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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 15 AUGUST 2019


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 15 AUGUST 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic: Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act

1) What is delimitation? examine its objectives and how delimitation affects the representation of the people act. (250 words)

Timesnownews

Why this question:

Days after the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganization Act, 2019 got the nod of Parliament, the Election Commission on August 13 held an internal meeting on the delimitation of constituencies ahead of elections to the new Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir.

Key demand of the question:

The question is straightforward and is about discussing the concept of delimitation and its affects on representation of people act.

Directive:

ExamineWhen asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Define delimitation and its importance – Delimitation literally means the act of fixing the boundaries of constituencies.

Body:

Discuss the concept and evolution of delimitation in India.

Explain its significance, associated issues, current context of J and K.

Discuss what needs to be done and what are the consequences.

Conclusion:

Conclude with assertion of significance.

Introduction:

Delimitation literally means the act or process of fixing limits or boundaries of territorial constituencies in a country or a province having a legislative body. A four-member Delimitation Commission, including a member of the EC, carries out this task. In India, such Delimitation commissions have been set up four times in the past under ‘Delimitation Commission Acts’ of 1952, 1962, 1972 and 2002.

Body:

Days after the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act, 2019 got the nod of Parliament, the Election Commission on August 13 held an internal meeting on the delimitation of constituencies ahead of elections to the new Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir.

Objectives:

  • Under Article 82 of the Constitution, Parliament enacts a Delimitation Act after every Census which establishes a delimitation commission.
  • The main task of the commission is redrawing the boundaries of the various assembly and Lok Sabha constituencies to ensure an equitable population distribution

Delimitation and RPA:

  • The provisions of Delimitation Act, 2002, says that as of date, all Assembly and Parliamentary constituencies are to be delimited on the basis of the 2001 Census.
  • According to the guidelines of the EC and the 84th and 87th amendments to the Constitution, the “state average per assembly constituency” is obtained by dividing the total number of the state population (as per 2001 census) by the total number of constituencies in the state.
  • This method is aimed at having an equal population in each constituency.
  • However, a deviation of plus-minus 10 per cent is acceptable if the geographical features, means of communication, public convenience, contiguity of the areas, and necessity to avoid breaking of administrative units so demand.
  • As per the guidelines, seats have to be reserved for the SCs and STs in the proportion of their population separately both for the Assembly and Parliamentary constituencies in each state.
  • The commission, after completing the process from its end, puts out papers and draft proposals for discussions and holds public meetings on the same.
  • These proposals are notified in the Gazette of India and the state’s gazette after the President’s approval.
  • The commission’s order cannot be challenged in any court as it has the force of law.
  • The copies of orders are also presented before the Lok Sabha and the State Legislative Assembly concerned, but both these houses are not allowed to make modifications in that.

Conclusion:

While 2026 is still a few years away, if we do not start a debate now on how to deal with the problems that are likely to arise, we will be forced to postpone the lifting of the freeze to a future date as was done in 2001. This will only postpone the problem for which we must find a solution sooner or later. Even the various proposals for electoral reforms which have been recommended by various Commissions over the past decade do not address these issues. These are challenges which our political leaders have to address in the immediate future.


Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

2)  India needs to shift towards a Solid waste management plan alongside the existing Swachh Bharat mission and look beyond toilets. Discuss.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question: 

In a nascent effort to look beyond toilets and kick off its ODF+ phase — that is, Open Defecation Free Plus — focussing on solid and liquid waste management, the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (SBA) has included the prevalence of plastic litter and water-logging in villages as indicators of cleanliness in its 2019 rural survey.

Demand of the question:

The question is about giving importance to solid waste management in the mission of swacch Bharat. 

Directive word: 

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

Define solid waste management.

Body

In India, solid waste management needs to be planned and implemented alongside well-maintained drainage and sewerage networks and with the active participation of the communities.

The answer must bring out the progress made by Swachh Bharat and how it has achieved milestones so far and that it is time to shift towards bigger goals of waste management.

Conclusion 

Conclude with significance. 

