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Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 14 AUGUST 2019


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 14 AUGUST 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic:  Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

1) Access to credit is a human right, essential for the poor to create self-employment and income. In the backdrop of the above statement discuss the role played by microfinance institutions and explain whose interests are microfinance institutions serving today?(250 words)

epw

Why this question:

 The question aims to analyse the role played by microfinances in the country to alleviate poverty.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss what are microfinancing institutions, what role they play in alleviating poverty in the country.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Define what are microfinance institutions.

Body:

Explain the role played by microfinance institutions in rooting out poverty.

Microfinance is the provision of financial services to low-income clients or solidarity lending groups including consumers and the self-employed, who traditionally lack access to banking and related services. It is not just about giving micro credit to the poor rather it is an economic development tool whose objective is to assist poor to work their way out of poverty. It covers a wide range of services like credit, savings, insurance, remittance and also non-financial services like training, counseling etc.

Then discuss the salient features. Explain how they can fulfill the gaps in the system.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way ahead.

Introduction:

Micro financing is the delivery of financial services to poor and low income households with limited access to formal financial institutions. It can also be described as banking for the underprivileged. Microfinance institutions (MFIs) came into being in the 90s as banks’ reluctance to lend to those without credit history provided an opportunity to those willing to take risk and organise rural communities.  According to Mohammed Yunus (founder of Grameen Bank in Bangladesh) access to credit was a human right, essential for the poor to create self-employment and income.

Body:

Role played by MFIs:

  • The two key systems for the release of financial services to such customers include ‘relationship-based banking’ for individual entrepreneurs and small businesses along with ‘group-based models’ where several entrepreneurs come together to apply for loans and other services as a group
  • Be a viable financial institution developing sustainable communities.
  • Mobilize resources to provide financial and support services to the poor, particularly women, for viable productive income generation enterprises enabling them to reduce their poverty.
  • Learn and evaluate what helps people to move out of poverty faster.
  • Create opportunities for self-employment for the underprivileged.
  • Train rural poor in simple skills and enable them to utilize the available resources and contribute to employment and income generation in rural areas.

Benefits from MFIs:

  • It allows people to provide for their families. Through microfinance, more households are able to expand their current opportunities so that more income accumulation may occur.
  • It gives people access to credit. “By extending microfinance opportunities, people have access to small amounts of credit, which can then stop poverty at a rapid pace,”
  • It serves those who are often overlooked in society. About 95 percent of some loan products extended by microfinance institutions are given to women, as well as those with disabilities, those who are unemployed, and even those who simply beg to meet their basic needs.
  • It creates the possibility of future investments. Microfinance disrupts the cycle of poverty by making more money available.
  • It can create jobs. Microfinance is also able to let entrepreneurs in impoverished communities and developing countries create new employment opportunities for others.
  • It encourages people to save. “When people have their basic needs met, the natural inclination is for them to save the leftover earnings for a future emergency,”

However, off-late the main goals of MFIs are deviated:

  • MFIs have strayed away from their original purpose of poverty alleviation and social empowerment to short-term profit-making.
  • Many have begun to replicate the behaviour of mainstream financial institutions, setting financial targets which loan officers are under tremendous pressure to deliver.
  • MFIs are harassing their clients who are usually too desperate to turn away from the credit being offered. This is true even when credit comes with the catch of high repayment rates.
  • Several large MFIs that transformed into small finance banks (SFBs) are looking to diversify into inclusion adjacencies such as micro, small and medium enterprise loans and affordable housing loans.
  • The demand potential in these segments also remains buoyant over the medium term given the untapped potential.

Way forward:

  • There is a need for MFIs to consider adopting more flexible operating models, providing skills training and offering services such as portability of accounts to provide greater access for a longer duration of time.
  • A diversified menu of micro loan products linked to sustainable income generation activities via micro enterprises or a creation of community-based pooled enterprise could possibly make it more attractive and compatible with the requirements of women.
  • In addition, linking such developmental initiatives to an institution to nurture, monitor and handhold those activities in the formative stages is crucial for sustainability.

