discuss the significance of teachers training and quote some relevant facts.

Body

Discuss the reasons for poor quality of teachers training –

  • For years, certain institutions which impart teacher training courses have failed to get the necessary recognition from the National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE).
  • The future of those who graduate from such institutions, which are funded by the Central/ State government or Union Territory administration concerned, has been in jeopardy.
  • Certain institutions failed to obtain recognition and permission from the Council, though they continued to admit students for teacher education and training courses.
  • Irrelevant licensing and privatization of Teachers Education Institutes leading to low quality training of teachers.
  • Huge number of TEIs being either corrupt or dysfunctional.
  • Increasing number of teachers with substandard training because of lack of faculty in TEIs.

Then explain the importance of teacher training, explain recent initiatives taken in this direction etc.

Conclusion 

Conclude with significance of teacher training.

Introduction:

Teachers play a vital role in educating and inspiring the young generation to become the demographic dividend of the future generation. NGO Pratham’s Annual Status of Education Report shows that India’s persistently low-learning outcomes gain momentum once again. Quality of education is depends upon the quality of teacher. Teachers’ training in India is unable to cover tough spots and follows a ‘one-size-fits-all’ approach.

Body:

Economist Eric Hanushek finds that a child taught by a good teacher gains 1.5 grade-level equivalents, while a child taught by a bad teacher only gets half an academic year’s worth. Teacher Education is a crucial area which urgently needs focus in order to develop the standards of pedagogy in India. It is suffering from many deficiencies and structural issues

  • Majority of aspiring teachers do not have basic concepts of mathematics, leave aside teaching to students.
  • Results of TET shows dismal figures of only 3-4 percent of them passing the eligibility test.
  • Although NCTE lays down the minimum qualification criterion for appointing teachers at various level, but some states have sought relaxation in minimum qualification in recruitment as teachers. This has created a large pool of ‘untrained teachers’. Around 20 percent of regular teachers and 40 percent of contact teachersdid not have professional qualifications for elementary education.
  • Teachers in India, especially those in the government school system, are largely seen as a governance problem, with the focus on getting them into the classroom rather than developing their skills and motivation.
  • Those teachers not meeting the qualification were mandated to get it within five years, but this remains unmet.
  • Widespread corruptionin appointment of teachers as seen in Haryana, Madhya Pradesh and with variation in other states also.
  • National Council of Educational Research and Trainingstudy finds there is no systematic incorporation of teacher feedback into designing trainings, and little variation or consideration of local issues. There is no measure of whether this is translated into classroom practice.
  • Nearly half the teachersbelieve that not all children could achieve excellent educational outcomes because of their socioeconomic backgrounds.
  • Only 25% incorporate activity-based learningand 33% use storytelling or role-play in their pedagogic approach, either because these weren’t priorities or because they did not have time.

Government Initiative so far:

  • The Ministry of Human Resource Development (HRD) launched the National Initiative for School Heads’ and Teachers’ Holistic Advancements (NISHTHA) recently, aimed at training over 42 lakh teachers across the country.
  • The ministry of human resource development and the National Council for Teacher Education in collaboration with non-government stakeholders launched the National Teacher Platform or Diksha in 2017.
  • Diksha is envisioned as a one-stop solution to address teacher competency gaps through courses that address their skill gaps and by empowering them to “learn what they want, where they want”.
  • State initiatives like RISE (Rajasthan Interface for School Educators), Rajasthan’s version of Diksha.
  • National Council for Teacher Educationplans and co-ordinates the development of teacher education system throughout the country.
  • Justice Verma Commission and Poonam Batra Committeewas appointed to look into teacher education. Their recommendations were based on creating new teacher education programmed in multi disciplinary environments.

Way forward:

  • The World Development Report On Education (2018)states that “teacher skills and motivation both matter” and that individually-targeted, continued training is crucial to achieving learning improvements through teachers.
  • Better incentives for teachers:Post training, there should be no differences in the salary of teachers, public or private. This will attract the best young minds towards this profession and will help it regain lost ground.
  • Investments in teacher capacity through stronger training programmes. Teachers need to unlearn and relearn the subjectsand the way it should be taught. There is no point in teaching and employing rote learning, for just passing the examination.
  • Teacher training programmes should be complemented by focus-group discussions with local NGOs and community-based organizations.
  • The teacher training models should have the ability to provide continuous professional development through a blended modelcomplementing existing physical trainings.
  • technology-enabled platformwhich allows training to become a continuous activity rather than an annual event is necessary.
  • Apart from creating good content, it is also important to consider teachers’ technology consumption patterns, the potential of gamification to drive up engagementand the role of headmasters in promoting teachers’ professional development.

Conclusion:

Teachers are important. This importance doesn’t stem from their exalted mythical status, but from their role as professionals and critical levers in defining the quality of education children receive. Thus, Teacher education program forms the back bone of education system of a nation.


Topic: Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc. Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

5) Discuss the significance of Ocean energy as a potential renewable energy in India. (250 words)

The hindubuisnessline

 

Why this question:

The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy has declared Ocean Energy as renewable energy.  Thus, it is important from the point of view of GS paper III to examine the merits of ocean energy and its potential.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must write a short note on ocean energy as a potential renewable energy.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin with brief introduction on ocean energy.

Body:

The question is straightforward and nothing much to deliberate. One must categorically discuss ocean energy as the renewable energy.

Discuss the significance of such an energy – vastness, ease of use etc. Oceans cover more than 70% of Earth’s surface, making them the world’s largest solar collectors. 

The sun’s heat warms the surface water a lot more than the deep ocean water, and this temperature difference creates thermal energy. Just a small portion of the heat trapped in the ocean could power the world.