Introduction:

Solid waste management (SWM) refers to the process of collecting and treating solid wastes. It also offers solutions for recycling items that do not belong to garbage or trash.  In a nascent effort to look beyond toilets and kick off its ODF+ phase — that is, Open Defecation Free Plusfocussing on solid and liquid waste management, the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (SBA) has included the prevalence of plastic litter and water-logging in villages as indicators of cleanliness in its 2019 rural survey.

Body:

Current Situation of SWM in India:

  • ULBs are responsible for segregated waste collection, transporting waste in covered vehicle, processing, recyclables, separating domestic hazardous waste and disposing inert material in sanitary landfills
  • Various studies reveal that about 90% of MSW is disposed of unscientifically in open dumps and landfills, creating problems to public health and the environment.
  • Over 377 million urban people live in 7,935 towns and cities and generate 62 million tonnes of municipal solid waste per annum.
  • Only 43 million tonnes (MT) of the waste is collected, 11.9 MT is treated and 31 MT is dumped in landfill sites.
  • Most cities have confined themselves to collection and transportation of solid waste. Processing and safe disposal are being attempted only in a few cases.
  • The CPCB report also reveals that only 68% of the MSW generated in the country is collected of which, 28% is treated by the municipal authorities. Thus, merely 19% of the total waste generated is currently treated.
  • According to a UN report, India’s e-waste from old computers alone will jump 500 per cent by 2020, compared to 2007.
  • Disappearance of urban water bodies and wetlands in urban areas can be attributed to illegal dumping of Construction & Demolition waste.

Some of the major issues concerning solid waste management are:

  • Absence of segregation of waste at source
  • Lack of funds for waste management at ULBs.
  • Unwillingness of ULBs to introduce proper collection, segregation, transportation and treatment/ disposal systems.
  • Lack of technical expertise and appropriate institutional arrangement
  • lack of infrastructure and technology
  • lack of involvement from the private sector and non-governmental organisations
  • Indifference of citizens towards waste management due to lack of awareness
  • Lack of community participation towards waste management and hygienic conditions
  • Lack of sewage management plan.
  • About 70% of the plastic packaging products turn into plastic waste within a short period.
  • Unorganized vendors and markets, existence of slum areas and Corruption are other issues plaguing MSWM.

Measures needed:

  • State governments should provide financial support to ULBs to improve their waste management system under various schemes and programs.
  • Initiatives like Smart Cities Mission, AMRUT should provide significant funding to improve civic services infrastructure.
  • The key to efficient waste management is to ensure proper segregation of waste at source and to ensure that the waste goes through different streams of recycling and resource recovery as stated in the Solid Waste Management Rules, 2016.
  • Waste to energy is a key component of SWM. Installation of waste-to-compost and bio-methanation plants would reduce the load of landfill sites
  • There is a need to encourage research and development so as to reinvent waste management system in India.
  • The focus should be on recycling and recovering from waste and not landfill. Further, it is important to encourage recycling of e-waste so that the problem of e-waste
  • Public- Private Partnership models for waste management should be encouraged.
  • Construction and demolition waste should be stored, separately disposed off, as per the Construction and Demolition Waste Management Rules, 2016.
  • Responsibilities of Generators have been introduced to segregate waste in to three streams, Wet (Biodegradable), Dry (Plastic, Paper, metal, wood, etc.) and domestic hazardous wastes (diapers, napkins, empty containers of cleaning agents, mosquito repellents, etc.) and handover segregated wastes to authorized rag-pickers or waste collectors or local bodies.
  • Sensitization of citizens as well as government authorities, community participation, involvement of NGOs. Littering should be prohibited.
  • International Best practices should be emulated. South Korea is one of the few countries to separate and recycle food waste. It has also launched landfill recovery projects such as the Nanjido recovery project which have successfully transformed hazardous waste sites into sustainable ecological attractions.

Conclusion:

Solid waste management (SWM) is one of the major environmental problems of India. The need of the hour is scientific, sustainable and environment friendly management of wastes.


Topic:  Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

3) Will a greater centralisation of decision-making help the Ladakh region’s already-fragile terrain? Discuss in the light of recent decision of the government to transform of Ladakh into a Union Territory (UT).(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question:

The article in in the backdrop of recent govt. decision of declaring Ladakh as a union territory and the significance of the decision.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the aspect of greater centralization and its pros and cons.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Describe the background of the situation.

