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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 22 AUGUST 2019


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 22 AUGUST 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic:Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

1)  “Kashmir needs a new leadership emerging from the development narrative of the 21st century, not the separatist themes of the 20th century.” Comment. (250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question:

 Th article discusses the need for new leadership in Kashmir given the current situation post abrogation of article 370 and 35A.

Key demand of the question:

Th answer must provide for a comparison between developmental leadership and separatist leadership. And suggest why there is a need for newer leadership.

Directive:

Commenthere we must express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Discuss in brief the background of the issue in J and K.

Body:

The answer must explain the essence of the right leadership.

Explain the demerits of a separatist regime of leadership.

Compare and contrast it with the need of developmental leadership which is much needed for the valley.

Conclusion:

Conclude with solutions and suggest a way forward.

Introduction:

The government recently introduced a resolution to remove provisions of Article 370, which provides special status to Jammu and Kashmir.  In addition, Home Minister also introduced a Bill bifurcating the State of Jammu of Kashmir into Union Territory of Ladakh and the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir. The Presidential Order has extended all provisions of the Constitution to Jammu and Kashmir, including the chapter on Fundamental Rights. Therefore, the discriminatory provisions under Article 35A are now unconstitutional.

Body:

Separatist leadership in J&K:

  • All Parties Hurriyat Conference (APHC) is an alliance of 26 political, social and religious organizations formed on March 9, 1993, as a united political front to raise the cause of Kashmiri separatism.
  • Separatist politics which surfaced in Kashmir from 1989 has taken different forms and is made up of various strands.
  • There is one strand of separatists who want a separate Kashmiri nation, independent of India and Pakistan.
  • Then there are groups that want Kashmir to merge with Pakistan.
  • Besides these, there is a third strand which wants greater autonomy for the people of the state within the Indian union.
  • The separatists are relevant because of a sentiment, which is not voted on in any election. The other reason why they remain relevant is their utility to the state at times of crises.
  • When Kashmir was up in arms during the public agitations from 2008-10, New Delhi sent high-level delegations to speak to the separatists in a bid to calm tempers.
  • The fact that Pakistan considers the separatists as representatives of the people is also an important reason to think of them as relevant on the ground.

Demerits of separatist leadership:

  • The misuse of power by a handful of leaders in the Valley has left the ordinary Kashmiri in misery.
  • The NIA has alleged that its probe into terror financing in Jammu and Kashmir has revealed that hardline separatist leaders received funds from abroad and utilised them for personal gains — from amassing properties to paying for foreign education of their kin.
  • There are also allegations of Pakistan funding a sect of separatist leaders which amount to arson.
  • It is also alleged that “one dead body a day” used to be the strategy of the separatist and terrorist establishment because each casualty would be used to foment more trouble and violence.

Measures needed: There is a need for sustained and coordinated efforts of public outreach involving all the key stakeholders.

State:

  • Non-violent and democratic methods to achieve political aspirations.
  • The way out of the deadlock is to strengthen democracy.
  • Empowerment of Local Governments which involves people at the grassroots level.
  • Setting aside of the mutual fears of the people of Jammu and of Kashmir and bringing the people of Ladakh into this ambit as well.
  • Socio economic development through various governmental schemes.
  • Conducting recruitment rallies to employ the youth, who are in a different state of mind.

Security Forces:

  • While the army’s Operation Sadbhavna (a military civic action initiative of 20 years) has helped in extending marginal outreach, the lack of mass engagement has prevented the development of any perception change and the creation of alternative narratives to counter the propaganda from Pakistan and the separatists.
  • Direct outreach: conduct of public meetings or “awami sunwais” in the field in areas where the reach of the administration had become marginal. Example: Awami Sunwai’s of the past.
  • Maximum opportunity to the common citizens to speak, criticise and complain, so they can realise that there are enough people willing to listen rather than talk down to the common Kashmiri.
  • Need to engage the security personnel especially army and CRPF for public outreach and conduct of public meetings and include the politicians and the public officials along with.

Religious heads:

  • Involvement of local clergies who has substantial hold on the local populace and seek its cooperation in messaging the youth and others on the uniqueness of the Indian system.
  • Exploitation of social media, as much as the countering of online propaganda of radicalisation.

