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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 06 AUGUST 2019


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 06 AUGUST 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic:  Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country.

1) Discuss the salient features of the Indian independence act (1947) relating to the transfer of power. How far have they been successful in terms of relevance of today’s political set up?(250 words)

Reference

Why this question:

The question is in the context of recent legal nuances of abrogation of Article 370.

Key demand of the question:

One has to discuss the salient features of Indian Independence act of 1947 in detail and then explain its significance and relevance as of today.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Discuss the background of the act in short.

Body:

Explain first the Important provisions under this Act – 

  • Partition of the British India into two new and fully sovereign dominions-India and Pakistan with effect from August 15, 1947;
  • Division of the provinces of Bengal & Punjab among the two newly formed countries;
  • The offices of Governor-General in both the countries would be set up. These Governor-General would be representing the Crown;
  • The complete legislative authority would be conferred in the hands of the Constituent Assemblies of the two new countries;
  • The British suzerainty over the princely states would be terminated from August 15, 1947;
  • Abolishing the use of title “Emperor of India” by the British monarch;
  • The Act includes the division of the armed forces between the two countries.

Discuss then the relevance of it today.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance.

Introduction:

The Indian Independence Act, 1947, crucial because it enabled the transfer of power from the Crown to India in an amicable manner, was passed in British Parliament on July 5 that year, and received royal assent on July 18. A plan was formulated to split the British Indian colonies into India and Pakistan by Viceroy of India Lord Louis Mountbatten and Prime Minister of Britain Clement Attlee on June 3, 1947, after consultations with the main stakeholders — Indian National Congress, the Muslim League and representatives of the Sikh community.

Body:

Salient features of Indian Independence Act 1947 are:

  • The Indian Independence Act was based upon the Mountbatten plan of 3rd June 1947 and was passed by the British parliament in 1947.
  • It provided for two dominion states : India and Pakistan
  • The boundaries between the two dominion states were to be determined by a Boundary Commission which was headed by Sir Cyril Radcliff.
  • It provided for partition of Punjab & Bengal and separate boundary commissions to demarcate the boundaries between them.
  • Pakistan was to comprise the West Punjab, East Bengal, Territories of the Sind, North West frontier provinces, Sylhet divisions of Assam, Bhawalpur, khairpur, Baluchistan and 8 other princely states of Baluchistan.
  • The authority of the British Crown over the princely states ceased and they were free to join either India or Pakistan or remain independent.
  • Both the dominions of India and Pakistan were to have Governor Generals to be appointed by the British King. The act also provided for a common Governor General if both of them agreed.
  • The constituent assemblies of both the states were free to make constitutions of their respective countries.
  • For the time being till the constitution was made, both of them would be governed in accordance with the Government of India act 1935.
  • British Government would not continue any control on any dominion.
  • The Governor general was invested with adequate powers until March 1948 to issue orders for effective implementation of the provisions of the Indian independence act 1947
  • Those civil servants who had been appointed before the August 15, 1947, will continue in service with same privileges.
  • The Constituent Assemblies also had the power to repeal any Act of the British Parliament

Evaluation of the features of act:

  • Hastened act: the lack of clarity on the border still has its repercussions today with constant tussle between India and Pakistan. The same is the case with border on Chinese side.
  • Jammu and Kashmir question: Jammu and Kashmir has been the bone of contention even today.
  • Rise in communal feeling: Another unforeseen consequence of Partition was that Pakistan’s population ended up more religiously homogeneous than originally anticipated.
  • Suspicion: Indian Muslims are frequently suspected of harbouring loyalties towards Pakistan; non-Muslim minorities in Pakistan are increasingly vulnerable thanks to the so-called Islamisation of life there since the 1980s.

Conclusion:

Seven decades on, well over a billion people still live in the shadow of Partition. Thus, post-partition fragmented identities strengthened and much celebrated value of tolerance and acceptance appears to have weakened disturbing social harmony in the country. Exploitation of religious sentiments for political gains has further polarized the society.


Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

2) Discuss the issue of childhood obesity in India. Suggest measures to tackle with it. (250 words)

Downtoearth

Why this question: 

India has the second highest number of obese children in the world, with 14.4 million reported cases, according to a new study published in The New England Journal of Medicine. The article explains in detail the causes and consequences of the issue.

Demand of the question:

One must explain in depth the issue of child obesity in India and what are the causes, what needs to be done to overcome the alarming issue.

Directive word: 

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

State few facts to justify the assertion in the question statement about the child obesity.

Body

Explain what is child obesity? – Childhood obesity is a condition where excess body fat negatively affects a child’s health or wellbeing. Discuss the causes of it. Explain what are the possible consequences – effect on overall health and on the generations to come. Discuss how to overcome it.

Conclusion 

Conclude by suggesting solutions.

Introduction:

Childhood obesity is a condition where excess body fat negatively affects a child’s health or well-being. India has the second highest number of obese children in the world, with 14.4 million reported cases, according to a new study published in The New England Journal of Medicine.

Body:

Causes:

Children become overweight and obese for a variety of reasons. The most common causes are genetic factors, lack of physical activity, unhealthy eating patterns, or a combination of these factors. Only in rare cases is being overweight caused by a medical condition such as a hormonal problem. A poor diet containing high levels of fat or sugar and few nutrients can cause kids to gain weight quickly. Fast food, candy, and soft drinks are common culprits. Convenience foods, such as frozen dinners, salty snacks, and canned pastas, can also contribute to unhealthy weight gain.

Effects on health:

  • Physical
    • Childhood obesity however can also lead to life-threatening conditions including diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, sleep problems, cancer, and other disorders.
    • Some of the other disorders would include liver disease, early puberty or menarche, eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia, skin infections, and asthma and other respiratory problems.
    • The early physical effects of obesity in adolescence include, almost all of the child’s organs being affected, gallstones, hepatitis, sleep apnoea and increased intracranial pressure.
    • Overweight children are also more likely to grow up to be overweight adults.
    • Obesity during adolescence has been found to increase mortality rates during adulthood.
    • A 2008 study has found that children who are obese have carotid arteries which have prematurely aged by as much as thirty years as well as abnormal levels of cholesterol.
  • Psychological:
    • The first problems to occur in obese children are usually emotional or psychological.
    • Obese children often experience bullying by their peers.
    • Some are harassed or discriminated against by their own family.
    • Stereotypes abound and may lead to low self-esteem and depression.
  • Long-term effects
    • Children who are obese are likely to be obese as adults. Thus, they are more at risk for adult health problems such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, stroke, several types of cancer, and osteoarthritis.
    • One study showed that children who became obese as early as age 2 were more likely to be obese as adults.
    • According to an article in The New York Times all of these health effects are contributing to a shorter lifespan of five years for these obese children.

Measures to tackle it:

  • Educate the child about childhood obesity: We all have cravings but it is important to balance it out with healthy food and educating children regarding this is at a young age is important.
  • The longer babies are breastfed, the less likely they are to become overweight as they grow older. Breastfed babies are 15 to 25 percent less likely to become overweight. For those who are breastfed for six months or longer, the likelihood is 20 to 40 percent less.
  • Gradually work to change family eating habits and activity levels rather than focusing on weight. Change the habits and the weight will take care of itself.
  • Be a role model. Parents who eat healthy foods and are physically activity set an example that increases the likelihood their children will do the same.
  • Encourage physical activity. Children should have an hour of moderate physical activity most days of the week. More than an hour of activity may promote weight loss and subsequent maintenance.
  • Mandatory minimum grounds size and other sports infrastructure by strict implementation of RTE act norms.
  • The new guidelines on physical activity, sedentary behaviour and sleep for children under 5 years of age were developed by a WHO panel of experts. It must be implemented
  • Reduce time in front of the TV and computer to less than two hours a day.
  • Encourage children to eat only when hungry, and to eat slowly.
  • Avoid using food as a reward or withholding food as a punishment.
  • Keep the refrigerator stocked with fat-free or low-fat milk and fresh fruit and vegetables instead of soft drinks and snacks high in sugar and fat.
  • Serve at least five servings of fruits and vegetables daily.
  • Encourage children to drink water rather than beverages with added sugar, such as soft drinks, sports drinks and fruit juice drinks.
  • Millets can also help tackle health challenges such as obesity, diabetes and lifestyle problems as they are gluten free, have a low glycemic index and are high in dietary fibre and antioxidants.
  • Guidelines for Junk foods – prohibition of junk food around school, introduction of sin tax on the junk food
  • Construction of parks and leave open spaces in colonies (urban planning) so that children do not remain busy with indoor activity like video games, computer games.
  • Organisation of sport competitions at local level by municipalities, societies etc.

Conclusion:

Investing in early childhood development is one of the best investments a country can make to boost economic growth, promote peaceful and sustainable societies, and eliminate extreme poverty and inequality. Equally important, it is necessary to uphold the right of every child to survive and thrive.


Topic:  Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.

3)  In the recent past the parliament has been aggressively pushing bills on many fronts for a better India, however they suffer from the common malady that they are likely to be extremely under-enforced because of weak state capacity. Should Parliament pass laws that the government cannot enforce? Analyse.(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question:

 The article elaborately discusses in what way the laws are often not implemented and they remain only on paper.

Key demand of the question:

Answer should analyse clearly the lacunae in the governance on the implementation front, as to what are the reasons that hold back the implementation of laws that are aggressively put in place but often lose relevance due to lack of implementation.

Directive:

analyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

First bring out in a line or two the recent laws that were passed by the parliament.

Body:

Take hints from the article and explain the hurdles that the country face on governance front specifically on the implementation front.

Explain what are the genuine problems with passing laws without the capacity to enforce them like – 

  • low capacity to enforce leads to arbitrary enforcement.
  • a rule violator weighs the expected costs and benefits of breaking a rule.
  • Stronger penalties that are under-enforced may actually incentivize more rule violation. When the enforcement infrastructure is overloaded, this also affects pre-existing laws and not just newly passed legislation. Etc. 

Conclusion:

Conclude by suggesting reasonable solutions, how India can take lessons from other countries etc. 

Introduction:

The first session of the 17th Lok Sabha has provided important takeaways on both the work done and the working style of the highest legislature in the country. In its 35 sittings this session, the two Houses of Parliament have passed a staggering 26 Bills. However, well intentioned laws without the capacity to enforce them may result in even more rule violation.

Body:

Some of the laws enacted:

  • The Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (Amendment) Bill, 2019, aims to increase the severity of punishment for sexual offences against children.
  • The Code on Wages Bill, 2019, replaces four existing laws regulating wages, covers 500 million workers, and establishes floors for wages and overtime as well as penalties and criminal punishments for violating these rules.
  • The Companies (Amendment) Bill, 2019, criminalizes violations of the spending provisions of money meant for corporate social responsibility activities.

Yes, stronger laws are necessary:

One view is that it is better to have these strong laws on the books, as the prospect of severe punishment can be used to deter individuals from breaking rules. As India develops more state capacity in the future, these laws will be primed for better enforcement. Unfortunately, this view does not take into account the kind of incentives created by under-enforcement and its unintended consequences.

