SECURE SYNOPSIS: 13 AUGUST 2019

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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 13 AUGUST 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation. 

1) Examine the main provisions of the Code on Wages Bill, 2019.Do you think declaring minimum wage through a legislation would ultimately destroy jobs? Critically analyse. (250 words)

Livemint

Why this question:

The Parliament passed the Code on Wages Bill, 2019 mandating a minimum wage across the country in its first session itself. This law mandates a universal minimum payment of 178 a day.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must analyse the impact of the bill and to what extent is it justified.

Directive:

Critically analyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Brief on the background of the bill; Origin of minimum wage, the concept and its application.

Body:

First acknowledge the issue of minimum wages in india, explain what are the pros and cons of the move, its objectives and in what way it is both a boon and a bane. Take hints from the article and detail upon it and form a balanced opinion.

Conclusion:

Conclude with need to improvise and make the system of wages more efficient and effective.

Introduction:

The new Parliament passed the Code on Wages Bill, 2019 mandating a minimum wage across the country in its first session itself. This law mandates a universal minimum payment of ₹178 a day. The codification proposes to simplify 32 central labour laws into four codes to bring them in sync with the emerging economic situation, facilitate easier compliance by establishments, promote ease of living and ensure labour welfare and wage and social security for workers. The Code of Wages Bill is the first in the series of four labour codes.

Body:

Main provisions:

  • The bill aims to transform the old and obsolete labour laws into more accountable and transparent ones and seeks to pave the way for the introduction of minimum wages and labour reforms in the country.
  • It regulates the wages and bonus payments in all employments where any industry, trade, business, or manufacturing is being carried out.
  • It seeks to subsume relevant provisions of The Minimum Wages Act, 1948, Payment of Wages Act 1936, Payment of Bonus Act Act, 1965 and Equal Remuneration Act 1976
  • It universalizes the provisions of minimum wages and timely payment of wages to all employees irrespective of the sector and wage ceiling and seeks to ensure “Right to Sustenance” for every worker and intends to increase the legislative protection of minimum wage.
  • It has been ensured in the bill that employees getting monthly salary shall get the salary by 7th of next month, those working on a weekly basis shall get the salary on the last day of the week and daily wagers should get it on the same day.
  • The provisions of the bill will apply to all the employees. At present, the provisions of both the Minimum Wages Act and Payment of Wages Act apply on workers below a particular wage ceiling working in Scheduled Employments only.
  • Many unorganized sector workers like agricultural workers, painters, persons working in restaurants and dhabas, chowkidars, etc. who were out of the ambit of minimum wages will get legislative protection of minimum wages after the bill becomes an Act.
  • The Central Government is empowered to fix the floor wages by taking into account the living standards of workers. It may set different floor wages for different geographical areas.
  • The minimum wages decided by the central or state governments must be higher than the floor wage.

Potential of the wages Code:

  • According to the Periodic Labour Force Survey 2017-18, 45% of regular workers are paid less than the minimum wage.
  • The law would benefit about 50 crore workers.
  • With an easily understandable national wage floor— which would apply across job types and geographies—the hope is that compliance will improve.
  • At the moment, women earn roughly 45% less than men in the same occupation. It prohibits gender discrimination in matters related to wages and recruitment of employees for the same work or work of similar nature.
  • A national wage floor would also hopefully reduce rural-urban gaps.
  • Since casual workers can be fired easily, estimates show that the wage may even go down to a miserable ₹20 a day in times of poor demand. A mandated minimum wage will hopefully reduce these glaring inequities.
  • It will substantially reduce the number of minimum wages in the country from the existing more than 2000 rates of minimum wages.
  • This would ensure that every worker gets a minimum wage which will also be accompanied by an increase in the purchasing power of the worker thereby giving a fillip to growth in the economy.

