Print Friendly, PDF & Email

SECURE SYNOPSIS: 12 AUGUST 2019


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 12 AUGUST 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation. 

1) “Cooperative federalism is the want of the hour for restored management of dams in India”. Analyse.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question:

 The Lok Sabha recently passed the Dam Safety Bill, 2019 by a voice vote. The Bill seeks to provide for institutional mechanism for surveillance, inspection, operation and maintenance of specified dams across the country.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must address the aspect of need of cooperative federalism in managing dams in India.

Directive:

analyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief state the recent coming of Dam safety Bill.

Body:

Discuss that Dams are critical infrastructure developed for irrigation, power generation, flood moderation and supply of water for drinking and industrial use.

As such their safety has serious consequences for human life, ecology and public and private assets and a matter of great concern to the general public and becomes a national responsibility to take necessary steps to ensure it.

Explain what is cooperative federalism? Discuss its role in managing dams, relevance to dam safety bill etc. 

Conclusion:

Conclude that going forward, all the states will learn the lessons and will work towards national welfare by strengthening cooperative federalism.

Introduction:

The Dam safety bill 2019 seeking to set up an institutional mechanism for surveillance, inspection, operation and maintenance of specified dams across the country was passed by Lok Sabha with the centre asserting it has no intention of taking over power of the states.

Body:

State of dams in India:

  • Around 92 per cent of dams in the country are on inter-state river basins.
  • There are 5,745 reservoirs in the country of which 293 are more than 100 years old.
  • The age of 25 per cent of dams is between 50 to 100 years and 80 per cent are over 25 years old.
  • 40 dams have collapsed in India since Independence and the worst such disaster occurred in Gujarat in 1979 leading to loss of thousands of lives of people.
  • Though India has the world’s third-largest tally of dams, next only to the US and China, it does not have any statutory framework to ensure their safety.

The provisions of the bill are proposed to be applied to all specified dams in the country which have height of more than 15 metres, or between 10 metres to 15 metres. Among other things, the bill also seeks to resolve the inter-state issues concerning maintenance and safety of dams. It plans to constitute National Committee on Dam Safety and National Dam Safety Authority.

Rationale behind the bill:

  • The Bill says dams are critical infrastructure developed for irrigation, power generation, flood moderation and supply of water for drinking and industrial use.
  • As such their safety has serious consequences for human life, ecology and public and private assets and a matter of great concern to the general public and becomes a national responsibility to take necessary steps to ensure it.
  • Starting with a Standing Committee under the chairman of the Central Water Commission in 1982, efforts were made to persuade states to legislate such a mechanism, since water is a state subject.
  • But later, as Andhra Pradesh and West Bengal demanded a uniform central legislation the central government initiated a central legislation.

Concerns regarding the bill:

  • States’ objections to the Bill are two-fold, one of which is that since ‘water’ comes under the State list, it is an unconstitutional move aimed at taking control of their dams.
  • Certain states have put a question mark over the legislative competence of the Centre in violation of federal spirit of constitution.
  • The provisions in the Bill imply that the dam-owning State would not have rights over the safety and maintenance of the dam located in another State.
  • Tamil Nadu has opposed it, fearing that the dams owned and operated by it would come under the purview of the National Dam Safety Organisation (NDSO) and that Kerala would also get access to the dam and information about it.
  • This clause is particularly worrisome for the State which has fours dams — the Mullaperiyar, Parambikulam, Thunakkadavu and Peruvaripallam — that are owned by it, but are situated in neighbouring Kerala.
  • States fear that the Centre may take control over their dams.
  • There is lack of sufficient consultation with the States on the Bill due to which States see Dam Safety Bill, 2018 with suspicion, as is already happening.
  • Kerala MP also pointed out a conflict of interest in the Bill — the provision to have a representative of the Central Water Commission as a member of the NCDS (a regulatory body) would mean that CWC will function as both an advisor and regulator, which is impermissible under the Constitution according to the Supreme Court.
  • Age of the dam is the major issue which should have been taken up.
  • The bill is too focused on structural safety and not on operational safety.
  • There is inadequate compensation to the people affected by dams.
  • There is need for an independent regulator as well as for a precise definition of stakeholders.