However, passing laws without capacity to enforce those leads to:

  • Low capacity to enforce leads to arbitrary enforcement. So, some individuals will get away while others will be punished. This tends not to be random. Typically, rich and politically well-connected individuals get away.
  • Selective enforcement can also be pernicious, where the government uses these laws to punish its Opposition or target particular groups and individuals.
  • A rule violator weighs the expected costs and benefits of breaking a rule.
  • It is not only the severity of punishment, but also the probability of facing the severe punishment that deters rule violations.
  • Stronger penalties that are under-enforced may actually incentivize more rule violation. When the enforcement infrastructure is overloaded, this also affects pre-existing laws and not just newly passed legislation.
  • Even sensibly crafted pre-existing laws that were enforced to some degree will now be enforced to a less degree because of overloading of the enforcement infrastructure. More individuals will be incentivized to break those laws, resulting in more criminal behaviour in society.

Way forward:

  • The first step is to stop passing laws that simply overload the system and cannot be enforced.
  • The second is to pass laws that actually increase state capacity by increasing the personnel that enforce the laws.
  • India requires the accompanying infrastructure to reduce processing times and thus congestion in its criminal justice system.
  • The third step is to free up existing state capacity by reducing or repealing onerous regulations in almost every area of social and economic conduct.
  • Streamlining and shrinking the ambit of the regulatory state to a size that can actually be effectively enforced will free up precious capacity that will help increase enforcement in all other areas.
  • The severity of punishment is not a substitute for state capacity. Parliament would do well to recognize this while framing laws.

Conclusion:

In sum, passing well intentioned laws with severe punishments without accounting for state capacity can create very harmful effects in society that are not easy to reverse. Increasing the amount of crime in society by criminalizing much more, without the state capacity to enforce penalties, can actually incentivize more rule violators.


Topic:Agriculture

4) Organic Farming in India is an established age-old practice in India, but its ability to redress the grievances of farmers seems to be limited. Critically analyse. (250 words)

Downtoearth

Why this question:

The question aims to examine the success/achievements that organic farming can bring to farmers and to their income and in what way it has certain limitations.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the merits and demerits of organic farming.

Directive:

Critically analyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Describe what is organic farming. 

Body:

The answer must justify how India has the highest number of organic farmers globally, but most of them are struggling.

Discuss the factors involved, quote facts such as – India is home to 30 per cent of the total organic producers in the world, but accounts for just 2.59 per cent (1.5 million hectares) of the total organic cultivation area of 57.8 million hectares, according to the World of Organic Agriculture 2018 report.

Explain the issues involved, why farmers are unable to harness the full potential. What needs to be done etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

Organic farming is a technique, which involves cultivation of plants and rearing of animals in natural ways. This process involves the use of biological materials, avoiding synthetic substances to maintain soil fertility and ecological balance thereby minimizing pollution and wastage. FAO suggested that Organic agriculture enhances agro-ecosystem health, including biodiversity, biological cycles and soil biological activity.

Body:

Status of Organic farming in India:

  • India is home to 30 per cent of the total organic producers in the world, but accounts for just 2.59 per cent (1.5 million hectares) of the total organic cultivation area of 57.8 million hectares, according to the World of Organic Agriculture 2018 report.
  • India is the largest exporter of organic cotton worldwide.
  • More than 30% of world’s organic producers are in India
  • India exporting over 300 products in 20 different categories.
  • India exported 1.35 million metric tons of “certified organic” food in the year of 2015-16.
  • Oilseeds comprised half of India’s overall organic food export, followed by processed food products at 25%.
  • Current Indian organic market is estimated at more than Rs. 4000 crore and it is likely to increase to 10,000 to 20,000 crore by 2020.
  • Indian organic market has a combined annual growth rate of 25% compared to 16% global growth rate.
  • Most organic farmers are struggling due to poor policy measures, rising input costs and limited market, says a study by the Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India (ASSOCHAM) and global consultancy firm Ernst & Young.

