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Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 07 AUGUST 2019


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 07 AUGUST 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic: Social empowerment,Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

1) “Triple Talaq Bill passage is a transformative point in India’s socio-political context.” Discuss.(250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question: 

The article discusses in detail the significance of Triple Talaq bill that was passed recently by the parliament.

Demand of the question:

The question demands one to analyse the significance of the triple talaq bill from the view point of socio-political context.

Directive word: 

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

Discuss the concept precisely.

Body

The use and status of triple talaq in India has been a subject of controversy and debate. Those questioning the practice have raised issues of justice, gender equality, human rights and secularism. Amidst all these questions the bill has succeeded in bringing relief to the oppressed Muslim women who were shackled by the ills of triple talaq.

Explain how many Islamic nations, including Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, and Iraq, have banned or restricted such practice. 

Discuss in what way the bill empowers women socially, how has it proved to be an infliction point in the history of Indian society.

Conclusion 

Conclude by reasserting the merits and the socio-political transformation that the bill brought.

Introduction:

The President of India recently gave assent to The Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Marriage) Bill, 2019, better known as the Triple Talaq Bill, thereby criminalizing the practice of instant Triple Talaq. The law makes all declaration of talaq, including in written or electronic form, to be void (i.e. not enforceable in law) and illegal. The Supreme Court in Shayara Bano case (2017) had declared the practise of Triple Talaq (talaq-e-biddat) as unconstitutional. However, the penal provision of the bill i.e. a Muslim husband declaring instant Triple Talaq can be imprisoned for up to three years is alleged to be disproportionate for a civil offence.

Body:

The Abolition of Triple Talaq is a great step towards gender equality due to:

  • Triple Talaq goes against the constitutional principles of gender equality, secularism, right to life of dignity, etc. It goes against Article 14 (Right to Equality) and Article 15(1) which states that there shall be no discrimination against any citizen on the basis of gender, race, etc. and this kind of talaq is biased against the interests of women.
  • According to a study, 92% of Muslim women in India wanted the triple talaq to be banned.
  • It gave men the right to arbitrarily divorce their wives without any valid reason.
  • The law provides the rights of subsistence allowance, custody of minor children to victims of triple talaq i.e. talaq-e-biddat.
  • The Government held that 473 cases of Triple Talaq have taken place even after two years of judgement pronounced by the Supreme Court.
  • The law has been placed as a deterrent to eradicate social evils. For example:
  • Untouchability was abolished by the Constitution, but the continued practise of untouchability forced Parliament to enact the Untouchability (Offences) Act in 1955 and later renaming it as Protection of Civil Rights Act in 1976.
  • To eliminate atrocities faced by women in domestic space, parliament enacted:
    • The Dowry Prohibition Act in 1961
    • Prevention of domestic violence Act 2005
  • Triple Talaq is banned in more than 20 Islamic countries including Pakistan.
  • The constitution of the country says that it shall strive to bring a uniform civil code for the entire country. Doing away with triple talaq will definitely be a step closer to the constitution-makers’ dream of having a uniform civil code for all citizens.
  • Experts also opine that only the essential or integral features and aspects of a religion (article 25) are protected by the Constitution. Triple talaq was not an integral feature of Islam.

Issues with the law:

  • Divorce is a civil matter and making Triple Talaq a criminal offence is disproportionate to criminal jurisprudence.
  • The Supreme Court declared Triple Talaq as invalid and did not ask the government to make it a penal offence.
  • Thereby criminalizing the Triple Talaq goes against the spirit of the Supreme Court judgement.
  • Religious groups infer the banning of a traditional practice sanctified by Sharia as interfering in the religious aspects of minorities.
  • The bill introduced in Parliament proposes a three-year jail term for a man divorcing his wife through triple talaq. Although most Muslim women feel it is time to end the practice, they are wary of the slipshod manner in which the government has passed the bill in the Lok Sabha.
  • If the aim of the law is to protect the rights of women, how is that possible with their husbands in prison? If they have children under the age of 18, who will take care of their education, health, financial and other needs? The woman will not be protected but instead be vulnerable to more abuse.
  • The Bill does not provide the victimised woman any additional benefits in terms of her rights in marriage and divorce.
  • Since the Bill says that triple talaq is cognizable and non-bailable, married Muslim man become vulnerable target as policemen can arrest and investigate the accused with or without the complaint from wife or any other person.