Way forward:

  • Dam Safety Bill, 2018 is much needed legislation to ensure the safety of man and materials in the downstream areas of dam.
  • The bill is critical adaptive measure in context of climate change, as extreme weather events like floods are expected to increase e.g. recent Kerala floods are attributed to climate change.
  • There is need for wider consultation with states in spirit of cooperative federalism, to allay the concerns of states. Objections by states should be addressed to ensure the legislation secure its aim without centre and states conflicts.
  • Dams rehabilitation improvement programme (DRIP) will be helpful, where centre can help states to protect dams with the help from World Bank. This needs a better cooperation from centre and states.
  • DHARMA portal can be used to monitor the health of dams.

Topic: Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary; Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.

2) “Any step towards overhauling the Judicial System should intend to balance judicial independence and judicial accountability.” Examine the above statement in the light of recent controversies. (250 words)

Reference

Why this question:

The question aims to address the need for balancing independence and accountability of the judiciary.

Key demand of the question:

The answer should discuss the need for balancing judicial independence and judicial accountability amidst newer changes that are being made in the judicial system for improvisation.

Directive:

ExamineWhen asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Discuss the recent changes that have been made in the judiciary.

Body:

Explain the importance of judicial review and importance of system of checks and balances. Highlight the need for judicial accountability by pointing out Basic structure doctrine, usurping powers of executive, lack of judicial values and non-obligation to RTI. Highlight the ways in which judicial independence and judicial accountability can be balanced by pointing out Code of Conduct, Judicial ethics, Judges Association, Transparency, Steps for Parliamentary reform.

Conclusion:

Reiterate the need to ensure judicial accountability while balancing Independence.

Introduction:

The Indian Judiciary plays an increasingly important role in the life and the governance of this country. It is argued that the Indian judiciary has become all powerful, mostly by taking on enormous authority in policy areas that are technically beyond its ambit.

Body:

The recent controversies surrounding Judicial System:

  • The Chief Justice’s conduct in the sexual harassment allegations has sent a signal that he is above all principles of natural justice, above all due process, above all law and entitled to be a judge in his own cause.
  • The controversies regarding the CJI being the master of the roster and how the cases were allotted to various benches in partisan manner.
  • The issue of 4 senior most judges holding a public press conference wrt the above issue.
  • Lack of transparency particularly in the appointment of judges has led to issues like that of errant judges like Justice CS Karnan.
  • The sealed cover has now become a problem of opacity. In the Rafale case, the NDA government’s evidence is in a sealed envelope, as indeed are all the reports of the officer in-charge of the National Register of Citizens process in Assam. In former Central Bureau of Investigation chief Alok Verma’s case, the Central Vigilance Commission’s report remains in a sealed cover, as do the NIA’s reports in the Hadiya conversion case.
  • Parliament had tried to create the National Judicial Accountability Commission (NJAC) exactly for such situations but the SC struck it down (4-1) as unconstitutional.
  • The Supreme Court protects the Right to Information Act for us, but claims immunity for itself. Only seven of 27 SC judges have disclosed their assets. There is no transparency or disclosure of the collegium proceedings or even explanation when it changes its mind on an appointment.

The principles of judicial independence and accountability are sometimes regarded as fundamentally opposed to one another, and constantly in tension. Judicial independence is “an essential pillar of liberty and the rule of law”. The classic defence of judicial independence ­– usually put forward by judges themselves – rests primarily on two arguments. Firstly, that independence is a value and an end in itself. And secondly, that any means of accountability directly impinges upon, and damages, judicial independence.

The purpose of judicial independence, either of the judiciary as an institution or of an individual judge, is never an end in itself. Its purpose is always to secure judicial impartiality. If a judiciary cannot administer the law fairly and fearlessly, then nothing else is of any consequence. Impartiality is a central and necessary feature of judicial independence.