Conclusion:

As per the World Bank estimates, more than 500 million people have improved their economic conditions via microfinance-related entities. Strengthening the credit check and debt collection processes and educating the villagers about products and consequences is important. A model to retain and recycle within the target population could possibly lead to a sustained route for poverty alleviation.


Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

2) Rural tourism not only contributes to tourism industry but also creates local economic growth and overall sustainable development. Discuss.(250 words)

Chapter 2. Rural Tourism in India, Kurukshetra: April 2019 Issue

Why this question:

The question is based on the theme of rural tourism.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must capture the concept of rural tourism in India and in what way it brings sustainable development along with rural local economic growth.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief define rural tourism.

Body:

Rural development is a necessity for India and any strategy/ policy in this direction is a welcome step. There is a lot of scope of rural tourism, given the vast rural hinterland of India and growing connectivity between urban and rural centers.

Explain opportunities in rural tourism and also discuss what benefits it could provide. E.g Desire for escape from the monoculture of city living.  Increasing Interest in Outdoor Recreation, Eco-Tourism and Special Interest Tourism. Rural locations are ideal for relaxation and rejuvenation. Over-familiarity and Congestion with traditional tourist resorts Increased Interest in alternative and off-beat attractions Curiosity for rural India and its culture, customs and heritages Accessibility of Rural Areas. Growing number of special interest tourists etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way ahead and reassert that rural tourism holds huge potential in transforming rural society of India in terms of growth and development.

Introduction:

Rural tourism is, “experience oriented, the locations are sparsely populated, it is experience oriented, the locations are sparsely populated, it is pre-dominantly in natural environment, it meshes with and local events and is based on preservation of culture, heritage and tradition.”

Body:

Rural tourism contributing to rural development:

  • Reduces migration:
    • Rural Tourism facilitates the declining areas to be developed with basic infrastructure facilities and provides the host community alternative ways of employment and side by side it reduces out-migration.
    • It fosters a closer relationship between city dwellers and rural communities.
  • Alternative Way of Earning:
    • Most of the rural dwellers in India are dependent on traditional agricultural activities to maintain their livelihood.
    • In this connection, rural tourism can be a potential tool to reduce their over-dependency on cultivation and it contributes to the overall economic development of an area that would otherwise be deprived.
  • Employment:
    • Rural tourism creates a large number of semi-skilled jobs for the local population in not only local hotels and catering trades but also in other fields like transport, retailing, heritage interpretation etc.
    • Moreover, it ensures revival of traditional arts, crafts, building art etc. and brings marketing opportunity for rural producers to sell their products directly to the tourists.
    • Rural performers are hired for cultural programs where they can exhibit talent and also can earn money.
    • It allows alternative sources of earning opportunities from non-agricultural sectors that improve living standards of the rural dwellers to some extent.
  • Job Retention:
    • Cash flows generating from rural tourism can assist job retention in services such as retailing, transport, hospitality, medical care etc. It provides additional income for farmers, local fishermen and local suppliers
  • Alternative Business Opportunities:
    • Rural Tourism generates new business opportunities even those rural businesses, not directly related to tourism can also gain benefit from tourist activity through developing close relationships with tourist facilities.
    • For example, a number of tourists love to taste local cuisines of different tourist spots. Therefore any restaurant serving ethnic foods can also attract tourists though many of these restaurants are not directly related to tourism business.
  • Poverty Alleviation:
    • Rural Tourism is being admired all over the world because such form of tourism can shape up rural society both by economic and social terms.
    • It brings both monetary and social benefits to the rural people.
    • It alleviates poverty by creating alternative sources of earning.
  • Empowerment of Localities:
    • Rural Tourism cannot be flourished without the involvement of local people in it.
    • Accommodation facilities are being provided by local hotel owners whereas local suppliers supply food and beverages to the local hotels.
    • Local producers produce locally made products as per tourists demand and earn money by selling them in the local market.
    • To entertain tourists, local organizers conduct different cultural programmes where local performers exhibit their art and culture through live performance.
    • Not only that, rural people also become engaged in different decision-making processes. All such engagement actually empowers the localites.
  • Entrepreneurial scope:
    • Rural Tourism has increased career options for these young entrepreneurs.
  • Arts and Crafts Sale:
    • Arts and crafts are the evidence of local culture and heritages of a community belonging from any region or any nation. The urban tourists, wherever they go, generally prefer to have a collection of local arts and crafts to make their trip-experience a remembering one.
    • Such tendency motivates them to purchase local arts and crafts from the local producers and artists.
    • Side by side it encourages the local community to sell their products in local market. Such practice opens an alternative way of earning to the rural people.
  • Environmental Improvement:
    • Environmental improvements such as village paving and traffic regulation schemes, sewage and litter disposal can be assisted by tourism revenues and political pressures from tourism authorities.
    • These help develop pride of place, important in retaining existing population and businesses, and in attracting new enterprises and families.
  • Heritage Preservation:
    • Rural Tourism brings a strong sense of emotion in everyone’s (both community and tourists) mind to preserve and reserve the local culture and heritages to make any place attractive for the tourists to visit it and also for the host community to live in.
    • Such sense is maintained through rural museums that play a significant role in local heritage preservation.