Non-State Actors:

  • The other major determinant is J&K is the part of Non-State Actors like Separatists, Neighbouring Pakistan and the state sponsored terrorists.
  • They have a considerable hold on the people and their opinions.
  • Engaging the non-state actors through interlocutors, Tier-2 diplomacy should help alleviate the fears and misunderstandings that have cropped up.

Media:

  • Media described as the fourth pillar of democracy plays a very vital role.
  • They are responsible for reporting of the incidents in a true and unvitiated manner. However, the political patronage and ownership by big media houses has made more one sided views.
  • With internet on the surge and ease of access of information at tips, they help in shaping the views and opinions of people.
  • Media should be ethical and democratic in its approach. It should spread the message of peace and harmony across people.

Conclusion:

The significant move, in theory, opens up potential opportunities for development-led economic growth in the Union Territories of J&K and Ladakh. Thus, the move is bound to have a significant impact on the demography, culture, and politics of J&K. Whatever its intent in enabling the full integration of Jammu and Kashmir with India, this decision to alter the State’s status could have unintended and dangerous consequences.


Topic:  Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation. Security challenges and their management in border areas; linkages of organized crime with terrorism.

2) Do you agree that the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Amendment Act could prove catastrophic for fundamental rights? Is sacrificing liberty for national security justified? Discuss and provide for your opinion.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question:

In Parliament this month, former Union Minister P. Chidambaram questioned the need for certain amendments to the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act (UAPA), 1967. The Bill empowers the Central government to name any individual a terrorist if it believes him or her to be so.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must debate over the cost of declaring individuals terrorist in the UPA act, in what way it violates fundamental rights.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Describe the recent amendments made to the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Amendment Act.

Body:

The answer must first bring out the key changes that were made recently by the parliament.

Explain in what way these changes pose questions on the fundamental rights at the price of national security.

Take hints from the article and explain both pros and cons of such a move.

Conclusion:

Conclude by suggesting what needs to be done.

Introduction:

The Parliament recently approved an amendment to the anti-terror law – Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Amendment Act to give powers to the central government to designate an individual as terrorist and seize his properties. Home Minister said a four-level scrutiny has been provided in the amendment and no human rights will be violated.

Body:

Key Features of the Bill:

  • It empowers the government to designate individuals as terrorists if the person commits or participates in acts of terrorism, prepares for terrorism, promotes terrorism or is otherwise involved in terrorism.
  • This has been done as it is seen that when a terrorist organization is banned, its members form a new organization to spread terrorism.
  • The bill also empowers the Director-General, National Investigation Agency (NIA) to grant approval of seizure or attachment of property when the case is being investigated by the agency.
  • Under the existing Act, the investigating officer is required to obtain the prior approval of the Director General of Police (DGP) to seize properties that bear any connection to terrorism.
  • It has been seen that many times a terror accused own properties in different states. In such cases, seeking approval of DGPs of different states becomes very difficult, and the delay caused by the same may enable the accused to transfer properties.
  • It empowers the officers of the NIA — of the rank of Inspector or above, to investigate cases.
  • The existing Act provides for investigation of cases to be conducted by officers of the rank of Deputy Superintendent or Assistant Commissioner of Police or above.
  • No changes being made in arrest or bail provisions. Also, the provision that the burden of proof is on the investigating agency and not on the accused, has not been changed.
  • The International Convention for Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism (2005) has also been added in the Second Schedule through the Amendment.

Impact on Fundamental rights:

  • It allows the central government to name an individual as a terrorist if it “believes” without any formal judicial process, which is against the principles of natural justice.
  • The name of such a person will be included in the ‘Fourth Schedule’ proposed to be added in the parent Act. The only statutory remedy available to such a person is to make an application before the Central Government for de-notification, which will be considered by a Review Committee constituted by the Government itself.
  • An official designation as a terrorist will be akin to ‘civil death’ for a person, with social boycott, expulsion from job, hounding by media, and perhaps attack from self-proclaimed vigilante groups following.
  • The Amendment poses threat to different viewpoints and goes against the freedom of speech and expression of an individual.
  • The law could target minorities or a section of people thereby affecting their cultural rights.
  • Provisions of the UAPA have an extremely wide ambit, which makes it possible to use them against not just criminals and terrorists, but even authors, academics, lawyers for alleged terrorists, and human rights activists.
  • Indefinite Imprisonment without Trial: Even if the person is eventually acquitted of the charges, the delays in conducting judicial proceedings mean the case may only get heard several years after their arrest – failure to get bail means they have to spend the entire time in jail.
  • The Act also interferes with the privacy and liberty of individuals contravening the provisions which protect against arbitrary or unlawful interference with a person’s privacy and home.
  • The Act allows for searches, seizures and arrests based on the ‘personal knowledge’ of the police officers without a written validation from a superior judicial authority.