Measures needed:

  • An independent enquiry towards complaints of Sexual harassment is needed to uphold the credibility of the SC.
  • The Gender Sensitization and ICC should inquire into the affidavit of the complainant to ensure justice is done.
  • Appointment:
    • More transparency in the appointment of judges, the Memorandum of Procedure must be adopted at the earliest.
    • All India Judicial services (AIJS) for uniformity and efficiency in appointment process.
  • Strengthening alternative dispute resolution mechanisms
  • Adequate funding to expand physical infrastructure.
  • Modernization of court process; use of technology to be expanded. Initiatives like CIS should be supplemented by file tracking and knowledge management system.
  • Analyzing appropriate court-related data for better understanding of problems. This would also help in proper case listing
  • Application of management principles; full utilization of court managers; include external support agencies to work with judicial officers to cater to the needs of institution better.
  • Creation of a transparent mechanism to discipline judges
  • Judicial Standards and accountability Bill, 2012: The Bill seeks to put in a place a system to probe complaints against High Court and Supreme Court Judges.

Conclusion:

Judges, undoubtedly, require protection from being sued for their judicial decisions so as to be able to “do the duty with complete independence and free from fear” and hence require independence and supremacy in their functioning. Meanwhile it is imperative to have a transparent system within the judiciary itself to deal with cases of judicial misconduct and to infuse the idea of judicial accountability. The only way to salvage this is to open up the court. A judiciary that is confident of itself and of its place in the democratic republic should not be worried about subjecting judicial appointments to public scrutiny. As Lord Woolf had aptly said, “the independence of the judiciary is… not the property of the judiciary, but a commodity to be held by the judiciary in trust for the public”.


Topic:  Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country, different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers.

3) Do you think Big data analytics holds potential to bring revolutionary change in Agricultural Industry of the country? Discuss in detail the Role of data analysis in agriculture. (250 words)

Downtoearth

Why this question:

The role of big data analytics in agricultural industry.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must explain the possible role that big data analytics can play in revolutionizing agricultural industry in the country.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin with brief on what is Big data analytics.

Body:

Discussion should include the following: 

Explain that in agriculture, big data is often viewed as a combination of technology and analytics that can collect and compile novel data and process it in a more useful and timely way to assist decision making.

Relate the relevance of it to different practices such as precision agriculture, organic farming, ZBNF etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

“Big data” often refers simply to the use of predictive analytics, user behavior analytics, or certain other advanced data analytics methods that extract value from data, and not just to a particular size of data set.  Data tools can help determine changes required to maintain yields and meet food demands

Body:

Potential of Big Data in agriculture:

  • The availability of data is on the grow because they are increasingly gathered by cheap and numerous information-sensing mobile devices, aerial (remote sensing), software logs, cameras, microphones, radio-frequency identification (RFID) readers and wireless sensor networks.
  • In agriculture, big data is often viewed as a combination of technology and analytics that can collect and compile novel data and process it in a more useful and timely way to assist decision making.
  • Real-time insights to help performance optimisation advance analytics can show how farmers are utilising their inputs and what adaptations are required to take account of emerging weather events or disease outbreaks.
  • For instance, if Black Grass becomes problematic in a given region, suppliers can deploy big data techniques such as real-time micro-segmentation of customers to target promotional and marketing activities, thus facilitating better utilisation of marketing spends.
  • Benefits include faster unearthing of valuable insights and the ability to develop and adapt products that meet specific customer needs on an ongoing basis.
  • In this range, we can encounter autonomous vehicle devices farmers place in the ground to measure soil moisture and nutrient, predictive weather stations and image-capturing satellites and drones mapping out land and measuring crop health.
  • These insights are extremely important since they tell the farmer when and how much to irrigate a field, crop health, weather predictions, pest infestations and even drought conditions.
  • Considering the increasing labour shortages in the sector the capacity for big data analysis that lessens the need for physical manpower is of great advantage for agriculture.