Way forward:

  • Resources mapping brings to the fore what rural India has to offer to tourists.
  • Traditionally Indian society is known for its hospitality; however some basic training on soft skills to engage the tourists will certainly be helpful.
  • The education and awareness at community level will be very crucial for developing sustainable tourism practices in villages.
  • Panchayats, NGOs and community organisations have an important role to play here by way of engaging both communities and tourists to promote responsible tourism.
  • There is a need to develop the Accessibility, Accommodation, Attractions and Amenities (4A’s).
  • Encouraging local entrepreneurs, private enterprises, investors and other tourism stakeholders to come under a common umbrella for basic rural infrastructure development activities is also essential.
  • Better implementation of the Government schemes viz. Swadesh Darshan, PRASAD, Special Tourism Zones and Promotion of e-Tourist Visa facilities.
  • Promotion of non-intrusive rural tourism with preservation of traditional cultures should be done.

Topic: Disaster and disaster management. Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

3) The recent floods of catastrophic dimensions have ravaged many states in the country, don’t you think this has proved the rejection of Gadgil panel report to be a costly error for people and environment? Critically analyse.(250 words)

Livemint

 

Why this question: 

Gadgil panel report on rapid erosion of Western Ghats is back in focus amid floods.

Demand of the question:

The answer must analyse the key findings of the report and in what way the recommendations of the report were ignored and such an ignorance has actually led to intensification of the disasters marring the western Ghats.

Directive word: 

Critically analyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

Explain what is the issue.

Body

First explain what was Gadgil report all about? What were its key recommendations? Why was the report rejected and on what basis?

Then discuss its implications. Relate it to the current conditions of the western Ghats and associate it with the causative factors of the recent floods.

Conclusion 

Conclude with solutions and way ahead.

Introduction:

The Centre constituted the 14-member Western Ghats Ecology Expert Panel (WGEEP) in 2010 under the chairmanship of noted ecologist Madhav Gadgil. It was tasked to look into measures to arrest the ecological devastation from human activities in the Western Ghats. The Gadgil panel report (2011) had recommended controls on mineral extraction and mining. It recommended against building new large-scale dams and inter-basin diversions of rivers.