Liberty v/s National Security:

  • This law is aimed at effective prevention of unlawful activities associations in India.
  • Its main objective is to make powers available for dealing with activities directed against the integrity and sovereignty of India.
  • But there must be a distinction between an individual and an organisation, and it must be kept in mind that the Constitution guarantees the former the right to life and liberty.
  • Benjamin Franklin said: “Those who would give up essential Liberty, to purchase a little temporary Safety, deserve neither Liberty nor Safety.”

Way forward:

  • There is a need to undertake structural changes to provide transparency in the proceedings to make UAPA act more accountable.
  • Proper justification must be provided for the seizure of the properties and assets of an individual.
  • The bill must ensure judicial solutions to the wrongly accused to safeguard the individual’s dignity, freedom and equality in the society.
  • The government must also rethink regarding the issues pertaining to the rights of life and liberty, and to federalism.

Conclusion:

In civilised nations, from whom India has taken its Constitution and its laws, the criminal justice system is about the rights of the accused. That is also the foundation of our justice system. The very idea of the UAPA and the decision to start naming people terrorists without securing a conviction from a court of law, goes against the principles of natural justice.


Topic:  History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.- their forms and effect on the society. Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.

3) One Country, Two Systems” – Hong Kong’s Transformation since the handover has been a crisis of democracy. Thus, critically examine the recent uproar in demand of democracy in Hong Kong and the impact it is manifesting in the south Asian political setup. (250 words)

Livemint

 

Why this question: 

Hong Kong held one of its biggest rallies in recent years earlier this month to honour the hundreds or possibly thousands killed in the army assault. Thus, necessary from exam point of view to evaluate the issue.

Demand of the question:

One must critically examine the recent uproar and the quest for democracy being demanded by the Hong Kong people.

Directive word: 

Critically examineWhen asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

In brief explain the background of the question.

Body

Massive protests in Hongkong has erupted against a government plan to allow extradition to mainland China. The mass demonstration was one of the largest in the city’s history and a stunning display of rising fear and anger over the erosion of civil liberties.

The protest recalled the pro-democracy Umbrella Movement five years ago.

Explain the causes, consequences in detail.

Conclusion 

Conclude with a fair a balanced approach while suggesting a way ahead.

Introduction:

Hong Kong, a city synonymous with bankers and brokers, has become a city of inventive protesters. This past weekend, they appeared to be everywhere. Prompted by a desire to re-establish the democracy movement’s reputation for non-violence after recent protests saw petrol bombs thrown at police stations and the airport shut down, people turned out in huge numbers to call for democracy.

Body:

Relationship of Hong Kong with respect to China:

  • The former British colony returned to Chinese rule in 1997, and is semi-autonomous under the “one country, two systems” principle.
  • It has its own laws and courts, and allows its residents a range of civil liberties.
  • Hong Kong does not have an extradition agreement with Beijing.

Reasons behind protest:

  • The protesters were marching against proposed changes in the law that would allow suspects accused of crimes such as murder and rape to be extradited to mainland China to face trial.
  • Once the law is changed, Hong Kong will also handover to China individuals accused of crimes in Taiwan and Macau. Macau, like Hong Kong, is a Chinese special administrative region with significant autonomy.
  • The proposed bill appeared to equate China’s courts, infamous for kangaroo trials where the outcome is predetermined by the communist dictatorship, with Hong Kong’s.

Government’s rationale behind law:

  • The government says that the proposed amendments would plug loopholes in the criminal justice system.
  • The current shortfalls allow criminals evade trial elsewhere by taking refuge in Hong Kong and allow the city to be used by criminals.
  • The government has assured that, under the bill, the courts in Hong Kong would make the final decision on extradition.
  • Courts can specify that only certain categories of suspects would be liable.
  • They can also lay down that individuals accused of political and religious offences would not be extradited.