Way forward:

  • The legislation brings India at par with other Muslim majority states including Pakistan and Bangladesh.
  • This was long overdue for a country that has taken pride in its adherence to the principles of secularism, democracy, and equality.
  • Personal laws of other religious communities, Hindus and Christians, have gone through renditions to address some concerns relating to gender equality in matters of inheritance and polygamy.
  • Despite the gains, gender equality does not permeate all aspects of civil law.
  • This legislation presents an opportunity to put in place a civil code that steeped in equality—across faiths and gender.

Conclusion:

Terming Triple Talaq as unconstitutional as a step towards establishing uniform civil code (Enshrined in Article 44 of directive principle of state policy), but criminalising it goes against the ethos of Fundamental rights i.e. article 25 and 26 the freedom of religion. Triple Talaq has led to the subjugation of Muslim women even after 72 years of independence but its solution must come through coexistence rather than coercion.


Topic:  Salient features of Indian Society, Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors

2)  Discuss Honour killings and Mob Lynching as prevalent social evils of the country examine the need of legislation for bringing social change in the same context.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question:

 Rajasthan legislative assembly passed two important bills to curb honor killings and Mob Lynching in the state.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must examine closely the evils of mob lynching and honor killing prevalent in India and what changes are required to do away with such social evils.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Define mob lynching and honor killing

Body:

Discuss the highlights of the bill – The Rajasthan Protection from Lynching Bill, 2019:

Rajasthan has become the second state after Manipur which passed a law to curb lynching cases.

The government told during the debate that 87 % of the total incidents took place across the country were recorded in the state during the last five years.

Offences under new law will be investigated by a police officer of the rank of Inspector and above, and state DGP will appoint an officer of IG or above rank as state coordinator to prevent lynching.

In cases of “hurt” and “grievous hurt” from such assault, the convict may get up to seven and 10 years in jail, respectively.

If the attack leads to death, the punishment is life imprisonment.

The Bill also makes conspirators accountable.

Then discuss in what way such bills are game changers for our society.

Conclusion:

Conclude on a positive note and that all the states in the country should have such laws and policies put in place.

Introduction:

Mob lynching refers to killing someone for an alleged offense without following any due process of law. It is not just “mobocracy”; it is a collective hate crime. Honour killing is defined as the killing of a relative, especially a girl or woman, who is perceived to have brought dishonour on the family. Rajasthan legislative assembly passed two important bills to curb honour killings and Mob Lynching in the state recently. Rajasthan has become the second state after Manipur which passed a law to curb lynching cases.

Body:

Provisions of Bill to prevent Mob lynching:

  • Imprisonment and Fine: For the offence of an assault by mob, leading to the victim suffering grievous hurts, the bill provides for jail terms up to 10 years and a fine of ₹25,000 to ₹3 lakh and if victims suffer simple injuries the imprisonment is up to seven years and a fine up to ₹1 lakh
  • Conspiracy of Lynching: For plotting a conspiracy of lynching or aiding, abetting or attempting such an offence, the bill seeks to punish the offenders in the same manner as if he actually committed the offence of lynching.
  • Prevention of Lynching: Bill empowers the state police chief to appoint a state coordinator of the rank of Inspector General of Police to prevent the incidents of lynching
  • Other Offences Related to Lynching: Bill also enlists various other offences related to the lynching such as dissemination of offensive materials, propagation of hostile environment and obstructing legal processes, which would be punishable with jail terms varying from three to five years.
  • Victim Compensation and Rehabilitation: Bill also stipulates the provision of compensation to victims by the state government as per the Rajasthan Victim Compensation Scheme.
  • It also binds the state government to take necessary measures to rehabilitate the victims of mob lynching, suffering displacements from their native places.