Ocean energy is currently under-utilized and as on date, India does not have any installed ocean energy capacity. It is mostly exploited through a few technologies including wave, tidal, current energy and ocean thermal energy. 

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

Oceans cover 70 percent of the earth’s surface and represent an enormous amount of energy in the form of wave, tidal, marine current and thermal gradient known as Ocean energy. A variety of different technologies are currently under development throughout the world to harness this energy in all its forms. The government has approved a proposal to declare ocean energy as Renewable Energy.

Body:

Potential of Ocean Energy in India:

  • Total identified potential of Tidal Energy is about 12455 MW, with potential locations identified at Khambat & Kutch regions, and large backwaters, where barrage technology could be used.
  • The total theoretical potential of wave energy in India along the country’s coast is estimated to be about 40,000 MW – these are preliminary estimates. This energy is however less intensive than what is available in more northern and southern latitudes.
  • Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion has a theoretical potential of 180,000 MW in India subject to suitable technological evolution.

Various means of Ocean Energy:

  • Oceans are literally throbbing with energy.
  • There are at least several sources of energy in the seas.
  • One is the bobbing motion of the waters, or ocean swells — you can place a flat surface on the waters, with a mechanical arm attached to it, and it becomes a pump that can be used to drive water or compressed air through a turbine to produce electricity.
  • Another is by tapping into tides, which flow during one part of the day and ebb in another. You can generate electricity by channelling the tide and place a series of turbines in its path.
  • One more way is to keep turbines on the sea bed at places where there is a current — a river within the sea.
  • Yet another way is to get the waves dash against pistons in, say, a pipe, so as to compress air at the other end.
  • Sea water is dense and heavy, when it moves it can punch hard — and, it never stops moving.

Significance of Ocean Energy:

  • The world today needs more energy than it ever required. The growing population along with the growing industries requires more and more sources of energy.
  • They have become inevitable in our daily life. However we also need to take care of the fact that this consumption should not affect much of the ecological balance of the planet.
  • Given fluctuating fuel prices and the impact of global warming, Ocean Energy is now in a very strong position to commercialise the vast body of research and development it has invested in over the past 10 years.
  • The sea is a limitless source of power and is a challenging environment, so in order to exploit wave energy commercially there are a number of key components required.
  • Unlike wind, solar and other ocean energy sources such as wave power, tides and ocean currents are almost 100 percent predictable. The endless flows create reliability of the future energy availability.
  • Moving water is 832 times denser than moving air, which multiplies the kinetic energy by the same factor, making oceans a energy-rich source.
  • In many regions, land is a scarce resource. Therefore, on-shore solutions such as wind and solar compete with other users. Subsea ocean energy technologies are hidden in the depth of the ocean, out of sight and do not compete for land space.
  • However, the deployment is currently limited but the sector has the potential to grow, fuelling economic growth, reduction of carbon footprint and creating jobs not only along the coasts but also inland along its supply chains.

Conclusion:

Ocean energy is renewable energy sector that surely needs more research to satisfy condition of cost-effectiveness which is at this point it biggest flaw. Since oceans cover almost two thirds of earth’s surface, they truly present renewable energy source with extreme potential and one worth of further exploration.


Topic: Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.

6) What is meant by public interest? What are the principles and procedures to be followed by the civil servants in public interest?(250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon publications

Why this question:

The question is straightforward and is about discussing the essence of public interest.

Key demand of the question:

Explain in detail the importance of public interest to a civil servant and discuss the principles and procedures to be followed by the civil servants in public interest.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Explain what public interest in generic terms is.

Body:

Welfare of the general public (in contrast to the selfish interest of a person, group, or firm) in which the whole society has a stake and which warrants recognition, promotion, and protection by the government and its agencies.

Explain in what way the objective of the Ethical Framework for the government sector explicitly recognizes the role of the government sector in preserving the public interest.

Discuss the virtues, rules and principles that civil servants must follow to ensure public interest.

Conclusion:

Conclude by reasserting significance and centrality of public interest to civil services.

Introduction:

Public Interest means the welfare of the general public in which the whole society has a stake and which warrants recognition, promotion, and protection by the government and its agencies. Public Interest is  anything  that  affects  the  rights,  health,  or  finance  of   the  public  at  large.  Public  interest  is a  common  concern  among  citizens  in  the  management  and  affairs  of   local,  state,  and  national  government.

Body:

The  principles  and  procedures  to  be  followed  by  the  civil  servants  in  public  interest  are: 

Principles:

  • Constitutional principles: Civil servants  shall  perform  their  official  duties  in  compliance  with  the  Constitution  and    Civil servants  shall  ensure  equal treatment  of  the  citizens  and  the  legal  entities  when  performing  official duties.
  • Gandhian principle of Sarvodaya: upliftment of the weaker section of the society.
  • Code of ethics: When performing  their  operations,  civil  servants  shall  act  exclusively  in  the  public 
  • Other ethical principles: Selfless service, Openness, Accountability. Civil servants  shall  perform  their  activities  in  the  most  conscientious,  direct,  the  most  efficient,  timely and methodical manner in the interest of  the citizens and the other entities in realizing their rights, duties and 

Procedures:

  • Code of conduct: It has mean values of objectivity, impartiality, non-partisanship etc to be followed. When communicating  with  citizens  and  other  legal  entities,  the  civil  servants  shall  act  in  a  manner  that enables  establishment  of  relations  of  mutual  confidence  and  cooperation  between  these  entities  and  the administration.
  • Laws, Rules, Regulations of the land must be abided by.
  • Procedure laid down by the courts: in case of absence of laws, the rulings of the court to act as a guide.
  • International Conventions like ICCPR, Child labour conventions etc. should be followed.

Conclusion:

Civil servants must be trained to work in public interest because fulfilment of public interest is the obligation of the government under the ‘Social Contract’.