Body:

Take hints from the article, first narrate the circumstances under which the decision has been taken by the government and then explain the reasons, impact of such a decision and the merits and demerits of it.

Conclusion:

Conclude with fair and balanced opinion on the issue.

Introduction:

The Jammu and Kashmir reorganisation bill passed by Parliament recently aims to redraw the map of the state by bifurcating it into two Union territories. The bill proposes to create a Union Territory for Jammu and Kashmir region and a separate one for the Ladakh region.

Body:

Government’s rationale behind making Ladakh a UT:

  • A substantial part of Ladakh (specifically, Leh district) has felt alienated for decades as it was controlled by the J&K government.
  • It has been noted that from decades, the J&K government has often been insensitive to the Ladakh’s ecological and cultural uniqueness.
  • Ladakh was in difficult condition due to the pressure being put by the infrastructure projects, the presence of armed forces and excessive tourism.
  • Inappropriate educational systems imposed on the people of Ladakh have disrupted the lifestyles of their traditional ethnic groups.
  • Division of Ladakh into Leh and Kargil on religious ground has driven an unnecessarily division between Buddhist and Muslim populations.

Centralization of decision-making and its impact of fragile ecology of Ladakh:

  • Being home to enormous mineral reserves and tourism sites, Ladakh could easily be exploited by commercial interests even more.
  • This would put a greater pressure on its already fragile ecosystem and also impact its pastoral and agricultural communities that are dependent on it.
  • Ladakh is facing environmental issues due to landslips, soil erosion, accumulation of solid waste, disturbances to its wildlife population and diversion of commons for development projects.
  • The Central government could execute more hydropower, mining and road construction programmes in Ladakh, making sensitive areas more vulnerable.
  • Since the Leh is a huge tourism attraction, more plans will be there to promote and protect the local culture at development works.
  • The government may provide ‘Smart city’ tag to Leh city under Smart City Mission as Leh is a huge tourism attraction.
  • The increased presence of the armed forces could be one of the consequences of Ladakh being a UT.
  • Due to the high importance given to the threats coming from China and Pakistan, the likelihood of more army personal getting stationed in Ladakh is high.
  • Thousands of hectares of pasture land have already been occupied by the forces with disruptive consequences for wildlife and local communities.
  • There are many civil society groups in Ladakh such as the Students’ Educational and Cultural Movement of Ladakh, the Snow Leopard Conservancy India Trust, The Ladakh Ecological Development Group etc.
  • However, as the central government will now handle the Ladakh, the voices of such societies are likely to be heard even less.

Conclusion:

Although there are some possible consequences with the new UT status of the region, it can be seen that there are more development possibilities in terms of education, health, lifestyle and preservation of its unique ecology of Ladakh as Union Territory as compared to its current status. The need of the hour is to address the needs and aspirations of Ladakh’s population, including by providing sustainable livelihoods for its rural people and youth.  Ladakh’s farmers, pastoralists, women and youth must get a more meaningful voice in the new dispensation than they have had so far within the Hill Council status


Topic:  Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources. Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

4) Universities should be a place for ‘creativity’, ‘out of the box thinking’ and ‘ideological disruptions’. Comment in the light of existing higher education scenario in India.(250 words)

ndtv

Why this question:

The question aims to discuss the significance of universities as platforms for creative thinking.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the Indian scenario of higher education, what way they are places for creative thinking.

Directive:

Commenthere we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin with brief introduction on the current status of universities in India.

Body:

Discussion should include the following: 

Give a brief on the current scenario on Universities.

Discuss the issues surrounding the higher education system in the country, what are the key challenges and suggest what needs to be done to overcome the same. 

Explain what can be done to ensure they become hubs for creative thinking and innovation.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

India is a rapidly changing country in which inclusive, high-quality education is of utmost importance for its future prosperity. The country is currently in a youth bulge phase. It has the largest youth population in the world—a veritable army of 600 million young people under the age of 25.