Body:

Key recommendations:

  • The Gadgil Committee divided the Western Ghats into three ecologically sensitive zones (ESZ) the highest (ESZ1), high (ESZ2) and moderate sensitivity (ESZ3) zones.
  • This is in addition to the Protected Areas managed under acts such as the Wildlife Protection Act.
  • It suggested that ESZ1 and ESZ2 would be largely ‘no-go’ zones implying mining, polluting industries as well as large-scale development activities, including new railway lines are restricted.
  • It also objected to new dams, thermal power stations or massive windmill farms or new townships in ESZ1.
  • The panel however gave importance to the local communities and gram sabhas, where they were given a larger say in deciding on matters relating to the ecology of these regions.
  • No more new hill stations, no change of land-use from forest to non-forest use, or public to private ownership and no more inter-basin diversions of rivers in the Western Ghats
  • It also called for stricter regulation on tourism; phasing out of plastics and chemical fertilisers; a ban on diversion of forest land into non-forest applications; a ban on conversion of public lands into private lands.

The Gadgil Panel report was rejected by the then Union Environment Minister and was also unacceptable to any of the six Western Ghats States. The recommendations, which have been ignored by state governments, are back in focus as the states face monsoon fury with floods and landslides killing hundreds across Kerala, Karnataka and Maharashtra.

Implications of rejection of report:

  • Most of the rivers in the Western Ghats are either dammed or diverted. West-flowing rivers have been virtually made into east-flowing rivers by violating all natural laws.
  • Kerala has a total 5,924 quarries, an average of six quarries per panchayat, of which 3,332 are in the ecologically sensitive zones identified by Gadgil.
  • The vibrations from these blasts are shaking the hills. Sound waves go fastest in diamonds, and the next in granites. The density variations arising out of quarrying are destroying millennia-old forests in the Western Ghats
  • Most sites where landslides took place, in fact, fall into the zones which would otherwise have been marked ecologically sensitive, had the key recommendations of the report been adopted.
  • Referring to the region, as the “Protector of the Indian Peninsula”, the report had raised alarm on the rapid erosion of natural capital for man-made capital in the Western Ghats, which has led to “excessive, unnecessary environmental damage”.
  • Both the Athirappally project in Kerala and Gundia hydel project in Karnataka fall in ESZ1 zone, these projects should not be accorded environmental clearance.
  • There is premature silting up of reservoirs due to the massive encroachment and deforestation of catchments consequent to dam construction. Idukki dam is a classic case wherein the entire catchment was encroached along with dam construction
  • The large-scale shift to cultivation of soil-eroding monoculture plantations of tea, coffee, cardamom, rubber, banana, pineapple and timber on steep slopes, leading to increased surface run-off and low seepage deep into the soil.
  • Land-use changes mapped by Kerala Forest Research Institute shows Wayanad has lost a forest cover of 1086 square km, an area larger than all of Delhi.
  • The fragmentation of forests is also reflected in human-animal conflict that has been on a rise.
  • Wayanad has also witnessed a change in temperature of 2-3 degrees, that otherwise happens over centuries, over a short span of years

Way forward:

  • The Western Ghats States need to reconsider their stand in view of the recent calamity.
  • The “environment vs development and livelihoods” debate should not be used to shield vested interests.
  • A different governance regime, as suggested by the Gadgil panel, may be required to administer the Western Ghats.
  • However, Kasturirangan panel’s observation that results are better achieved through incentives than policing is valid.
  • Indeed, the challenge is to set up decentralised, participatory institutions to manage hilly regions and river basins.
  • The Centre should urge the States to accept the best in both the reports.
  • It should not entertain any further reduction of ecologically sensitive areas, for nature’s and hence people’s sake.

Conclusion:

A policy shift is urgently warranted curtailing the environmentally disastrous practices and switching over to a more sustainable farming approach in the Western Ghats. Decommissioning of dams and thermal projects that have crossed their viable life span of 30-50 years in a phased manner is need of the hour.


Topic:  Agriculture, Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country, different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers.

4) Palm oil easily constitutes over two-third of India’s burgeoning vegetable oil import and amidst such huge demand sustainability of palm oil Industry in India lingers to face many tests. Analyse.(250 words)

Financialexpress

Why this question:

The question is based on the theme of sustainable palm oil industry and the challenges it is facing in the country.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the challenges being faced by the palm oil industry in the country and what needs to be done to overcome them.