Concerns of protestors:

  • China may use the changed law to target political opponents in Hong Kong.
  • Extradited suspects are likely to face torture.
  • Also, they say, the change in the law will deal another blow to Hong Kong’s already crumbling autonomy.
  • It would further erode the freedoms people enjoy under the Basic Law.
  • The issue thus brings to light the tensions between the Hong Kong’s Beijing-appointed elite rule, and the expectations of civil society and pro-democracy movement.
  • In all, the Bill could affect Hong Kong’s reputation as an international finance centre and also its judicial system.

Impact on South-Asian political setup:

  • After Hong Kong was returned to China in 1997, the Hong Kong Basic Law came into effect. Together with the Chinese constitution, it established the territory’s legal framework.
  • The Hong Kong Basic Law grantees press freedom and the freedom of opinion, as well as religious freedom and the right to assembly. It also provides for free elections.
  • But Hong Kong’s opposition movement fears that if the island’s capitalist system were to be abolished after 2047, the notion of “one country, two systems” could be scrapped, too. In which case Hong Kong would be stripped of its civil liberties and never develop into a proper democracy.
  • The extradition bill was seen as yet another encroachment by China on Hong Kong’s freedoms, notably its separate judiciary, police force and administration that were promised till 2047 as part of the terms of its handover to China in 1997 after 156 years of British rule.
  • Prompted by a desire to re-establish the democracy movement’s reputation for non-violence, people turned out in huge numbers to call for democracy.

Other impacts:

  • Hong Kong being the Asian financial hub was entering “a very difficult economic environment” as trade declined and growth slowed.
  • Industries like retail, catering and transportation have taken a hit because of the recent violent unrest, with significant revenue drops.
  • Southeast Asian countries remain concerned about adverse effects on tourism caused by the closure of Hong Kong International Airport, even though flights partially resumed after several days of anti-government protests.
  • The closure spread jitters in Southeast Asia’s tourism-oriented countries such as Thailand and Singapore, as it disrupted Hong Kong residents’ plans to go abroad. It also forced connecting travellers to cancel or alter their plans.

Conclusion:

The majority of Hong Kongers support the maintenance of “one country, two systems,” though their confidence in this arrangement may be waning. There is a need to handle the situation peacefully and fulfil the demands of the protesters that is in the interest of the nation and reflect the values of democracy. International community should come forward to ensure that the matter is settled peacefully without the use of force by China.


Topic:Salient features of Indian Society, Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

4) Do you think Articles 14 and 21 of the Constitution, which guarantee the right to equality and the right to live with dignity, are violated by having different legal age for men and women to marry in India? Debate with suitable justifications. (250 words)

Indianexpress

 

Why this question:

The article talks about the petition that was recently filed challenging the legal age of marriage in India that is different for male and female. 

Key demand of the question:

The answer must provide for critical arguments upon the topic of different legal age for men and women to marry in India, one must present justifications as to how it violates the fundamental rights.

Directive:

Debate – Weigh up to what extent something is true. Persuade the reader of your argument by citing relevant research but also remember to point out any flaws and counter- arguments as well. Conclude by stating clearly how far you agree with the original proposition.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin with brief introduction on the legal age of marriage in India.

Body:

Discussion should include the following: 

Explain that the law prescribes that the minimum age of marriage is 21 and 18 years for men and women, respectively. The minimum age of marriage is distinct from the age of majority, which is gender neutral.

Explain why there is a need of minimum age in the first place? Discuss the historical evolution of this factor.

Discuss and debate why the age is different for men and women.

Explain why the country needs to reconsider the issue.

Substantiate your stand with suitable justifications by stating how it violates fundamental rights enshrined in article 14 and 21.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

In India, the minimum legal age for marriage of a girl is 18, while for boys, it is 21. Delhi High Court has issued a notice to the Centre and the Law Commission of India, seeking their response to the public interest litigation that sought a uniform age of marriage for men and women. The PIL alleges that Articles 14 and 21 of the Constitution, which guarantee the right to equality and the right to live with dignity, are violated by having different legal age for men and women to marry.

Body:

Provisions of the current laws:

  • The law prescribes a minimum age of marriage to essentially outlaw child marriages and prevent abuse of minors.
  • Personal laws of various religions that deal with marriage have their own standards, often reflecting custom.
  • The minimum age of marriage is distinct from the age of majority, which is gender-neutral.
  • An individual attains the age of majority at 18 as per the Indian Majority Act, 1875.
  • For Hindus, Section 5(iii) of the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 sets 18 years as the minimum age for the bride and 21 years as the minimum age for the groom. Child marriages are not illegal but can be declared void at the request of the minor in the marriage.
  • In Islam, the marriage of a minor who has attained puberty is considered valid under personal law.
  • The Special Marriage Act, 1954 and the Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006 also prescribe 18 and 21 years as the minimum age of consent for marriage for women and men respectively.