Body:

Challenges facing Indian higher education:

  • Gross Enrolment Rate issues:
  • India’s higher education system, does not have the capacity to achieve enrolment ratios anywhere close to those of other middle-income economies.
  • The country’s tertiary gross enrolment rate is growing fast, but remains more than 20 percentage points below that of China or Brazil, despite the creation of large numbers of higher education institutions (HEIs) in recent years.

 

  • Brain-Drain:
  • Educational attainment in present-day India is also not directly correlated to employment prospects—a fact that raises doubts about the quality and relevance of Indian education.
  • Such bottlenecks have caused a large-scale outflow of labour migrants and international students from India.
  • The number of Indian students enrolled in degree programs abroad has grown almost fivefold since 1998, while hundreds of thousands of labour migrants leave the country each year.
  • Many of these migrants are low-skilled workers, but there is also a pronounced brain drain of skilled professionals of 950,000 Indian scientists and engineers lived in the U.S. alone in 2013 (a steep increase of 85 percent since 2003).

 

  • Regulation:
  • High control and low on support and facilitation
  • UGC has been accused of biased granting of funds
  • Undermining independence of autonomous universities
  • UGC’s flawed method of determining recruitment and career advancement of faculty: Academic Performance Indicator (API).

 

  • Indian Talent Pool of IIT’s:
  • The Indian Institutes of Technology are synonymous with excellence and the national academic frontier.
  • But, the IITs’ ability to live up to these expectations in terms of research output and the quality of education is contingent on its faculty. However, of late, the shortage of faculty members in the IITs has been under the spotlight.
  • It was reported recently that there are just 40 foreign teachers at all of the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) that is just 1% of the total faculty of 5,400 — despite the government’s goal to attract 20% international faculty at higher education institutions such as the IITs.

 

  • Scales of salary:
  • Indian academic salaries are not globally competitive, even taking into account variations in living costs.
  • In the U.S., senior academics at research universities typically earn around Rs.8,970,000 and up annually, and those at top universities can earn Rs.13,800,000 or more.
  • The average salary for a full-time academic is Rs.5,037,000, with those in high demand fields in the sciences, business and others earning significantly more.
  • China, which is also actively luring top international faculty to its research universities, is offering salaries of Rs.6,900,000 or more along with additional research funding.
  • International faculty cannot be offered long-term appointments in Indian public institutions. A five-year contract is all that is available. Thus, there is little job security.

 

  • Private colleges and Deemed Universities:
  • Arbitrary nature of fees; “capitation fees”
  • Admissions manipulated- Management quotas
  • Ill equipped to organize courses
  • De facto management—the trustees of the sponsoring societies or trusts

Measures needed to improve status of Indian Universities:

  • The best Indian universities would require a kind of “cultural revolution” to join the ranks of global world-class universities and to be able to lure top faculty.
  • It is virtually impossible for India to attract large numbers of international professors of high standing and ability without dramatic changes in many aspects of the existing governance structure in higher education. Dramatically enhanced funding would also be required.
  • The Ministry of Human Resource Development should be working closely with the Ministry of Corporate Affairs to have a road map that incentivises CSR funding to be made available for universities.
  • There need to be an immediate move to attract more candidates, such as the faculty recruitment drive in the US, and monetary incentives like the Young Faculty Incentive Fellowship Scheme.
  • Parallel development in infrastructure is necessary to accommodate the research needs of incoming faculty.
  • The structural and practical realities of Indian universities make them generally unattractive to academic talent from abroad, this must be rectified at the earliest.
  • The key motivation for hiring foreign faculty must be to improve international competitiveness and secure positions in global rankings, which in turn would also attract more motivated students.
  • Attracting foreign nationals, Indians who studied at prestigious foreign universities by offering higher salaries and other benefits.
  • The moral and motivation of the academics have to be maintained. Not only attract the quality but also retain the quality of teachers. For this, the recruitment and the promotion policy have to be looked into. Recruitment policy on merit, kind of promotion on merit and in intervals would retain good teachers.

Conclusion:

If universities become centre of fresh knowledge production then things change. Complete freedom of thought in direction and ideas is need of the hour. There is a prevailing culture that knowledge is finite and job of student is to master pre-existing knowledge. This has a limiting problem in educational culture which needs to be challenged.


Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

5)  “Ease of living should be the ultimate aim of the country, while ease of doing business is merely one of the pathways to achieve it.” Elucidate.(250 words)

Prime minister’s speech for 73rd Independence Day from the Red fort.

The hindu

Why this question:

 The phrase has been picked up from Prime minister’s speech for 73rd Independence Day from the Red fort, it aims to throw light upon ease of living in the country and dire need of the same.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss the concept of ease of living, significance of ease of doing business.

Directive:

ElucidateGive a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Define what is ease of living and ease of doing business.

Body:

Prime Minister Narendra Modi has reiterated that the priority of Central Government is to ensure Ease of Doing Business and Ease of Living, the Digital India Campaign has ensured Ease of Living for common people.

Discuss the various aspects of policies of the govt. that is ensuring ease of living. 

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

The individual’s ease of living is the level of wealth, comfort, material goods and necessities available to them in a certain geographic area. It includes factors like income, quality and availability of employment, class disparity, poverty rate, quality and affordability of housing, education, growth, environmental quality. The ease of living is closely related to the quality of life.

Body:

Need to target ease of living:

  • In the recently released Global Hunger Index (GHI), India featured at the 100th position among 119 countries, lagging behind even North Korea and Iraq.
  • About 40 per cent of city’s population is compelled to live in slums, and municipal authorities have failed consistently to come up with affordable housing schemes for people with low income.
  • A census report states that 64 million people live in India’s slums. The problem becomes more severe with urban India, where 17 per cent people live in slums. Over 70 per cent of slum households get their water from a tap, but just half of them get water in their homes.
  • With burgeoning urban population, existing urban infrastructure, both institutional and physical, is being tested.
  • From demands of reservations for locals in educational institutes and hospitals, to permanent damage to eco-systems, drainage networks and water-tables, side effects of poorly thought out and badly regulated urbanisation are beginning to show

How ease of doing business leads to ease of living:

  • The reforms undertaken to ease of doing business helps in removing excess influence of the governments from people’s lives.
  • The people would have the freedom of pursuing their aspirations.
  • It reduces the policy paralysis and strengthens the confidence of business environment.
  • With better policies in lieu of attracting business, it helps in more job creations reducing the unemployment rate and in turn increases the per capita income.
  • With ease of doing business, many job seekers would turn into job-givers, thereby spurring the economy by investment.
  • The infrastructure- physical and socio-economic will be rejuvenated to ensure faster connectivity which enhances business and in turn the lives of people in rural areas.
  • The ease of doing business would help attract foreign investments into India, providing the necessary capital to start new ventures.
  • It could help foray into new avenues from food processing to fibre optics thereby diversifying the business chains horizontally.
  • With introduction of the state of the art science and technology features, it can lead to spin-off effects helping the socio-economic development of society.

Way forward:

  • Efficiency, Productivity, quality, speedy implementation and execution of upgraded scheme with help achieve the targets.
  • Economic growth and job creation addresses Ease of Living to an extent.
  • Role of society in it is imperative.
  • Need to adopt holistic approach like industries can be created with manpower intensive since growth does not always translate into jobs.
  • Decentralised and universal coverage of health and education to the lowest rung of the society should be ensured.

Conclusion:

It is more important of looking at people at large. People at ground level should feel happiness, change, providing them opportunity to lead life with dignity. If people’s life is comfortable and if they are happy automatically the productivity increases because “Happy society is a flourishing society”.


Topic: Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.

6)  It’s not hard to make decisions when you know what your values are and what attitude one carries towards life. Do you agree? Substantiate.(250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon publications

Why this question:

The question is based on the theme of values and attitudes.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the significance of values and right attitude while making hard decisions in one’s life.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Define attitude and values.

Body:

Explain in detail the role played by values and attitude in an individual’s life and in what way they are key in defining behaviour of a person. 

Discuss how they become relevant in decision making using suitable illustrations.

Conclusion:

Conclude by reasserting significance of the values and attitude.

Introduction:

Attitudes are views, beliefs, or evaluations of people about something (the attitude object). The attitude object can be a person, place, thing, ideology, or an event. Attitudes can be positive or negative. Values are individual beliefs that motivate people to act one way or another. They serve as a guide for human behaviour.