Role of Big data in Agriculture:

  • Development of new seed traits: Access to the plant genome with new ways to measure, map and drive information betters products.
  • Seed Selection: Big-data businesses can analyse varieties of seeds across numerous fields, soil types, and climates and select the best.
  • Crop disease: Similar to the way in which Google can identify flu outbreaks based on where web searches are originating, analysing crops across farms helps identify diseases that could ruin a potential harvest.
  • Irrigation: Precision agriculture aids farmers in tailored and effective water management, helping in production, improving economic efficiency and minimising waste and environmental impact.
  • Weather: Advanced analytics capabilities and agri-robotics such as aerial imagery, sensors help provide sophisticated local weather forecasts can help increasing global agricultural productivity over the next few decades.
  • Climate change: Since, climate change and extreme weather events will demand proactive measures to adapt or develop resiliency, Big Data can bring in the right information to take informed decisions.
  • Food tracking: Use of sensors and analytics to prevent spoilage and food-borne illnesses
  • Food processing: They help in streamlining food processing value chains by finding the core determinants of process performance, and taking action to continually improve the accuracy, quality and yield of production. They also optimise production schedules based on supplier, customer, machine availability and cost constraints.
  • Effect on supply chains: Seismic shifts in the supply chain of seed, crop inputs and food driven by the democratisation of technology and information
  • Loss control: In India, every year 21 million tons of wheat is lost, primarily due to scare cold-storage centres and refrigerated vehicles, poor transportation facilities and unreliable electricity supply. Big Data has the potential of systematisation of demand forecasting thus reducing such losses.
  • Pricing: A trading platform for agricultural commodities that links small-scale producers to retailers and bulk purchasers via mobile phone messaging can help send up-to-date market prices via an app or SMS and connect farmers with buyers, offering collective bargaining opportunities for small and marginal farmers.

Conclusion:

The big data revolution is in its early days and most of the potential for value creation is still unclaimed. But it has set the industry on a path of rapid change and new discoveries. Stakeholders committed to innovation will likely be the first to reap rewards. If the farmers would have been concerned about the infirmities in terms of data-based farming, production could be increased.


Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

4) “Large parts of India have been facing calamitous floods, the frequency of such disasters has been on the rise. How disastrous they prove, however, would depend on how prepared we are.” Critically analyse in the light of recent incidents. (250 words)

livemint

 

Why this question: 

The article paints a dismal picture of the flood conditions facing the country and the reasons underlying for their impact.

Demand of the question:

The answer must discuss in detail the need and necessity of disaster preparedness and how this aspect alone has much to decide on the nature of disaster and its impact.

Directive word: 

Critically analyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

Brief about the recent flood situation in the country.

Body

Point out to the causes of the occurrence of the disasters; explain in what way the impact of the floods has been huge and impulsive owing to lack of preparedness.

Discuss that How well a country mobilizes resources to tackle disasters, natural or otherwise, is a sign of how advanced it really is. India has made progress, but our efforts need to be stepped up.

Quote case studies, discuss examples where preparedness for disasters have proved to be a solution.

Conclusion 

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

In an unnerving reminder of last year’s devastating floods, Kerala’s worst in about 100 years, incessant precipitation has deluged many districts, causing havoc, snapping communication lines and claiming several lives. Rains have battered Karnataka and Maharashtra, too, leaving many dead and several missing. Meanwhile, dramatic visuals from Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Gujarat have revealed widespread distress. Parts of Bihar and Assam are also reeling under torrential rainfall, with a large number of people left battling grim circumstances.

Body:

Factors causing floods:

  • More than average rainfall:
    • India’s western coast has received above-average rainfall on account of sustained low-pressure conditions.
  • Land use:
    • Injudicious use of land is responsible for making states more prone to floods and landslides.
    • However, other factors such as a change in land use patterns and climate change could have contributed to the situation on the ground.
  • Deforestation:
    • Unfettered development activity had increased the chances of landslides, a major cause of casualties during the floods.
  • Wetlands have been lost to development projects, construction of roads, and buildings at places too close to rivers.
  • Other issues mentioned such as encroachment and unplanned construction are self-evident priorities when development is viewed using the lens of climate-resilient water management (CRWM).
  • Mismanagement of dams:
    • For dams to truly tame floods, experts say dam reservoirs need to be relatively empty before the onset of rain. This was not the case in many states.
    • Local officials have been blamed for exacerbating the situation by failing to gradually open the dams dotting the state’s complex river network, waiting instead until they were already full before unleashing the excess water.
    • More flooding was caused by emergency releases from dams that were full. Despite forecasts of more rain, there were no controlled releases.
    • World Bank analysis while preparing the National Hydrology Project (NHP) in 2015 showed that although weather forecasts are more accurate now, dam managers (especially bureaucrats) are reluctant to authorise advance controlled releases.
  • Roads, railway lines and housing colonies being laid and built without regard for natural water ways, but with formal planning permission.
  • The State Department of Inland Waterways focuses on large waterways while district and local panchayats have no mandate or interest in maintaining these to reduce flood risk.
  • The State Disaster Management Agency also ignores them.
  • Despite India being a signatory to the UN’s Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, little has changed on the ground.
  • Most modern cities have elaborate flood management plans .But India cannot even protect known flood-plains, tank foreshores and lakes peripheries from encroachment and illegal construction.

Current Flood management programmes in India:

  • Flood Management Programme (FMP) during XII Plan for providing central assistance to States to the extent of Rs. 10,000 crore for taking up works related to river management, flood control, anti-erosion, drainage development, flood proofing works, restoration of damaged flood management works, anti-sea erosion and catchment area treatment.
  • Flood forecasting has been recognized as one of the most important, reliable and cost-effective non-structural measures for flood management. Recognizing the crucial role it can play, Central Water Commission, Ministry of Water Resources has set up a network of forecasting stations covering all important flood prone interstate rivers.
  • Flood Management and Border Areas Programme (FMBAP): The aim of the Scheme is to assist the State Governments to provide reasonable degree of protection against floods in critical areas by adopting optimum combination of structural and non-structural measures and enhancing capabilities of State/ Central Government officials in related fields.
  • Deploying relief and rescue operations like National Disaster Response Force, State Disaster Response Force and Seema Sashastra Bal to mitigate the disaster caused by floods.

Measures needed:

  • Jal Shakti ministry needs to boost water storage and attendant catchment area flood management works not just nationally but beyond the nation’s borders as well. Due to technological upgradation the meteorology experts have of late been predicting monsoon and other weather conditions with near perfection.
  • Efforts made by the Centre and the state governments to check deforestation should be intensified. The tree plantation drives at all levels are steps in the right direction.
  • Cleaning of drains and rivulets near the cities should be accorded top priority.
  • Construction of embankments, flood walls, ring bunds, flood control reservoirs should be scientifically carried on.
  • Improvement of river channels and surface drainage and most importantly checking erosion of land on river banks are other measures that could help checking the spread of flood.
  • Advance town planning and yearly preparations should be done to mitigate the effects of urban planning.
  • Flood control as a subject has no clear-cut legislative marking. As a subject it is not included in any of the legislative lists of the country that is the Union, the State or the Concurrent lists.
  • River-basin specific flood inundation modelling with climate change simulations is a necessary first step to understand the full impact of potential unprecedented flooding. This includes worst-case scenarios such as twice the maximum historical rainfall, as was recently done by a Department for International Development, U.K.-supported project for the Mahanadi in Chhattisgarh.
  • The local community to co-manage water resources with the government (by planning intermediate storage, drainage and emergency responses).
  • There must be massive awareness generation, to ensure that buildings are not extended into river floodplains ,that road culverts let storm water through without hindrance, and that excess water is not blocked but allowed to saturate the soil strata so that it does not cause mudslides
  • Need to use the best-available information for decision-making. This means improved hydromet systems and weather forecasts, robust modelling of catchment water flows with simulations of different climate-related scenarios, international norms for safety factors and building codes.
  • Flood control can be made effective through an Integrated Dam Management System, which is totally computerised and automated, the only exception being lifting and lowering of shutters which has to be done manually.