Shortcomings of the Code:

  • For one, the wage prescribed is less than half the ₹375 a day recommended by a high-powered labour ministry panel.
  • It is also miles away from the ₹700 fair wage that the 7th Central Pay Commission had arrived at.
  • The new law increases the prevailing minimum wage standard by a paltry ₹2 a day.
  • The minimum wage laws raise business labour costs. That’s already the largest budget item for most of them. When the government forces them to pay more per worker, they hire fewer workers to keep the total labour costs the same. This increases the unemployment rate.
  • It hits low-wage workers the hardest since they must now compete for fewer jobs. Some smaller companies may not be able to operate with fewer workers. They may be forced to declare bankruptcy instead.
  • According to the Confederation of Indian Industries (CII), states should have the power to determine minimum wages as the concept of a national minimum wage will affect job creation.
  • A minimum wage penalizes companies that are labour-intensive. By default, this rewards those that are in capital-intensive industries. Over time, this can shift the very fabric of the country’s economic base.
  • Minimum wage laws may increase job outsourcing. Companies move their facilities to countries where labour costs are lower.
  • Minimum wage laws may not reduce the country’s poverty. It helps the workers who have jobs but increases unemployment. Research shows experienced workers received higher pay for less experienced workers lost their jobs.
  • It could raise the cost of living in some areas. A higher minimum wage allows workers to pay more for housing. As a result, landlords could raise rents, creating inflation.

Measures needed:

  • Increasing the ambit of the minimum wage system, it recommended deciding minimum wages on the basis of skills and split across geographical regions.
  • With the government in the process of bringing the Code on Wages Bill in Parliament, the survey said the rationalisation of minimum wages proposed by the Bill should be supported.
  • The survey suggested the government should notify a “national floor minimum wage” across five regions, after which States can fix their own minimum wages, but not lower than the floor wage.
  • This would bring uniformity and make States “almost equally attractive from the point of view of labour cost for investment as well as reduce distress migration.”
  • The proposed Code on Wages Bill should extend applicability of minimum wages to all employments/workers in all sectors and should cover both the organized as well as the unorganized sector.
  • A mechanism for regular adjustment of minimum wages should be developed, with a national-level dashboard at the Centre that States can access and update.
  • An easy to recall toll-free number to lodge complaints about non-payment of minimum wages should be publicised.

Conclusion:

A simple, coherent and enforceable Minimum Wage System should be designed with the aid of technology as minimum wages push wages up and reduce wage inequality without significantly affecting employment. An effective minimum wage policy is a potential tool not only for the protection of low paid workers but is also an inclusive mechanism for more resilient and sustainable economic development.


Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

2) Critically examine the effect of abrogation of Article 370 and Article 35A on the federal fabric of the country.(250 words)

Hindustantimes

Why this question:

The article throws light on the recent move made by the government with respect to abrogating Article 370 and Article 35A and in what way it has affected the federal character of the country. 

Key demand of the question:

The answer must critically examine the essence of federalism and the blow it has taken due to the scrapping of article 370 and 35A.

Directive:

Critically Examine When asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Brief upon the context of the question or start with definition of federalism.

Body:

Discussion should have the following aspects covered:

In what way it has silenced the voices of those affected by these actions?

Tendency of centralization of power.

Detail upon the federal arrangements and effects on political decentralization.

Conclusion:

Conclude with need to respect and value federalism as the beholding fabric of the country and that it shouldn’t be disturbed.

Introduction:

The government recently introduced a resolution to remove provisions of Article 370, which provides special status to Jammu and Kashmir.  In addition, Home Minister also introduced a Bill bifurcating the State of Jammu of Kashmir into Union Territory of Ladakh and the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir. The Presidential Order has extended all provisions of the Constitution to Jammu and Kashmir, including the chapter on Fundamental Rights. Therefore, the discriminatory provisions under Article 35A are now unconstitutional.