Body:

Attitudes are formed primarily based on underlying values and beliefs. Values and attitudes guide an individual to tread the path they strongly believe in. They direct our future feelings and thoughts about the objects of those feelings and thoughts. They are cognitive structures that guide perception and help us fill the gaps when information is lacking. They help control our intense emotions and serve an ego-defensive function when they protect us against our fears and anxieties.

Decision making is usually eased in normal situations with this as one can be clear about what to do and what not to do.

For e.g.: A compassionate person would help the flood affected persons to the extent he can without any second thoughts. An egalitarian person would oppose the indiscrimination meted out to the lower caste people.

However, the decision making becomes difficult when there is an ethical dilemma i.e. when there is a clash between two positive values.

For instance, an old destitute woman who has no personal identification records and is dying out of hunger, Is it ethical to prohibit her from getting the Government benefits or allow her despite lack of legal records.

Conclusion:

Dalai Lama says that “If you can cultivate the right attitude, your enemies are your best spiritual teachers because their presence provides you with the opportunity to enhance and develop tolerance, patience and understanding.” Our values and attitude is what influences all our actions. It is only the right set of values and attitudes, which gets us good results.


Topic: Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.

7) What is the difference between social influence and persuasion? How do they influence individuals differently? Discuss.(250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon publications

 

Why this question:

The question is about comparing persuasion and social influence.

Key demand of the question:

Explain in detail the difference between persuasion and social influence and how each of them impact individuals differently.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Define persuasion and social influence.

Body:

Explain what is the difference between social influence and persuasion – Influence is the ability to make someone do something through the use of one’s resources (wealth, social status, or power). “Having influence over someone or something” simply means through the means of your resources and how you distribute/ use them people will do your bidding because you have something of value to them. 

Persuasion is the ability to make someone do something through the use of words to manipulate their thoughts, behavior, and actions. While, you need large amounts of resources to truly influence anyone or anything- anyone can have the ability to persuade. Persuasion in itself is a tool/ and or a resource to use towards a goal.

Quote examples to substantiate how the two elements can influence an individual in different ways.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

Social influence is the change in behavior that one person causes in another, intentionally or unintentionally. It occurs when a person’s emotions, opinions, or behaviours are affected by others. Persuasion is symbolic process in which communicators try to convince other people through transmission of a message to change their attitudes or behaviours.

Body:

Social Influence:

  • Social influence takes many forms and can be seen in conformity, socialization, peer pressure, obedience, leadership, persuasion, sales, and marketing.
  • As per Herbert Kelman, there are three broad types of social influence.
    • Compliance It is described as a particular kind of response, acquiescence to a particular kind of communication, a request. g.: Tax payment, following traffic rules
    • Conformity: It refers to the act of changing a particular belief or behaviour to fit in with one’s social environment. Main factor that influences conformity is social norms. E.g.: leaving footwear outside in religious places, banning of sati.
    • Obedience: Person obeys direct orders from another to perform some actions. E.g.: Orders from Military officer to jawans.
  • Effect of Social influence is especially visible in the long history of humankind, particularly World War II, where individuals were observed to commit immoral acts because they scuffle to act in sync with their personal judgments when faced with external pressure.

Persuasion:

  • Persuasion is one form of social influence on attitude; in fact it represents the intersection of social thinking and social influence of everyday life.
  • Persuasion can occur through appeals to reason or appeals to emotion. For example, school-based substance abuse prevention programs using the social influences model consistently produce better results than programs emphasizing only health information.
  • The government has also utilized this tool for the success of the initiatives like Swachh Bharat Abhiyan- cleanliness drives; Ujjwala Yojana’s Give it up campaign; Disclosing excess income campaign; Beti Bachao Beti Padhao by making parents understand it is necessary to protect and educate a girl child.

Conclusion:

Thus, Persuasion is one form of social influence on attitude; in fact it represents the intersection of social thinking and social influence of everyday life. Understanding these shortcuts and employing them in an ethical manner can significantly increase the chances that someone will be social influenced and persuaded by the public policy.