Provisions of Bill to curb Honour killing:

  • Punishment of death penalty or life imprisonment till natural death for killing a couple or either of them in the name of honour and with fine which may extend to ₹5 lakh.
  • If the couple or either of them is grievously hurt, the punishment will be from 10 years rigorous imprisonment to imprisonment for life and with fine of maximum ₹3 lakh, whereas the punishment will be three to five years imprisonment with fine which may extend to ₹2 lakh in case of simple injuries.
  • Sub Divisional Magistrate or the District Magistrate shall receive any request or information from any person or persons seeking protection from any unlawful assembly, or from any other person who is likely to or who have been objecting to any lawful marriage.
  • No person or group shall assemble at any time with the view or intention to deliberate on or condemn any marriage, not prohibited by law, on the basis that such marriage has dishonoured the caste or community tradition or brought disrepute to all or any of the persons forming part of the assembly or the family or the people of the locality concerned.
  • Such gathering shall be treated unlawful and every person convening or organising such assembly, and every member, thereof, participating therein directly or indirectly shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term not less than six months, but may extend to five years and shall also be liable to fine which may extend to ₹1 lakh.

Need for the legislations:

  • Among the total number of mob lynching cases happened in India after 2014, 86% of cases of mob lynching reported in the Rajasthan.
  • In Past five years in Rajasthan, 71 cases of illegal diktat given by ‘Khap Panchayats’ (caste councils which function like kangaroo courts) were registered and 10 cases of honour killing occurred in which four men and eight women were killed.
  • Honour killing cases have increased in the past few years and have become a hurdle in societal development.
  • Sections of the IPC and the CrPc were not adequate in dealing with such cases.
  • Such crimes are also in violation of the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against Women which provide that women should have the right to freely choose a spouse.
  • These actions of honour killing are also violative of certain fundamental rights in the Constitution of India, including the right to life, and liberty which includes the right to bodily integrity, and the right to choose whom to associate with.

Conclusion:

The bills uphold Supreme Court judgements about curbing Honour killing and anti Mob lynching. There is a need for the union government to enact a model law which can be emulated in the states.


Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation, Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

3) e-commerce sector has grown multi fold in India and thus demands a change in the uncertain policy environment surrounding the sector. Elucidate. (250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question:

The question is in the context of growing e-commerce environment in the country and recently the Department of Consumer Affairs has published the draft e-Commerce Guidelines for consumer protection 2019. It has invited parties to provide feedback by 16 September.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the scope of e-commerce industry, the demands and the efforts being made by the government in terms of policy.

Directive:

ElucidateGive a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Describe what is e-commerce. 

Body:

The answer should first paint a picture of the existing trends in e-commerce policy.  Then discuss what changes are required, what are the various fronts that demand policy reforms for the e-commerce to flourish.

Suggest solutions and way forward – mention about the recent policy initiatives made to ensure conduciveness for the e-commerce sector.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

E-commerce or Electronic commerce is a type of business model, or segment of a larger business model, that enables a firm or individual to conduct business over an electronic network, typically the internet. It operates in all four of the major market segments in India – business to business, business to consumer, consumer to consumer and consumer to business. Keeping a tab on the growing e-Commerce in India, Ministry of Consumer Affairs has released the draft guidelines on e-commerce for consumer protection.  It will act as the guiding principles for e-commerce business for preventing fraud, unfair trade practices and protecting the legitimate rights and interests of consumers.