Body:

Federalism in India:

  • The framers of India’s constitution had to negotiate two conflicting tensions while designing the contours of India’s federal system.
  • On the one hand, the immediate historical context of Partition created the imperative for a strong central government that could pursue the task of nation building and democratic consolidation, unencumbered.
  • At the same time, there was the recognition that India’s diversity of language, region and religion, a diversity that was intrinsic to India’s national identity, could only be preserved through federal accommodation.
  • To balance these competing tensions, India’s federal system combined unitary and federal elements.
  • The central government was given wide-ranging powers, akin to most unitary systems.
  • These include the power to redraw state boundaries and emergency powers to dismiss state governments and impose the will of the Centre through presidential rule.
  • This strong Centre coexisted with a number of unique federal arrangements (or what political scientists have termed asymmetrical federalism) designed to accommodate the specific linguistic, regional, and more recently, ethnic assertions of statehood by offering varying degrees of autonomy from the Centre.
  • It is in this context of balancing federal accommodation with strong central powers that Article 370 (and the far less discussed, but equally significant, Article 371 that makes special provisions for many other states and regions) was adopted and implemented.

Abrogation of Article 370 and effect on federalism:

  • The constitutionality of the Reorganisation Bill and the Presidential Orders are doubtful on many grounds. First, it militates against the idea of federalism, which is a basic feature of the Indian Constitution.
  • The move has undermined and weakened India’s federal character by downgrading a State and territorially dividing it into two Union Territories without the consent of the people of J&K.
  • The method adopted to execute this decision is of special concern because by equating or replacing the Constituent Assembly of J&K (which was dissolved in 1957) with the Legislative Assembly of J&K, and Parliament appropriating the latter’s powers since the State is under President’s rule, the Central government has acted unilaterally to reorganise the State of J&K.
  • If this passes judicial scrutiny, it can then be done to any State in India, with drastic implications for its federal character.
  • The bifurcation of a state without satisfying the requirements of Article 3, and abrogation of Article 370 without consultations clearly goes against the principles of Indian federalism.
  • The maxim of ‘inclusivity’, that is, a political demand being made must be inclusive in terms of representing the interests of all those in whose name it is made.
  • The decision to divide the State is particularly fraught with the risk of deepening regional and communal fault lines.
  • The moral authority of regional parties to safeguard India’s federal system has been undermined.
  • The unilateral move by the Union Government opines that Federalism has now been positioned as an impediment to development by arguing that asymmetric federalism and Article 370 have sowed the roots of separatism.

Conclusion:

The special status of J&K was meant to end, but only with the concurrence of its people. The Centre’s abrupt move disenfranchised them on a matter that directly affected their life and sentiments. Moreover, that this was done after a massive military build-up and the house arrest of senior political leaders, and the communications shutdown reveals a cynical disregard of democratic norms. Whatever its intent in enabling the full integration of Jammu and Kashmir with India, this decision to alter the State’s status could have unintended and dangerous consequences.


Topic:  Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

3) Discuss the key provisions of the draft new education policy and throw light on the status of its implementation.(250 words)

Hindustantimes

Why this question:

The article provides for in-depth analysis of the possibilities, and gaps, in the draft new education policy. The draft of New National Education Policy has been recently submitted by the Committee led by the Chairman Dr. Kasturirangan on education policy.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the key policies of the New draft education policy and discuss upon its status of implementation.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin with brief on the current education scenario in the country using some facts and recent statistics.

Body:

Discussion should include the following: 

Explain that the draft Policy provides for reforms at all levels of education from school to higher education. It seeks to increase the focus on early childhood care, reform the current exam system, strengthen teacher training, and restructure the education regulatory framework.  It also seeks to set up a National Education Commission, increase public investment in education, strengthen the use of technology and increase focus on vocational and adult education, among others.

Then discuss its status of implementation and what more needs to be done.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

The Draft National Education Policy, 2019 prepared by a committee chaired by Dr K. Kasturirangan aims at making India a knowledge superpower by equipping students with the necessary skills and knowledge. It also focuses on eliminating the shortage of manpower in Science and Technology, academics and industry. The Draft Policy is built on foundational pillars of Access, Equity, Quality, Affordability and Accountability.