Directive:

analyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. 

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Describe with statistics the palm oil growing regions of the country.

Body:

In recent years, rising incomes, expanding population and extant low per-capita availability have combined to boost India’s edible oil consumption.

Then discuss the key problems associated.

Explain in what way with industry backing and consumer awareness, eco-friendly palm oil can find a lucrative market in the country.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

India is perhaps the biggest market for edible oil. In value terms vegetable oil imports are next only to crude and gold. It is the highest for any food commodity. India’s import dependence in this has worsened to over 70%.

Body:

State of Indian Palm Oil:

  • Oil palm crop is one of the highest oil (palm oil) yielding crops among the all perennial crops. Oil palm tree produces edible palm-oil as well as palm kernel-oil.
  • In cooking oil, India depends on imports for two-thirds of its requirement.
  • Domestic production meets three quarters of its annual requirement of 32 million tonnes because of initiatives taken by the present and previous governments
  • Annual imports during the past three years have averaged 14.82 million tonnes at $9.43 billion.
  • Though palm oil has a high proportion of unhealthy saturated fats-45% compared to 6% in mustard oil-there is no way India can affordably meets its growing needs without relying on it.
  • Annual imports of crude palm oil during the past three years have averaged 6.76 million tonnes, giving it a 46% share of the commodity’s imports.
  • Soybean and sunflower oils follow at some distance.

Issues facing palm oil industry in India:

  • Self-sufficiency is almost impossible with oilseeds because there is not enough land available.
  • Currently, it covers 3.45 lakh hectares out of a potential area of 19.33 lakh hectares, nearly half of it in Andhra Pradesh.
  • Uncertainty of income deters smallholder farmers from investing in a long-gestation crop, which yields fruit after three years of planting for 27 years.
  • Instable prices: The current monthly price of Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB) in Andhra and Telangana varies between Rs 7,200 and Rs 8,000 a tonne. A year ago, it went down to Rs 6,000. For farmers to make a profit, the price should be Rs 9,500 a tonne
  • Low productivity also haunts the industry. India produces five tonnes of FFB per hectare on average.
  • Low yields translate into low capacity utilisation of the processing plants, which adds to the cost.
  • India’s average palm oil yield is 0.88 tonnes per hectare, compared to Malaysia’s four tonnes and Andhra’s two tonnes.
  • The East Asian country has the advantage of daily rainfall. In India, irrigation is a big cost.
  • As in sugarcane, oil palm farmers are required to supply to a mill in the vicinity which must pay the price fixed by state governments.
  • In the north-east, the condition of the roads is such that FFB often cannot be brought to the mills within 24 hours and there is much oozing of oil owing to bumpy rides.

Measures needed:

  • To make a dent in the import bill, India must increase palm oil production because oil palms have the highest productivity at 4,000 kg of oil per hectare. In contract, mustard, which has a high oil content of 35-42%, yields 440-500 kg of oil per hectare at current levels of productivity.
  • The government must pay farmers the difference between the normative cost and the actual purchase price.
  • Support to farmers for planting materials, inter cropping & maintenance cost for gestation period (4 yrs), bore well, drip irrigation, harvesting tools.
  • Corporations should be allowed to do oil palm cultivation as they can bear financial risks and do farming scientifically.
  • Oil palm would have to be declared a plantation crop. This would lift the bar on companies from buying agricultural land.
  • The Commission on Agricultural Costs and Prices (CACP), which fixes minimum support prices, had recommended a mix of smallholder farms and corporate plantations in 2012.
  • Small farmers can give the palms better care. Processing companies should do a better job of extending services to them
  • A ceiling on other vegetable oil import will reduce the quantum of arrivals and support domestic producers. Ceiling should come with the provision to review it every 6 months, depending on the exigencies of the situation.
  • Import duties should be varied dynamically. It should be fixed in a way so that imported oils are not cheaper than the MSP for domestic oils.
  • Special focus for promotion of oil palm in all NE states.
  • To meet the planting materials requirement for new plantation both from indigenous and imported sources.
  • Capacity building of farmers and extension officials.
  • Assured procurement of FFBs through processors.
  • Supporting oil palm growers through Market Intervention Scheme (MIS) to provide remunerative prices of FFBs as and when international CPO price fall below $ 800 per MT.