Yes, Article 14 and 21 violated:

  • The laws are a codification of custom and religious practices that are rooted in patriarchy. In a consultation paper of reform in family law in 2018, the Law Commission argued that having different legal standards “contributes to the stereotype that wives must be younger than their husbands”.
  • Women’s rights activists too have argued that the law perpetuates the stereotype that women are more mature than men of the same age and therefore can be allowed to marry sooner.
  • The international treaty Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), also calls for the abolition of laws that assume women have a different physical or intellectual rate of growth than men.
  • The Law Commission paper recommended that the minimum age of marriage for both genders be set at 18. “The difference in age for husband and wife has no basis in law as spouses entering into a marriage are by all means equals and their partnership must also be of that between equals,” the Commission noted.
  • In 2014, in National Legal Services Authority of India v Union of India, the Supreme Court while recognising transgenders as the third gender said that justice is delivered with the “assumption that humans have equal value and should, therefore, be treated as equal, as well as by equal laws.”
  • In 2019, in Joseph Shine v Union of India, the Supreme Court decriminalised adultery and said that “a law that treats women differently based on gender stereotypes is an affront to women’s dignity.”

Way forward:

  • In its consultation paper on ‘Reform of Family Law’, the Law commission panel also said “if a universal age for majority is recognised, and that grants all citizens the right to choose their governments, surely, they must then be also considered capable of choosing their spouses”.
  • Amending personal laws on these lines would prevent child marriages and would remove inequality

Topic: Money-laundering and its prevention.

5) What is money laundering? Examine the recent policy efforts by the Government of India to tackle the problem.(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question:

The CBI’s case is that the INX Media allegedly flouted the conditional FIPB approval, and brought in over ₹305 crore of FDI against the approved inflow

CBI alleges that INX Media engaged Karti Chidambaram, the promoter director of Chess Management, to resolve the issue.

Key demand of the question:

The question aims to evaluate in detail about money laundering- definition, purpose, means etc. It also wants us to discuss the available policies such as PMLA to tackle the same.

Directive:

ExamineWhen asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Write a few lines about the meaning of money laundering- e.g Money laundering is the process of creating the appearance that large amounts of money obtained from criminal activity, such as drug trafficking or terrorist activity, originated from a legitimate source. The money from the illicit activity is considered dirty, and the process “launders” the money to make it look clean.

Body:

Discuss the steps in money laundering- Placement-criminally derived funds are introduced in the financial system; Layering-the property is ‘washed’ and its ownership and source is disguised; Integration-‘laundered’ property is re-introduced into the legitimate economy; This three staged definition of money laundering is highly simplistic. The reality is that the so-called stages often overlap and, in some cases, for example in cases of financial crimes, there is no requirement for the proceeds of crime to be ‘placed’.

Briefly explain how globalization impacts money laundering.

Examine the recent policy efforts taken by the government – India is a full-fledged member of the Financial Action Task Force (FATF), PMLA 2002, Financial intelligence unit -IND etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

Money laundering is a process where the proceeds of crime are transformed into apparently legitimate money or other assets. It is the processing of criminal proceeds to disguise its illegal origin. In simple words, it can be defined as the act of making money that comes from one source to look like it comes from another source. Money laundering is a single process however, its cycle can be broken down into three distinct stages namely, placement stage, layering stage and integration stage.

Body:

Efforts of Government of India to address money laundering:

In India, before the enactment of Prevention of Money Laundering Act, 2002 (PMLA) the major statutes that incorporated measures to address the problem of money laundering were:

 PMLA Act:

  • It prescribes obligation of banking companies, financial institutions and intermediaries for verification and maintenance of records of the identity of all its clients and also of all transactions and for furnishing information of such transactions in prescribed form to the Financial Intelligence Unit-India (FIU-IND).
  • It empowers the Director of FIU-IND to impose fine on banking company, financial institution or intermediary if they or any of its officers fails to comply with the provisions of the Act as indicated above.
  • PMLA envisages setting up of an Adjudicating Authority to exercise jurisdiction, power and authority conferred by it essentially to confirm attachment or order confiscation of attached properties.