Body:

Key Features of the Draft Policy:

Status of implementation:

  • School education sector:
    • The reforms in teacher education carried out by the previous government find resonance in the draft NEP.
    • Four-year B. Ed programmes were conceptualised.
    • About 15 lakh untrained teachers have taken the diploma course.
    • The proposal in the NEP of offering a tenure track to teachers to become master and expert teachers, and putting institution leaders through leadership programmes, are in sync with what the previous government took baby steps in through the LEAP and ARPIT programmes.
  • Use of Technology:
    • India is already the second largest subscriber of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) in the world.
    • The government-run SWAYAM has more than one crore subscribers.
    • Students from remote parts of India are already able to access the best tutorials online.
    • Our school children in urban areas learn through websites such as Insights.
    • The draft NEP also refers to the huge shortage of teaching faculty, which is up to 40%. If we have to train our students on a grand scale, the magic wand is the massive popularisation and acceptance of MOOCs and other tech platforms.
    • In school education, it started Operation Digital Board to facilitate teaching through online materials.
    • Building up of the tech platform of SWAYAM was also coupled with regulatory changes in UGC and AICTE, empowering universities to offer up to 20% of their courses through SWAYAM.
  • Education bureaucracy:
    • A beginning has been made in allowing schools to set their own syllabus within the contours of the national curricular framework.
    • It will help our schools develop best-practices that work in the Indian milieu.
    • The draft NEP also offers solutions to untangle the conflict of interest in higher education by separating regulation, provision of education, financing, accreditation and standards setting.
    • The previous government was already working on separation of powers through higher education evaluation and regulation authority.
    • The policy proposes creation of Special Education Zones (SEZ).
    • It fits well with the prime minister’s thrust on 115 “Aspirational Districts”.
    • The government could also conduct a few worthwhile experiments that can be scaled up in the rest of the education system.
  • Indic languages:
    • The best parts of the draft NEP are the ones on languages and Indic thought. There is much-needed reorientation towards our own history and culture.
    • Indian Institute of Translation and Interpretation (IITI) has been recommended.
  • Early Childhood care and Education:
    • The early child care and education have been sought to be integrated within the Ministry of Education.
    • It is a product of extensive research in cognitive psychology over the years and activism by civil society in various states.
  • Vocational training:
    • The emphasis on vocational training in both school and higher education is a much-needed corrective measure.
    • In fact, in higher education, the draft NEP calls for expansion of vocational courses to 50% of the learners by 2025.
    • This has ramifications on the holistic learning of our students, addressing social biases and offering relevant skills to the market.

Conclusion:

The proposals offered are steady, incremental and executable. Hopefully, the feedback received in the last two months will correct the few anomalies. But the proof of the pudding will be determined by how many of the recommendations the executive takes up to enact laws and initiate programmes.


Topic: Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology

4) Discuss the significant contributions of Vikram Sarabhai in building India’s space program.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question: 

12th August was 100th birth anniversary of scientist and innovator Vikram Sarabhai. Dr. Sarabhai is considered as the father of India’s space program, and his centenary comes just weeks after India’s Chandrayaan-2 mission to the moon.

Demand of the question:

Explain in depth the contributions made by Dr. Sarabhai.

Directive word: 

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

Bring out importance of such personalities in bringing space technology to the current conditions and stature in India.

Body

From the article take cues and discuss the specific contributions made by Dr Vikram Sarabhai to the Indian space technology – Dr. Sarabhai established the Indian National Committee for Space Research in 1962, which was later renamed the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). He helped set up the Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station in Thiruvananthapuram, with its inaugural flight in November 1963. He pioneered the setting up of several institutions, such as the Indian Institute of Management in Ahmedabad, Community Science Centre etc.

