Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.
China’s One Country Two Systems policy
What to study?
For prelims: Geographical and political position of Hong Kong.
For mains: The recent controversy over the extradition bill, concerns expressed, key features of the bill and what needs to be done?
Context: Protests in Hong Kong, now in its 13th consecutive week, have brought a decades-old policy of the People’s Republic of China back into focus — One Country Two Systems.
The protesters say Beijing is trying to violate this policy by infringing on Hong Kong’s autonomy.
What’s this One Country Two Systems approach?
As per the policy, the Hong Kong and Macau Special Administrative Regions, both former colonies, can have different economic and political systems from that of mainland China, while being part of the People’s Republic of China.
It was proposed by Deng Xiaoping with an aim to unify China and Taiwan.
On December 19, 1984, China and the U.K. signed the Sino-British Joint Declaration in Beijing, which set the terms for the autonomy and the legal, economic and governmental systems for Hong Kong post 1997.
Similarly, on March 26, 1987, China and Portugal signed the Joint Declaration on the Question of Macau in which China made similar promises for the region of Macau after it was handed over to Beijing.
Hong Kong returned to Chinese control on July 1, 1997, and Macau’s sovereignty was transferred on December 20, 1999.
Both regions became Special Administrative Regions of China. The regions would have their own currencies, economic and legal systems, but defence and diplomacy would be decided by Beijing.
Their mini-Constitutions would remain valid for 50 years — till 2047 for Hong Kong and 2049 for Macau. It is unclear what will happen after this term.
What triggered the current crisis?
In recent years, there has been a growing outcry from Hong Kong’s pro-democracy civil society against China’s alleged attempts to erode the city’s autonomy. This has created tensions between the city’s youth and the local government, which is effectively chosen by Beijing.
Sources: the Hindu.