Topic: population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.
1) India’s total fertility rate (TFR) is declining. It is now 2.2 per woman, nearing the replacement rate of 2.1, according to the latest government data. Discuss the causes of falling fertility rate and critically analyse India’s challenges as its fertility rate falls.(250 words)
Why this question:
PM has flagged ‘challenges’ posed by India’s ‘population explosion’. While India is expected to soon overtake China as the world’s most populous country, the total fertility rate has been falling almost everywhere in India. Thus, it is important for us to analyse the situation.
Demand of the question:
One has to delve into the data to raise issues that will confront the government as India may not remain young for long and explain the possible causes of such a trend and analyse the upcoming challenges.
Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.
Structure of the answer:
Define what is fertility rate, its significance in population studies of the country.
Discussion should have the following aspects explained:
What does the data say about India’s TFR?
How does TFR vary between urban and rural areas of the country? discuss the causes.
The factors that have contributed to declining TFR are: Higher education, increased mobility, late marriage, financial independence among women and overall prosperity.
Then move onto explaining the possible challenges that the falling TFR may lead to.
Conclude by suggesting solutions to the challenges.