Conclusion:

Oil palm crop provides the excellent substitute of importing the oil. There is a need to help farmers of the country to achieve self-sufficiency in pulses and hope that they would repeat the “success” in oilseeds.


Topic:  Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security; money-laundering and its prevention.

5) Proactive participation of state governments is one of the best possible ways to battle Maoist insurgency in the country. Analyse.(250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question:

The question aims to analyse the role of state govt. in tackling the problem of Maoist insurgency.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss in what way the long-standing internal national security threat can be handled with active participation of state governments.

Directive:

analyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. 

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin with brief on the current situations of Maoist insurgencies in the country.

Body:

Discussion should include the following: 

First explain the scenario of insurgency in the country and expanse, in what way can the insurgency be handled through proactive engagement of government. Take hints from the article and discuss the same with suitable illustrations.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

In 2006, then Prime Minister Manmohan Singh named  Maoist insurgency as “the single biggest internal-security challenge” the country has ever faced. While security forces have made continuous inroads, the Central Committee of the CPI (Maoist) has repeatedly admitted in various reports and meetings that their base area has shrunk, fresh recruitment almost dried up, and desertions increased.

Body:

States’ response to Maoist insurgency:

  • States’ response to the Maoist insurgency has evolved over the years, influenced by both the intensity of threat and the nature of political dispensation at the Centre and the affected states.
  • While the previous United Progressive Alliance (UPA) government laid the foundation for the country’s Counter-Insurgency (COIN) strategy, the current National Democratic Alliance (NDA) government has accelerated the pace and enhanced the effectiveness.
  • Various COIN initiatives have been an amalgamation of both population-centric and enemy-centric approaches, combining law-and-order mechanisms and development instruments.
  • Given that law and order is under the purview of the states or provinces, the most crucial counterinsurgency efforts are in the hands of state-level leadership.
  • The federal government supported these efforts with joint strategies, resources, intelligence and coordination.
  • Andhra Pradesh and Chhattisgarh:
    • Different states have pursued different strategies with different levels of effectiveness. For example, while Chhattisgarh has struggled to clean up its part of the so-called “Red Corridor”, Andhra Pradesh’s Greyhounds, an elite anti-Maoist military unit raised in 1989, have done a stellar job of not just chasing the Maoists out of the state but of keeping them out as well.
    • The Andhra Pradesh state succeeded in stamping out left-wing extremism by combining police action with socio-economic programmes implemented by an effective service delivery mechanism.
    • The Greyhounds have also inspired similar units raised specifically to fight asymmetric wars in jungle terrain, including the CRPF’s Commando Battalions for Resolute Action (CoBRA).
    • In fact, CoBRA is part of the Union government’s anti-Maoist campaign launched in 2009, commonly referred to as Operation Green Hunt—a search-and-destroy campaign to clear out the jungles—which prompted massive retaliatory attacks on security forces.
    • The state governments took proactive steps by deploying additional resources and are trying their best to check Maoists’ expansion.
    • In Chhattisgarh, many new police stations and security camps have been established. The SP, Kabirdham, organised a number of awareness campaigns in remote areas which are most vulnerable to Maoist influence. He made arrangements for villagers’ training and facilitated government employment for hundreds.
    • Counter-insurgency strategy involved the nurturing and strengthening of a vigilante group, popularly called Salwa Judum (or Purification Hunt).The Chhattisgarh state government supported the Salwa Judum movement by creating a local militia called Special Police Officers (SPOs) comprising former rebels and local youth.
    • The state government also adopted a Surrender and Rehabilitation policy and passed the Chhattisgarh Special Public Securities Act, 2006, which dramatically expanded the ambit of “unlawful” activities including verbal or oral communications.
    • The game-changer seems to have been the improved road connectivity: 11 key road projects were finished by 2018, connecting the Sukma, Bijapur and Jagdalpur districts.
    • In addition, enhanced combat capability of local police through modernisation and fortified police stations and improved coordination between Centre and state in intelligence and paramilitary support are resulting in palpable decrease in Maoist threat.
  • Jharkhand & Odisha:
    • The most crucial operation for Jharkhand’s state forces was the ambitious plan to recapture the forested region of Saranda, which has been a Maoist stronghold since the early 2000s.
    • Together with central forces, the state launched Operation Anaconda to weed out Maoists from Saranda and succeeded in 2011. The Central government immediately framed the Saranda Development Plan in 2012.
    • In Odisha, the hotspots of Maoist activities were the most backward and forested, mineral-rich districts with huge adivasi populations—i.e., Koraput, Malkanagiri, Nabarangapur, Rayagada, Gajapati, Kandhmal and Ganjam and Keonjhar.
    • State response to left-wing extremism in Odisha was not very different from that of other Maoist-affected states: from loud denial to grudging acceptance.
    • The State also opened a training school in each of the seven police ranges, supplemented by 17 battalions of Central forces stationed in key Naxal-affected districts.
    • One of these measures was the allotment of patta (land entitlements) to adivasis across several Naxal-infested districts.
    • The State also came out with a model Resettlement and Rehabilitation Policy to address some of the core issues related to land acquisition and displacement.
    • There were also efforts to conduct food rationing, implement a job scheme, construct roads, and undertake livelihood and entitlements-based programmes.
  • Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and West Bengal too has intensified anti-Maoist operations on the above lines in LWE affected areas.