Conclusion:

Given the perils upon us, India has little option but to pay special attention to its institutional capacity for disaster mitigation and relief, the nodal agencies for which need to be kept well-funded. How well a country mobilizes resources to tackle disasters, natural or otherwise, is a sign of how advanced it really is. India has made progress, but our efforts need to be stepped up.


Topic:  Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc. Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

5) As India becomes a large domestic and international aviation market, the need to create a local leasing community has gained significance. In this context examine the merits and demerits of the move taken by the government for creating a rupee-based leasing industry.(250 words)

Financialexpress

Why this question:

The Finance Minister, in her maiden budget, laid the foundation of building an important component of the aviation sector following the release of the ‘Rupee Raftaar’ report at the Global Aviation Summit in Mumbai in January earlier this year.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss in detail the nuances of the aircraft leasing industry and the potential it holds for India.

Directive:

ExamineWhen asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Discuss the facts /current scenario of Aviation industry.

Body:

The answer must discuss the advantages and disadvantages of creating rupee-based leasing industry in the country.

Explain what all factors would it address, what will be the key objectives etc.

Creating a rupee-based leasing industry will address many objectives: (1) high-skill job creation in financing and across the value chain, (2) retaining economic value in India, (3) offering local savers a new investment class, (4) creating a product more-suited to the needs and requirements of the local industry.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward and its significance.

Introduction:

The Finance Minister, in her maiden budget, laid the foundation of building an important component of the aviation sector. As the world’s third largest domestic aviation market, the time is ripe for India to enter into aircraft financing and leasing activities from Indian shores. The announcement of this policy statement in the Budget follows the release of the ‘Rupee Raftaar’ report at the Global Aviation Summit in Mumbai in January earlier this year.

Body:

Need for rupee-based lending industry:

  • In the view of increasing demand and non-availability of own sources of aircraft financing, it is essential for India to set up its own structures for the same.
  • Moreover, civil aviation sector is an important sector for development of the economy.
  • In the civil aviation industry, aircraft financing is the most profitable segment and there are no entities in the country exploring this line of business.
  • All the benefits from this gap are being enjoyed by foreign entities

Merits of Rupee-based lending industry:

  • This is critical to the development of a self-reliant aviation industry, creating aspirational jobs in aviation finance, besides leveraging the business opportunities available in India’s financial Special Economic Zones (SEZs), namely, International Financial Services Centre (IFSC).
  • high-skill job creation in financing and across the value chain
  • retaining economic value in India
  • offering local savers a new investment class
  • creating a product more-suited to the needs and requirements of the local industry.
  • Helps create a lot of direct and indirect jobs in the aviation sector.
  • Rupee-based lending offers local savers, depositors and investors an opportunity to access aircraft financing which is a liquid and low-default asset class. The local currency leases allow airlines to create a natural hedge on their leasing expenses.

Demerits:

  • The development of this industry requires significant contribution from various stakeholders.
  • For instance China, in order to attract business away from Ireland, created a specific low-tax dispensation.
  • India imposes a wide variety of taxes (stamp duty, import duty, GST, income and capital gains taxes, among others) that require rationalisation.
  • Local regulators need to allow long-term financing entities like insurance companies, mutual funds and pension funds to invest in securities of entities engaged in rupee-based leasing.
  • Starting an NBFC or an investment trust in the GIFT City will require specific approvals from RBI.

Conclusion:

As India becomes a large domestic and international aviation market, the need to create a local leasing community will increase in importance. With more than a thousand planes on order, India is expected to import more than $40 billion of equipment (at an average price of ~$40 million per narrow-body aircraft) over the next decade or so. These numbers are expected to be higher—both on account of growth which will propel further orders and also the inclusion of more wide-body planes as more Indian airlines start their long-haul international operations.


Topic: Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

6) Discuss the role played by ethics in maintaining interpersonal relationship. (250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon publications

Why this question:

The question is from the static portions of the GS paper IV.

Key demand of the question:

Explain in detail the role played by ethics in maintaining interpersonal relationship.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Explain what are interpersonal relationships in short.