Conclusion 

Conclude with reassertion of the extraordinary contributions made by him. 

Introduction:

Dr. Vikram Sarabhai is widely credited as the father of India’s space programme. But the dashing scientist was so much more – some of India’s most celebrated institutions today, from the Indian Institute of Management-Ahmedabad to the Indian Space Research Organisation, stand testament to his enduring legacy.

Body:

Contributions of Dr. Sarabhai:

  • By 1962, with the aim to formulate India’s space programme, he had been appointed the founding chair of INCOSPAR, which became the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) in 1969.
  • He successfully convinced the government of the importance of a space programme for a developing country like India after the Russian Sputnik launch.
  • Homi Jehangir Bhabha, widely regarded as the father of India’s nuclear science program, supported Dr. Sarabhai in setting up the first rocket launching station in India. This center was established at Thumba near Thiruvananthapuram on the coast of the Arabian Sea, primarily because of its proximity to the equator.
  • As a result of Dr. Sarabhai’s dialogue with NASA in 1966, the Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) was launched during July 1975 – July 1976.
  • Sarabhai started a project for the fabrication and launch of an Indian Satellite. As a result, the first Indian satellite, Aryabhata, was put in orbit in 1975 from a Russian Cosmodrome.
  • Sarabhai was very interested in science education and founded a Community Science Centre at Ahmedabad in 1966. Today, the Centre is called the Vikram A Sarabhai Community Science Centre.

Some of the most well-known institutions established by Dr. Sarabhai are:

  • Physical Research Laboratory (PRL), Ahmedabad
  • Indian Institute of Management (IIM), Ahmedabad
  • Community Science Centre, Ahmedabad
  • Darpan Academy for Performing Arts, Ahmedabad (along with his wife)
  • Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Thiruvananthapuramm
  • Space Applications Centre, Ahmedabad (This institution came into existence after merging six institutions/centres established by Sarabhai)
  • Faster Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR), Kalpakkam
  • Varaiable Energy Cyclotron Project, Calcutta
  • Electronics Corporation of India Limited (ECIL), Hyderabad
  • Uranium Corporation of India Limited (UCIL), Jaduguda, Bihar

Conclusion:

Dr. Sarabhai emphasized the importance of a space program in his quote: “There are some who question the relevance of space activities in a developing nation. To us, there is no ambiguity of purpose. We do not have the fantasy of competing with the economically advanced nations in the exploration of the moon or the planets or manned space-flight.”

For his visionary work in the field of space science, this scientist was decorated with two of India’s most honourable awards: the Padma Bhushan (1966) and the Padma Vibhushan (awarded posthumously in 1972).


Topic: Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.

 5) In times when man has sent rovers to Mars and sent Spacecrafts beyond our solar system, why is there a resurgent interest in the moon? Discuss. (250 words)

Indianexpress

 

Why this question:

The article discusses in detail the reasons for resurgent interest in the moon. 

Key demand of the question:

One must list down the possibly causes of Why is there a resurgence in interest in Moon.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief explain the significance of space missions.

Body:

Take hints from the article and list down causes as to despite multiple efforts made by the world countries the mission to moon have remained an unfinished agenda and thus there is dire need to resurge upon.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

July 20, 2019 marked the fiftieth anniversary of man’s first landing on the Moon, “a giant leap for mankind”, as Neil Armstrong described it. After the discovery of water on Lunar surface by Chandrayaan-1, there is a renewed surge of interest in moon travel is both an indication of the complexities of lunar missions and a future foretold.