Way forward:

  • Though, Maoists have weakened in states, and their expansionist policy is under check, security forces cannot afford to ignore their protracted war strategy.
  • The mobile war (capability to attack at will in base areas and escape unscathed) has to be reversed and the areas of security vacuum (where there is no presence of the security forces) plugged.
  • Better technologies, including Ground Penetration Radar, are required to detect and defuse IEDs.
  • Security forces also need to learn from previous tactical errors and adhere to time-proven SOPs.
  • The information network should improve with better road and telecom connectivity in far-flung areas. Surrender and rehabilitation policies must be implemented in letter and spirit.
  • The administrative and political vacuum in remote areas must be filled.
  • ‘The Forest Rights Act’ should be interpreted in favour of forest dwellers. The root cause of the problem that is exploited by the Maoists —socio-economic deficits — must be bridged.
  • The human rights of the local populace must be protected by the administration and security forces if the credibility of efforts so far is to be established.

Conclusion:

. The states aimed, and succeeded to a significant degree, to puncture the Maoist narrative of “an exploitative state run by the bourgeoisie”. In a show of cooperative federalism—evident from institutional coordination and the implementation of joint mechanisms—both Centre and states have exhibited a clear common purpose in counterinsurgency and reducing LWE violence.


Topic: Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.

6) What do you understand by persuasion? Discuss the significant role played by it in public life.(250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon publications

Why this question:

The question is based on the concept of persuasion.

Key demand of the question:

Explain in detail the virtue of persuasion and the role it plays in public life.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

First define the concept of persuasion.

Body:

Persuasion is an umbrella term of influence. Persuasion can attempt to influence a person’s beliefs, attitudes, intentions, motivations, or behaviors. Discuss the various associated theories of persuasion. Explain how these can be applied to different situations differently. Explain using a case study/example how persuasion can be put to use in public life, what importance does it hold.

Conclusion:

Conclude by asserting the significance of Persuasion as a key value in public life.

Introduction:

Persuasion is symbolic process in which communicators try to convince other people through transmission of a message to change their attitudes or behaviours. Persuasion is the process of changing or reinforcing attitudes, beliefs or behaviour of a person.