The Black money (undisclosed foreign income and assets) and Imposition of Tax Act, 2015:

  • To deal with the menace of the black money existing in the form of undisclosed foreign income and assets by setting out the procedure for dealing with such income and assets.

Benami Transactions (Prohibition) Amendment Bill, 2015:

  • It aims to expand the definition of Benami Transactions and specifies the penalty to be imposed on a person entering into a Benami transaction.

Institutional framework:

Enforcement directorate:

  • PMLA empowers certain officers of the Directorate of Enforcement to carry out investigations in cases involving offence of money laundering and also to attach the property involved in money laundering.

Financial Intelligence Unit:

  • It was established in India in 2004 as the central national agency responsible for receiving, processing, analyzing and disseminating information relating to suspect financial transactions.
  • FIU-IND is also responsible for coordinating and strengthening efforts of national and international intelligence, investigation and enforcement agencies in pursuing the global efforts against money laundering and related crimes.
  • FIU-IND is an independent body reporting directly to the Economic Intelligence Council (EIC) headed by the Finance Minister.

Way forward:

  • Make common people more aware about the problem- The poor and illiterate people, instead of going through lengthy paper work transactions in Banks, prefer the Hawala system which needs to be stopped.
  • Fulfilling the purpose of KYC Norms by doing proper KYC.
  • Establishment of comprehensive enforcement agencies
  • Promote cashless digital transaction

Topic: Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.

7) “I count him braver who overcomes his desires than him who overcomes his enemies.” – Aristotle. Critically analyse the relevance and significance of the statement.(250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon publications

 

Why this question:

The question is based on the statement made by Aristotle.

Key demand of the question:

Explain in detail the meaning of the statement and importance of it.

Directive:

Critically analyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief explain the significance of Aristotle to the field of ethics.

Body:

Aristotle, through this statement, argues that it is easy to confront and overcome one’s enemy. But it is much difficult to confront the desires. Confronting an enemy is a compulsion for an individual. However, to confront one’s desires is a much difficult task, as it involves resisting the urges of the materialistic pleasures. Aristotle rightly argues that the one who overcomes his desires is much braver than the one who overcomes his enemies.

Only a person of high morality and character can resist the temptations of crude desires. The present society faces an acute form of this problem. Even highly qualified people fail to resist the temptations of material gains and pleasures. This becomes a sign of their moral weakness.

Conclusion:

Thus, what is required is to train the people to resist their material urges. The biggest challenge for an individual is to confront his own desires and interests than to face his adversary.

Introduction:

Desires are as much part of man as any other essential requirement. It is the desire of man that made him explore so many paths and rule the world. But the uncontrolled desires make man a slave of these desires and make him do things which may not be considered as moral.

Body:

The above statement reflects that the root causes of negative external manifestations of acts or thoughts of humans are his endless desires. There is no end to desires, and one desire leads to other. Thus, while an external enemy is finite and can be defeated, the real challenge is in defeating our internal enemy of desires which is endless and infinite.

Aristotle, through this statement, argues that it is easy to confront and overcome one’s enemy. But it is much difficult to confront the desires. Confronting an enemy is a compulsion for an individual. However, to confront one’s desires is a much difficult task, as it involves resisting the urges of the materialistic pleasures. Aristotle rightly argues that the one who overcomes his desires is much braver than the one who overcomes his enemies.

Only a person of high morality and character can resist the temptations of crude desires. The present society faces an acute form of this problem. Even highly qualified people fail to resist the temptations of material gains and pleasures. This becomes a sign of their moral weakness.

Public administrators are the guardians of public interest. However, as of today they have come to be characterized by self- aggrandizement, self-promotion, self-interest etc, a manifestation of inability to control internal desires. This had led to corruption, crony capitalism, nepotism and favouritism in public affairs. Self interest has replaced public interest. Thus, the need of the hour is to promote the principles of self-control among public administrators. It must be remembered that administrators are not only public servants but also expected to be model citizens. A self-controlled public administrator will not only lead to an efficient, public-oriented administration but also sustainable society.

Conclusion:

Thus, what is required is to train the people to resist their material urges. The biggest challenge for an individual is to confront his own desires and interests, than to face his adversary