Body:

Earlier Lunar missions:

  • The Apollo missions to the moon were hardly guided by science objectives. They were driven mainly by geo-political and nationalistic considerations.
  • The Apollo landing so early in our space age was, no doubt, an outcome of Cold War rivalry. It was all about seeking dominance in space. Resources were mobilised on a war-scale.
  • There was huge amount of scientific information that came out of those missions. The rocks and other samples that the astronauts returned with were a wealth of information.
  • One after the other, NASA landed six Apollo spacecraft on the moon, each carrying two astronauts with it, before abandoning the extremely expensive programme in 1972.
  • Beaten in the race, the USSR, which was preparing feverishly to take a man to the moon, too, lost interest in just emulating the US and dropped its plans.
  • All information about the moon at that time, gleaned from the rock samples brought back by the astronauts, as well as from other studies, pointed to moon having a bone-dry surface, bereft of any water.
  • If human beings had to build a permanent scientific station on the moon, they would have to carry not just all their material from the earth, but also water.

Resurgence in Lunar missions:

  • The scientists’ perception of the moon changed considerably once traces of water molecules were discovered.
  • In the 1990s, both the Clementine and the Lunar Prospector, the two NASA missions that restarted lunar exploration, picked up signals of water on moon. So did the Cassini mission in 1998, which flew by the moon on its way to Saturn.
  • But the conclusive evidence of the presence of water on the moon was delivered by two instruments on board Chandrayaan-1the Moon Mineralogy Mapper placed by NASA, and ISRO’s own Moon Impact Probe that was made to crash on the moon’s surface.
  • The discovery of water changes everything. It gives rise to a host of possibilities. It is this discovery of water that has triggered all the space faring nations to start looking at moon again
  • In addition to the sustenance of life, water could also be utilised as a fuel to power rockets for deep interplanetary missions.

Potential outcomes of future lunar missions:

  • Fuel: Water can be broken into hydrogen and hydroxide molecules. Hydrogen can be used for power generation as well as a propellant to in rockets.
  • Launch pad: In the long run, if we are to use moon as a launch pad for going further into space, then we would need to develop technologies to extract hydrogen from the water on the moon and use it as a fuel.
  • Creation of New objects: We have technologies that now make it possible to build in-situ, on the surface of the moon, using materials found there. We have 3-D printing technologies to achieve this.
  • Nuclear fusion fuel: It is also very much in the realm of possibility to extract and use hydrogen as an energy source, or even the Helium-3 which is abundantly available on the moon, as a source of immense energy in nuclear fusion reactors.
  • International lunar space station: to create a permanent space station, like the ISS, on the surface of the moon in the next 10 years. The ISS that serves as a permanent laboratory in space, about 400 km above the earth’s surface, is due to retire latest by 2028, and no replacement for it has been decided as yet.

Conclusion:

The stage is now set again for a race to the moon over the next decade, and, this time, it is likely to be markedly different from the earlier one. In all probability, it will involve multiple participants, be more collaborative than competitive, and will be guided by the overall objective of utilising the resources of the moon, setting up permanent facilities for scientific explorations and using it as a launch pad to take humans deeper into space.


Topic: Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

6) Bhagavat Gita advocates ‘detachment’ as an essential attribute for being successful in one’s duty. Is this virtue still relevant in today’s public administration? Discuss using suitable example and give your opinion.(250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon publications

Why this question:

The question aims to evaluate the virtue of detachment and in what way it impacts the duty aspect of an individual.

Key demand of the question:

Explain in detail the virtue of detachment and in what way it is applicable to public administration.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Discuss what you understand by ‘detachment’ in the context of the question.

Body:

Bhagavad Gita is one of the earliest texts in any tradition to emphasize that it is important not just to do one’s duty, but to do it in a certain kind of way; detachment.

Explain the importance of Detachment in general and how it applies to public services – it boosts a public servant capability to stay away from unintended emotions and ensures that emotions are invested wisely. It is is important to uphold public Interest as our excessive attachment with postings, perk, privilege, power, and position leads to civil servants becoming pursuing self-interest rather than public interest, self-serving rather than serving the people etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by reasserting significance of the same.

Introduction:

Nishkam Karma is a central theme in the Bhagavad Gita. In Sanskrit, nishkam means “action without motive,” “work without desire” or “desire-less.” Detachment in public administration refers to act unselfishly, or without personal gain in mind. When acting out of detachment, an individual is acting without any expectation that good will be returned to him/her.