Body:

People respond to persuasive messages in two ways: thoughtfully and mindlessly. When people are in thoughtful mode, the persuasiveness of the message is determined by merits of the message. When people respond to messages mindlessly, their brains are locked on automatic. Persuasion is mainly dependent upon the attractiveness of the speakers and reaction of the listeners. Persuasion is exclusively related with communication, learning, awareness and thought.

Role in Public life:

  • Effecting social change: To deal with issues like girl child education, inter caste marriage, temple entry for women, persuasion may be the only solution because change has to be brought keep intact the dignity and respect of all stake holders. g.: The advertisements for polio drops for children are a form of persuasion
  • Public policy formulation and implementation: Sometimes persuasion works better than coercion; success of the initiatives like Swachh Bharat Abhiyaan- cleanliness drives and Ujjwala give it up campaign can be attributed to persuasion.
  • Following rules: It helps in making people follow rules which bring inconvenience to them, like District collector visiting houses in the morning to persuade people for waste segregation before disposal.
  • Moral conditioning: Persuasion can bring change in attitude of people. In Delhi Metro various signboards on certain seats asks passengers to offer that seat to needy people. Similarly, regular announcements to keep the station clean persuade people to change their behaviour.
  • Incentivising good behaviour: For instance in income declaration scheme a window was open to declare black money with some fine and no legal action that incentivized people instead of penalizing them.

Conclusion:

Persuasion can bring a lasting change in people’s behaviour and is highly effective in implementation of public policies provided the tools are used in a right way.


Topic: Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.

7) Explain the relationship between attitude and behaviour. Do you think training can change attitude of people towards weaker sections of the society? Discuss. (250 words)

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Why this question:

The question aims to analyse the relationship between attitude and behaviour.

Key demand of the question:

Explain in detail the relationship between attitude and behaviour. In what way training can change attitude of people towards weaker sections of the society.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Define what is attitude.

Body:

Explain what are the elements of attitude and behaviour, in what way the two are interrelated. attitude can be defined as what a person internalizes as its values and beliefs, what it carries to be disposed and what generally forms a character of a person. behavior finely abuts attitude. it’s a sum total summary of a person’s actions.

It can be called the visible form of attitude. or rather actions make the attitude visible in the form of person’s behavior.

Discuss the role of training in redefining and shaping one’s attitude.

Conclusion:

Conclude with suitable examples and justify the importance of the two.

Introduction:

Attitude refers to a set of emotions, beliefs, and behaviours toward a particular object, person, thing, or event. Attitudes are often the result of experience or upbringing, and they can have a powerful influence over behavior.

Body:

Relationship between attitude and behaviour is very fine and subtle to understand. While Attitude is internal component of our cognition (thought process and perception system), behaviour is manifestation or exhibition of such attitude. We tend to assume that people behave according to their attitudes. However, social psychologists have found that attitudes and actual behavior are not always perfectly aligned.

For example if a person might have an attitude to help poor people, but his/her behaviour may not be in the direction.

Changing anything pre-eminent and settled attitude or behaviour, both, is difficult, as its human instinct. However change can be bought through self discovery or external inspiration.  A complete change in attitude may be difficult but rigidness of attitude can be lowered by training. The scope of their thinking can be extended which can make them see the other side of coin. For this both theoretical and practical training is required. Training provides more inputs to the process which is helpful in shaping the attitude of a person.

Teachers, politicians and bureaucrats who are not very familiar with the conditions of poor can be trained to be more amiable and sensitive towards weaker sections. Their familiarity with the situations in which weaker section live can bring out a positive change in them. Change in their attitude will depend on the training provided to them. A Training which emphasise the nature of public service and expectation from public servant can be helpful. It is also in the interest of the country to change the attitude of public functionaries who determines the course of life of the masses, in a positive direction.

Conclusion:

                Thus, by training and persuading the people the attitude and behaviour can be changed in the right direction.