- Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies.
Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC)
What to study?
For Prelims and Mains: KVIC and its important functions, world tribal day, various tribal moments.
Context: Khadi and Village Industry Commission (KVIC) distributed as many as 50 leather kits and 350 Bee-Boxes with live bee colonies in tribal-dominated village in Sirohi district of Rajasthan, one of the aspirational districts in India identified by the NITI Aayog, on World Tribal Day.
World Tribal Day:
- Observed on August 9 every year, World Tribal Day or the International Day of the World’s Indigenous People is aimed at protecting the rights of the world’s tribal population.
- The day also recognises the achievements and contributions that indigenous people make to improve world issues such as environmental protection.
- It was first declared by the United Nations in December 1994 marking the day of the first meeting of the UN Working Group on Indigenous Populations of the Subcommission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights, in 1982.
About Khadi & Village Industries Commission (KVIC):
The Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC) is a statutory body established by an Act of Parliament (Khadi and Village Industries Commission Act of 1956). In April 1957, it took over the work of former All India Khadi and Village Industries Board.
Functions: It is an apex organization under the Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises, with regard to khadi and village industries within India, which seeks to – “plan, promote, facilitate, organise and assist in the establishment and development of khadi and village industries in the rural areas in coordination with other agencies engaged in rural development wherever necessary.”
The Commission has three main objectives which guide its functioning. These are:
- The Social Objective – Providing employment in rural areas.
- The Economic Objective – Providing salable articles.
- The Wider Objective – Creating self-reliance amongst people and building up a strong rural community spirit.
Few tribal movements that have sprouted across India over the years:
The Santhal rebellion (June 30, 1855 to January 3, 1856): Also known as the Santhal Hool, it was a native rebellion in eastern India against both the British colonial authority and zamindari system by the Santhal people.
The Munda Rebellion: Birsa Munda led the movement in the region south of Ranchi in 1899-1900, seeking the establishment of Munda Raj and independence after the system of khuntkattidar was corroded by the jagirdars and thikadars who came as moneylenders and as traders.
The Bodo Movement: The official movement of the Bodos for an independent state of Bodoland started under the leadership of Upendranath Brahma of All Bodo Students’ Union (ABSU) on March 2, 1987. While the movement was suppressed by the then government, the ABSU created a political organization called the Bodo People’s Action Committee (BPAC). After the Bodo Accord, the Bodoland Autonomous Council (BAC) was constituted, which was later replaced by the BTQ which was established in accordance with the Memorandum of Settlement (MoS) on February 10 2003.
Other tribal revolutions that have risen in India between the 18th century and the 20th century include:
- 1784-1785: Uprising of the Mahadev Koli tribes in Maharashtra.
- 1812 Kurichya Rebellion organised by the tribal people Kurichyas against the Wayanad invasion of British in 1812.
- 1857-1858 The Bhil revolted against under the leadership of Bhagoji Naik and Kajar Singh.
- 1862 The Koya tribal community revolted in Andhra against tribal landlords called ‘Muttader’ in tribal dialect.
- 1891 The tribals of North-East India revolted against the British under leadership of Tikendraji Singh.
- The Bastar Revolution in central India
- 1917-1919 Kuki Uprising in Manipur against British colonialism under the leadership of their chieftains called haosa
- 1941 The Gond and the Kolam revolted in collaboration against British Government in the Adilabad district of the state of Telangana.
- 1942 Tribal revolt under leadership of Lakshmana Naik at Koraput in Orissa.