Challenges:

  • Due to relatively small volumes, the costs of organic food products are relatively high. According to the Indian Council of Agricultural Research, productivity on an average dips by 6.7 per cent in the first year, and the government needs to have a plan in place to support farmers during the transition.
  • The cost of cultivation increases as it takes more time and energy to produce than its chemical-intensive counterpart.
  • High demand and low supply has further created an inflationary pressure on organic food products.
  • Pest attack on organic crops is another reason cited by the farmers for low productivity and demanded education and training to deal with it.
  • Specialised farmer training costs, higher processing and inventory holding costs, and increased packaging, logistics and distribution costs add to the price of end products.
  • The absence of organic food products across all segments in the market is a concern
  • There is low awareness at the producer level on the difference between conventional farming and organic farming.
  • At the consumer level, there is confusion between natural and organic products and limited understanding of the health benefits of organic food products
  • Consumers are faced with a plethora of decisions around brands —imported or domestic, product quality, authenticity of claims and certifications.
  • Even as farmers are struggling to find a better market, the existing certification systems for organic food are making things difficult for them. The certification systems are not only cumbersome and time-consuming, but also expensive.

Way forward:

  • Supply-demand mismatch can be eased fundamentally  by making organic production  mainstream with  location-specific hybrid production  strategies
  • Investments in achieving operations excellence by companies will facilitate lowering the cost of organic food products
  • In order to sustain consumer trust, maintaining an accurate audit stream, and preventing cross-contamination  with conventional  goods would  be crucial.
  • Consumers should consume responsibly and stakeholders should prevent wastage along the supply chain.
  • The Government must rope in agricultural scientists and international research institutions to develop organic herbicides.
  • It is critical for companies involved in the  organic food  business to increase awareness among consumers  in non-metro  cities
  • People across all income groups should have access to organic food.
  • Establishing community-supported agricultural farms or with “grow your own food” programmes

Conclusion:

Organic agriculture is the best insurance policy that  India can have with better  performance  on productivity,  environmental  impact,  economic  viability and social well-being. Focusing only  on higher  yields at the expense of other  sustainability pillars (economics, environment  and society) is not  the food  production  system that India needs. What India needs is an integrated  system that gives equal importance  to  all sustainability dimensions across the value chain and thus helps establish a healthy and  well-fed society.


Topic: Security challenges and their management in border areas; linkages of organized crime with terrorism.

5) “The exponential growth of computer related crime equal with the increasing dependence of computers in our day-to -day lives has posed another tool for terrorists to spread terrorism”. Critically examine the statement in light of recent cyber incidences. (250 words)

The hindu

Reference

Why this question:

The question is straight forward and is about discussing the increasing cyber terrorism incidence across the world.

Key demand of the question:

Explain the rising incidences of cyber terrorism across the world, quote examples and examine the issue in detail. 

Directive:

Critically examineWhen asked to examine, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Define what is cyber terrorism.

Body:

Explain the rising incidences of cyber crimes and interlinkages of it with terrorism. Discuss the causative factors, analyse the security challenges it poses owing to its invisibleness. 

What needs to be done to address the challenge and control the spread of the same.

Conclusion:

Conclude by suggesting solutions and way forward.

Introduction:

Cyber-attacks have grown in terms of sophistication and reach in the recent times. The countries are witnessing growing cybercrime ranging from fraud calls to malwares that bring banking systems to a standstill. India was one of the worst hit countries by the WannaCry ransomware malware affecting sectors such as banking, finance and manufacturing last year.

Body:

State of cyber security in India:

  • According to EY’s latest Global Information Security Survey (GISS) 2018-19 – India edition, one of the highest number of cyber threats have been detected in India, and the country ranks second in terms of targeted attacks.
  • Although Banking and Telecom are the most attacked sectors but Manufacturing, Healthcare, and Retail have also faced a significant number of cyber attacks.
  • India ranks 3rd in terms of the highest number of internet users in the world after USA and China, the number has grown 6-fold between 2012-2017 with a compound annual growth rate of 44%. (NITI Aayog)
  • India was ranked among the top five countries to be affected by cybercrime, according to a 22 October report by online security firm “Symantec Corp”. India was ranked second globally when it comes to spam and phishing (misleading emails, weblink etc.)
  • As per a report by Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In), more than 53,000 cyber security incidents took place in India in 2017
  • As per the data by NCRB (National Crime Record Bureau), 12317 cases related to cybercrime were registered in 2016.