Body:

Status of e-Commerce in India:

  • India’s e-commerce sector has grown quickly despite an uncertain policy environment.
  • The e-commerce sector in India is estimated to reach USD 230 billion by 2028 (accounting for 10% of India’s retail).
  • The e-commerce sector in India has been witnessing an explosive growth fuelled by the increase in the number of online users, growing penetration of smartphones and the rising popularity of social media platforms.
  • The Indian e-commerce industry is expected to surpass the US to become the second largest e-commerce market in the world by 2034.
  • Online shoppers in India are expected to reach 120 million in 2018 and eventually 220 million by 2025.
  • Even in non-traditional items such as furniture and high-end fashion labels, growth has been phenomenal.

Current Policy Environment:

  • It is still a work in progress when it comes to safeguarding customer interest.
  • Consumers are still compelled to take wild chances in online transactions.
  • There is little they can do if their calls go wrong, as returns and reimbursements are risky and cumbersome.
  • There are no authentic ways to figure out if product reviews, ratings or even discounts are genuine.

Proposed policy changes:

  • The e-Commerce guidelines for Consumer Protection, 2019 will be applicable on all business-to-consumer (B2C) e-commerce platforms.
  • Compulsory Return Policy: It is mandatory for e-commerce entities to accept returns in the event the products delivered are defective, wrong or spurious or if they do not have the characteristics or features advertised.
  • Seller Details: E-commerce companies will also have to display details about the sellers on their website, especially the type of business furnished by the seller entity.
  • Transparent Contract: The draft guidelines propose to increase transparency in contracts signed between e-commerce entities and the sellers, directing them to display terms of their contracts relating to aspects like return, refund, exchange, warranties and guarantees, delivery and shipment, mode of payments and redressing grievances.
  • Grievance Redressal: The draft has also sought transparency on the procedure followed to address complaints, directing e-commerce companies to publish contact details of their grievance officers on their websites and setting a one-month timeline for them to redress issues from the time the complaint is registered.
  • Fair Pricing Policy: E-commerce platforms will not be allowed to directly or indirectly influence the price of the products and services they offer.
  • Unfair Trade Practice: E-commerce platforms cannot adopt any trade practice for the purpose of promoting the sale, use or supply of any goods or services or use unfair and deceptive methods and practices that may influence the consumer’s transactional decisions.
  • False Reviews: Guidelines aim to restrict sellers from falsely representing themselves as consumers or posting reviews as well as misrepresenting and exaggerating the quality and features of products on their sites.

However, it is challenging to balance between regulating consumer interests and encouraging innovation and investment, without discriminating against a particular class of investors. In this context, the element of indecision over data localisation requirement is still a worry. Besides, the new guidelines had raised concerns among foreign e-tailers. They feel that the rules would jeopardise their business models and could cost them time and money.

Given all these, the Centre should take a call soon on the e-commerce policy, balancing the priorities of the stakeholders.

Conclusion:

The draft guidelines thus proposes a series of consumer safeguards in India that forbid e-commerce companies from influencing pricing, adopting unfair promotion methods or misrepresenting the quality of goods and services.


Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation. Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

4) The government recently planned to let medical practitioners without MBBS degrees offer basic healthcare services, we need more doctors, but should the quality standards be diluted at the cost of it? Explain.  (250 words)

Livemint

Why this question:

The National Medical Commission (NMC) Bill, 2019, which was passed by the Rajya Sabha last week with some modifications and sent to the Lok Sabha for approval, has evoked widespread protests from doctors. The Indian Medical Association (IMA), a representative body of doctors, has called an all-India strike tomorrow against a few contentious aspects of the bill.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the merits and demerits of the recent move made by the government with National Medical Commission (NMC) Bill, 2019.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Discuss the nuances of the government’s decision with respect to medical practitioners.

Body:

First discuss the key highlights of the bill.

Bring out the situational crisis of lack of medical aid in terms of the number of doctors available, quote data from article to substantiate the current conditions.

Then move on to discuss the merits and demerits of the move.

Conclusion:

Conclude that a balanced approach is the need of the hour, the decision though aptly suits the situation, comes with bit of risk that the government must be able to tackle with.