Body:

Work is the central and defining characteristic of life. Attachment to the result of work may lead to stress, competition and aggression that in turn may lead to fatal medical and psychological conditions. The understanding of KarmaYoga and its practice would lead an individual to work with intrinsic values rather than with instrumental values

Relevance in today’s public administration:

  • In today’s commoditised world, everything is target oriented. All actions are leading towards the fruit of action. So it is nearly impossible to be detached with the results.
  • In the quest of achieving short-term gains, administrators are performing their duties “either by hook or by crook”.
  • Competition springs from comparisons and in today’s comparative milieu, the work done is mostly to be better than others. This culture is seen in bureaucracy too albeit for their personal gains.
  • High incidences of corruption, nepotism, favouritism for personal gains have been the way of public administration in most Weberian bureaucracies across globe.

The principle of detachment helps by:

  • Detachment promotes citizen-centricity in public administration by making public servants accountable, transparent & responsive to peoples’ needs.
  • Helps to uphold constitution & the laws in both letter as well as spirit.
  • The lack of courage will help public servant to consider his duties sacrosanct & promote public good.
  • It eliminates conflict of interest by reducing the intermingling of public and private life.

Conclusion:

There should be a sense of duty or obligation towards others and an absence of desire for personal rewards. Public administrators must follow the principle of “Work is worship” as enunciated by social reformer of 12th century, Basavanna.


Topic:  Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

7) In the context of Artificial intelligence, it is essential that technology should be evaluated both on the basis of its utility and the intention of its creator. Comment.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question:

The article emphasizes on the need for A technology to be evaluated both on the basis of its utility and the intention of its creator.

Key demand of the question:

Explain in depth the need for understanding and discussing the ethical basis of AI and in what way it is important for India.

Directive:

Commenthere we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Explain the need for ethics in using technology.

Body:

The body of the answer should explain that multiple ethical perspectives are involved in development and application of a technology and it becomes essential for any technology like that of artificial intelligence to inculcate ethic on the basis of its utility and the intention of its creator.

Illustrate using suitable case studies/examples.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

“The greatest enemy of knowledge is not ignorance, it is the illusion of knowledge” was what Stephen Hawking said. Artificial Intelligence is one such booming field which is gaining huge demand yet not many comprehend its ethical fallout.

Body:

AI is being widely used today as shown below

  • Al powered bots have also been used to influence humans perceptions, views and opinions. Such activities are rampantly being promoted through social media platforms for various ulterior purposes using fake news, unethical advertisements, etc which then have huge negative consequences.
  • AI based weapons are fast gaining currency. Since humans can be replaced by such machines, declaring war would become more convenient. These machines can wreck havoc if uncontrolled endangering the human race itself.
  • AI is being used for extensive surveillance as in China which violates right to privacy. Such intelligence can be even used to selectively target and eliminate opponents which instil deep fear among people who would like to raise voice against injustice.
  • Humans can pass on their limitations to robots. E.g.: biases, prejudices, discrimination, etc. A recent report in USA revealed that robot can be racist.

Importance of evaluation of AI technology:

  • With the proliferation of AI, it is important for us to know the ethical basis of every AI system that we use or is used on us.
  • An ethical basis resting on both teleological and deontological perspectives gives us more faith in a system.
  • Sometimes, even an inclusive intention may need careful scrutiny.
  • Ethical norms regarding uses of AI and our ability to regulate them in an intelligent and beneficial manner should keep pace with the fast changing technological capabilities.
  • Understanding and discussing the ethical basis of AI is important for India.

Conclusion:

The transformative capability of AI in India is huge, and must be rooted in an egalitarian ethical basis. Any institutional framework for AI should have a multidisciplinary and multi-stakeholder approach, and have an explicit focus on the ethical basis.