Body:

Explain that being ethical isn’t always easy, and to truly be a moral person, you have to try and be ethical in every aspect of life. One aspect in particular is interpersonal communication, or the direct exchange of information between two or more people. 

Discuss the importance of interpersonal relationship and how ethics influences it using suitable illustrations.

Conclusion:

Conclude by reasserting importance of ethics.

Introduction:

Interpersonal relationships exist between any two or more persons who interact and fulfil one or more physical or emotional needs. It is a strong bond between two or more people that brings them close to each other. Ethics is a systematic and critical analysis of morality, of the moral factors that guide human conduct in a particular society or practice.

Body:

Role of Ethics in maintaining interpersonal relationship:

  • Interpersonal relationship between children and their parents, brother and sister, immediate family members or relatives revolve around trust, commitment and care.
  • Integrity which is the ethical standard that compels one to maintain consistency in belief and action.
  • Fairness so that the right balance of interest in regard to one’s own feelings and the other side of a conflict are in check.
  • Truthfulness and honesty are ethical standards that compel people not to lie, mislead, or deceive
  • Empathy which is the principle of understanding the feelings of others.
  • Solidarity: Stand by your loved ones at times of need.
  • Tolerance: Being open to various ideas and being open to constructive criticism.

Conclusion:

The scope of interpersonal relationship extends in public and private life. Thus, ethics plays an imperative role in maintaining good and healthy interpersonal relationships.


Topic:  Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

7) Discuss the Role of Society in inculcating values in individuals. (250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon publications

Why this question:

The question is straightforward and is about discussing the Role of Society in inculcating values in individuals.

Key demand of the question:

Explain in detail the Role of Society in inculcating values in individuals.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Discuss what are values and their importance.

Body:

Explain what is the importance of values in society?

Role played by society in imparting values to the individuals.

Discuss the elements of the society who have great influence in people include: Friends, Neighbors, Media, films, Religion, Leaders, Government etc.

Explain in what way they influence on the formation and inculcation of values in each of these individuals.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance of the role played by society.

Introduction:

Society  is  a  ‘web  of  relationship’  and  these  relations  are  fundamental  for understanding human behaviour and different institutions of society. Values are “things that have an intrinsic worth in usefulness or importance to the possessor,” or “principles, standards, or qualities considered worthwhile or desirable.” These are influenced by various factors like family, society, social institutions etc.

Body:

Man lives in society for his mental and intellectual development. Society preserves our culture and transmits it to the succeeding generations. Society liberates as well as limits our potential as an individual and also shapes our attitudes, beliefs, moral and ideals. A society thrives best when it is composed of men and women who are intelligent, hard-working, honest and dutiful.

Society teaches values such as:

  • Social Cohesion
  • Social Harmony
  • Unity among the people of different religions
  • No ethnic conflict
  • Cultural pluralism
  • Tolerance towards different section of the society

Family is the first school where children start their initial learning. The role of teacher played mother and other members of family. Even in the formal school system, different roles like teacher, pupil and parents are members of society and always carry their cultural baggage and values of same society. The system of joint family for instance helps in inculcating values of togetherness, sharing, while nuclear family teaches independence and struggle.

Religion is also one universal institution that exists from primitive to post-modern society. However, sometimes its rigidity also becomes dysfunctional.  One of the most important functions of religion is social control. Although all religions profess the values of peace, harmony, brotherhood etc., there have been instances of hatred, violence to achieve short-sighted goals.

Economic institution refers the rules, procedures and norms of production, distribution, consumption as well as working system and patterns. These influence the values of libertarianism, socialism, materialism etc.

The nature of state, political parties, its ideology and policy directs the nature of education system and its policy in society.  Democratic states profess ideals of democratic rights and development whereas a dictator regime is filled with violence, fear, human rights violations etc.

Conclusion:

Values constitute an important aspect of self-concept and serve as guiding principles for an individual. Man being a social animal is bound to be influenced by societal norms and in turn affect the societal values.