Introduction:

The National Medical Commission Bill, 2019 was passed recently by the parliament. The bill sets up the National Medical Commission (NMC) which will act as an umbrella regulatory body in the medical education system. The NMC will subsume the MCI and will regulate medical education and practice in India. Apart from this, it also provides for the reforms in the medical education system.

Body:

Significance and the need:

  • The Bill seeks to regulate medical education and practice in India.
  • The Bill attempts to tackle two main things on quality and quantity: Corruption in medical education and shortage of medical professionals.
  • The Bill aims to overhaul the corrupt and inefficient Medical Council of India, which regulates medical education and practice and replace with National medical commission.
  • Over the years, Medical Council of India has been marred by several issues regarding its regulatory role, composition, allegations of corruption, and lack of accountability.
  • In 2009, the Yashpal Committee and the National Knowledge Commission recommended separating the regulation of medical education and medical practice.

Status of medical professionals in India:

  • India is woefully short of trained doctors, especially in the countryside.
  • The shortage has slowed the state’s programme to scale up healthcare facilities and medical education infrastructure.
  • There just aren’t enough qualified professionals to treat the country’s 1.3 billion people and formally train others to do so.
  • Despite decades of effort, India still has less than one doctor for every 1,000 people, the World Health Organization’s minimum ratio for a country’s healthcare adequacy.
  • Moreover, for the efficacy of big-ticket welfare schemes such as Ayushman Bharat—which covers 500 million citizens with health insurance—a vast leap needs to be taken on that count.

Concerns:

  • Section 32 of the NMC Bill that would grant “limited” licences to an estimated 350,000 “community health providers” to practise allopathic medicine, provided they meet a set of qualifying criteria.
  • The bill allows practitioners of ayurveda, yoga and naturopathy, unani, siddha and homoeopathy could undertake a “bridge course” and legally start offering primary healthcare.
  • According to the IMA, letting patients be treated by people without MBBS degrees would amount to quackery gaining legitimacy in a country full of fraudulent cures and dodgy practices.
  • Unscientific mixing of systems and empowering of other practitioners through bridge courses will only pave the way for substandard doctors and substandard medical practice. This will seriously impact patient care and patient safety.

Way forward:

  • One way to prevent dilution of standards is for an independent panel of well-regarded doctors to keep a close watch on the eligibility process for licences.
  • It involves a common test on the assumption that practical training has already been imparted; if the test is found to be letting dubious practitioners acquire allopathic credentials, then the newly set up NMC would have to either drop or revise the idea.
  • Clear guidelines are required indicating the circumstances and diseases where traditional practitioners can prescribe allopathic medicines.
  • Community-level accredited practitioners after training should be equipped to provide the first line of care for acute conditions and to make referrals to a regular doctor within a GPS-supervised system.
  • Patients who are not insistent on consulting allopaths need not despair, for they have plenty of options anyway.

Conclusion:

The Bill needs to confront reality and address it, keeping consumer interest paramount otherwise the new law will make little difference to people’s lives.


Topic:  Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.

5) “J&K is known for high emotions and low economy”, in the context of the statement provide for an analysis of the development aspects in the state and also suggest way forward.(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question:

The article captures the sick picture of the state of Jammu and Kashmir in terms of development status of its economy.

Key demand of the question:

One has to examine and analyse in depth the root causes for such an infant nature of the Kashmir economy, why has the growth stagnated in the valley for decades and suggest what should be the way forward.

Directive:

analyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Define the current conditions in the state, the latest happenings of scrapping of article 370 etc.

Body:

Explain that J&K does not have enough private sector avenues and politics hasn’t produced enough opportunities and conducive atmosphere owing to insufficient urbanization, lack of finances, formalized economy and industrialization.

Explain the factors that have led to the situation so far.

Discuss what needs to be done? What are the repercussions of the latest move taken by the government etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

The government recently introduced a resolution to remove provisions of Article 370, which provides special status to Jammu and Kashmir.  In addition, Home Minister also introduced a Bill bifurcating the State of Jammu of Kashmir into Union Territory of Ladakh and the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir. The Presidential Order has extended all provisions of the Constitution to Jammu and Kashmir, including the chapter on Fundamental Rights. Therefore, the discriminatory provisions under Article 35A are now unconstitutional.

Body:

The economy of Jammu and Kashmir has suffered from disturbed conditions prevailing in the State for almost two decades. J&K does not have enough private sector letters and politics hasn’t produced enough vowels because it is insufficiently urbanized, financialized, formalized and industrialized. Article 370 and 35A created huge regulatory and legislative cholesterol in land markets and labour markets that created an antibiotic reaction to formal enterprises, institutional capital, and professional workers. The fragile political and security situation has further dissuaded the investors in J&K.

   

J&K- an economic infant:

  • The huge chunk of Kashmir’s workforce employed in horticulture and handicrafts gets less than 20% of the final sale price of their goods because of lack of design, distribution and capital.
  • The hospitality industry does not have a robust local people supply chain, has less business model diversity, and lower employment elasticity of growth because of weak access to technology, capital, and marketing.
  • The state not only has a lower credit-to- GDP ratio than Bihar, but its primary banking institution is almost unskilled—it knows how to give money but not how to get it back. Low formalization means no private firm with more than 500 formal employees.
  • There is only one listed company, and private investment last year was less than ₹1,000 crore.
  • Given how the potential for professional tourism, horticulture, handicrafts, and manufacturing could combine with how smart the people are, it is not unfair to say that the J&K economy is a 10-horsepower engine running on one horsepower.

Measures needed:

  • More effective implementation of employment-oriented schemes and programmes.
  • Tourism is another area which is a gift of nature to the state. But unless we are able to create the requisite infrastructure and other facilities of high quality of international standard for the tourists, the real benefits will not flow to people in terms of income supplementation and employment generation.
  • The state has three distinct niches, while leisure tourism is available in Kashmir valley, Pilgrim in Jammu and Ladakh has the potential to after adventure tourism
  • Human resource development through education and health is not only a pre-requisite for better human living but is also critical in determining the pace of economic development of a society.
  • There is a need to give fillip to the economic activities that have traditionally been the mainstay of the State’s economy and continue to hold significant potential for growth and employment.
  • Such activities include Agriculture (including Horticulture), Food Processing, Handicrafts and Handlooms, and Livestock and Poultry farming on modern lines.
  • It would be equally necessary to ensure diversification of the State economy, especially expanding the industrial base by generally have a traditional bent of mind. Diversification of agricultural activities is the need of the hour to keep up with the changed circumstances.
  • Jammu and Kashmir has unexploited capacity to produce products which have value demand and ready for attractive markets both in India and Overseas. E.g. bio aromatics, medical herbs, organic specialty vegetables etc.
  • The potential of Horticulture in J&K is high, given the rich diversity in its flora and fauna and varied agro-climatic situation. The state enjoys monopoly in certain fruits, vegetables and medicinal plants and there is an immense scope for increasing the production of other horticulture produce that are marketed in rich and export markets.
  • Jammu and Kashmir is rich in handicrafts, so state Government must promote handicrafts industries by increasing shopping arcade in their existing properties and provide space for handicrafts industry to display their products.

Conclusion:

The significant move, in theory, opens up potential opportunities for development-led economic growth in the Union Territories of J&K and Ladakh. Thus, the move is bound to have a significant impact on the demography, culture, and politics of J&K. Whatever its intent in enabling the full integration of Jammu and Kashmir with India, this decision to alter the State’s status could have unintended and dangerous consequences.


Topic:Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate

6) Which forces are responsible for internal security of the country? Discuss their significance in maintaining peace and harmony.(250 words)

 IDSA articles

Why this question:

The question is straightforward and is about discussing the forces that are responsible for maintaining internal security of the country.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must detail upon the forces responsible for internal security of the country.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin with brief on need and importance of internal security.

Body:

There are many divisions of Central Armed Police Force, which deal with internal threats – Assam Rifles (AR), Border Security Force (BSF), Central Industrial Security Force (CISF), Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF), Indo Tibetan Border Police (ITBP), National Security Guard (NSG), Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB) etc. discuss the roles played by each of the forces and use case studies wherever possible to justify the answer better.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance of the forces and need to keep them strengthened.

 

Introduction:

Internal security is an act of ensuring and keeping peace within the borders of a nation by maintaining the national law and order and defending its people from internal security threats. Responsibility to maintain it lies with agencies ranging from police to paramilitary forces, and in demanding circumstances, the military itself.

Body:

Home grown challenges and threats from across international borders have taken different shapes, be it ethnic insurgency, militancy or terrorism that have weakened and damaged the nation.

Central Armed Police Forces: There are many divisions of Central Armed Police Force, which deal with internal threats.

  • Assam Rifles (AR): The Assam Rifles contribution towards assimilation of the people of the North-East into the national mainstream is truly monumental. They perform many roles including the provision of internal security under the control of the army through the conduct of counter insurgency and border security operations, provision of aid to the civil power in times of emergency, and the provision of communications, medical assistance and education in remote areas.

 

  • Border Security Force (BSF): Its operational responsibility is spread over 6385.36 kms. of international border along Indo-Pakistan, Indo-Bangladesh borders. BSF is also deployed on LoC in J&K under operational control of the Army.

 

  • Central Industrial Security Force (CISF): Raised in the year 1969, CISF is presently providing security cover to important installations like space and atomic energy establishments, sea ports, airports, coal mines, steel plants, thermal and hydel power plants, oil and petrochemicals installations, heavy industries, defence establishments, security presses, museums and historical monuments. The charter of CISF has been expanded to provide security cover to VIPs as well as to provide technical consultancy services relating to security and fire protection to industries in public and private sectors.

 

  • Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF): The Force is presently handling a wide range of duties covering law and order, counter insurgency, anti-militancy and anti terrorism operations. The Force plays a key role in assisting States in maintaining public order and countering subversive activities of militant groups.

 

  • Indo Tibetan Border Police (ITBP): ITBP plays an important role in organizing the annual Kailash Mansarovar Yatra besides providing assistance in disaster management in the central and western Himalayan regions. New challenging role that has emerged for ITBP is disaster management as it is the first responder for natural Disaster in Himalayas. ITBP is in the forefront of movement for the preservation of Himalayan environment & ecology.

 

  • National Security Guard (NSG): National Security Guard was raised in 1984, following Operation Blue Star and the assassination of Indira Gandhi, “for combating terrorist activities with a view to protect States against internal disturbances”. The primary role of this Force is to combat terrorism in whatever form it may assume in areas where activity of terrorists assumes serious proportions, and the State Police and other Central Police Forces cannot cope up with the situation.

 

  • Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB): As a border guarding force and lead intelligence agency (LIA) for Indo-Nepal border and Indo-Bhutan border. To promote sense of security among the people living in the border area. To prevent trans-border crimes and unauthorized entries into or exit from the territory of India. To prevent smuggling and other illegal activities.

Conclusion:

Keeping a strong vigil on its border is very important for any nation to check any kind of illegal activities or intrusion through them. For India, the task becomes difficult where terrain and climate is very complex across some of its border areas. Focussing on improved technology will help in making the task easier for the security forces and make its borders more secure.


Topic: Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate

7) Border Security Force plays a vital role in protecting the sovereignty and integrity of the nation. Comment.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question:

BSF is an important security organization which works in varied terrains ranging from the Thar desert to the Jammu Kashmir and in the swamps of eastern India. It is important to know about the role played by this paramount organization in protecting the sovereignty and integrity of the nation.

Key demand of the question:

Explain in detail the role played by the BSF in protecting the borders in terms of sovereignty and integrity of the nation.

Directive:

Commenthere we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Explain in few lines the origin and genesis of BSF.

Body:

Discuss the wartime and peacetime role of BSF.

Then move onto explaining the role played by the BSF protecting the sovereignty and integrity of India. e.g. discuss its role in 1971 Indo Pak war and Liberation of Bangladesh; discuss the role of BSF in Tackling the Problem of Insurgency in North-Eastern India; Terrorism in Punjab and the Role of BSF (1989-1993); Kashmir Militancy; BSF in Operation Vijay: Kargil, 1999; Left-Wing Extremism etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by reasserting significance of such forces in maintaining peace and harmony.

Introduction:

Border Security Force (BSF) is a paramilitary force under home ministry responsible for guarding India’s land border during peace time and preventing transnational crime. It is a primary border guarding organisation of India and termed as First Line of Defence of Indian Territories. It is the sentinels of Indian borders with Pakistan and Bangladesh. It came into existence on 1st December, 1965.

Body:

BSF currently stands as the world’s largest border guarding force with 186 battalions and 2.57 lakh personnel including an expanding air wing, marine wing, artillery regiments, and commando units.

Role played by the BSF:

Peace time:

  • Promote a sense of security among the people living in the border areas.
  • Prevent trans border crimes, unauthorized entry into or exit from the territory of India
  • Prevent smuggling and any other illegal activity.
  • In 2017, Border Security Force (BSF) personnel detected a cross-border tunnel in the forest area of Damala nullah in Jammu’s Arnia sub-sector.
  • BSF personnel have been performing Internal Security Duty in Manipur for the last two years and have been successfully fighting insurgency in those areas.
  • During the earthquake in Gujarat in 2001, the BSF was the first to reach out to help the distressed people and during the communal disturbances BSF personnel went all out to restore amity and brotherhood among the people.
  • The BSF took over the erection of the border fencing in Jammu & Kashmir
  • The BSF has been defending the borders along with the army and checking infiltration on the borders during the current standoff with Pakistan.

War Time:

  • Holding ground in less threatened sectors so long as the main attack does not develop in a particular sector
  • The BSF units can continue to remain deployed in particular sector even in a war situation to release the Army for offensive tasks. In the event of a major attack developing, which is not within the capacity of the BSF to deal with, the Army can be expected either to reinforce the BSF with Artillery or other support, or relieve the BSF from its role in the particular sector.
  • Protection of vital installations particularly air-fields against enemy commandoes/para troopers or raids.
  • Providing extension to the flanks of main defence line by the holding of strong points in conjunction with other units.
  • Limited Aggressive action against paramilitary or irregular forces of the enemy within the overall plan of the Armed Forces.
  • Performing special tasks connected with intelligence including raids. These are tasks which might be entrusted to BSF Units by the Army in a war situation according to local necessity.  It would, however, be expected that the state of training and equipment of the particular BSF Units would be kept in view in assessing their adequacy for the tasks.
  • Acting as guides in an area of responsibility where routes are known. This is a task which the BSF should be able to perform.
  • Maintenance of law and order in enemy territory administrated under the control of Army. Normally, ordinary civil police force would be utilised for this task but the BSF could be used to supplement the civil police or to act in lieu thereof in a situation where civil police is not readily available.
  • Provision of escorts.
  • Guarding of prisoners of war cages
  • Assistance in control of refugees. It is the intention to utilise civil police force and armed Home Guards etc. for these tasks but again depending upon local exigencies, the BSF might be entrusted with these tasks.
  • Anti – infiltration duties in specified area. This is an important responsibility which will have to be performed by security forces. The exact responsibility of the BSF in this matter is still under consideration and separate instructions are expected to be issued.
  • During the Kargil conflict in 1999, the BSF remained on the heights of the mountains and defended the integrity of the country with all the might at its command in unison with the Army

Conclusion:

                Thus, with a wide set of responsibilities and variety of roles under its belt, BSF helps in maintaining the integrity and security of India.