Need for Cyber Security

  • For Individuals: Photos, videos and other personal information shared by an individual on social networking sites can be inappropriately used by others, leading to serious and even life-threatening incidents.
  • For Business Organizations: Companies have a lot of data and information on their systems. A cyber attack may lead to loss of competitive information (such as patents or original work), loss of employees/customers private data resulting into complete loss of public trust on the integrity of the organization.
  • For Government: A local, state or central government maintains huge amount of confidential data related to country (geographical, military strategic assets etc.) and citizens. Unauthorized access to the data can lead to serious threats on a country.

Way forward:

  • Real-time intelligence is required for preventing and containing cyber attacks.
  • Periodical ‘Backup of Data’ is a solution to ransomware.
  • Using Artificial Intelligence (AI) for predicting and accurately identifying attacks.
  • Using the knowledge gained from actual attacks that have already taken place in building effective and pragmatic defence.
  • Increased awareness about cyber threats for which digital literacy is required first.
  • India needs to secure its computing environment and IoT with current tools, patches, updates and best known methods in a timely manner.
  • The need of the hour for Indian government is to develop core skills in cyber security, data integrity and data security fields while also setting stringent cyber security standards to protect banks and financial institutions.

Topic:  Security challenges and their management in border areas; linkages of organized crime with terrorism.

6) Trace the changed security situation in Jammu and Kashmir and discuss the road ahead post the recent landmark political changes. (250 words)

Livemint

Why this question:

The question is in the backdrop of recent scrapping of article 370 and the effect it has on the security front in Kashmir.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must trace the security situation in Kashmir and in what way the dynamics have been changing around the state.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin with brief upon what were the issues I the past to current.

Body:

Discussion should include the following: 

Explain first that the volatile security scenario in J&K is a manifestation of Pakistan’s proxy war with India, combined with the unsettled political issues of the state.

Explain the causative factors of challenges on security on various fronts.

Discuss the possible solutions.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

The government recently introduced a resolution to remove provisions of Article 370, which provides special status to Jammu and Kashmir.  In addition, Home Minister also introduced a Bill bifurcating the State of Jammu of Kashmir into Union Territory of Ladakh and the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir. The Presidential Order has extended all provisions of the Constitution to Jammu and Kashmir, including the chapter on Fundamental Rights. Therefore, the discriminatory provisions under Article 35A are now unconstitutional.

Body:

Changed security situation in Jammu and Kashmir:

  • In effect, the state of Jammu and Kashmir will now cease to exist; it will be replaced by two new Union Territories: Jammu and Kashmir, and Ladakh.
  • The UT of Jammu and Kashmir will have an Assembly, like in Delhi and Puducherry.
  • The law and order is now under the direct control of Union Government.
  • The Government’s argument that the continued fragile situation in Kashmir, and the ascendency of the Taliban and fellow jihadists in Kabul as a fallout of the future US withdrawal from Afghanistan made it necessary to make it a UT.
  • National security planners have reviewed how Harkat-ul-Ansar (parent of the Jaish-e-Mohammed) and Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT) camps had shifted to Khost in eastern Afghanistan under the protection of the then Taliban regime.
  • The threat of terrorism in Kashmir could increase just as it did after the Taliban took control of Kabul in 1996, the official added. The rise of the Taliban in the past lead to terror attacks by jihadists in Jammu and Kashmir as well as the IC-814 hijacking by the Harkat-ul-Ansar.
  • But scrapping 35A has fuelled concerns about whether this is an effort to change the texture of Kashmir, to allow people who weren’t part of the permanent resident class in Kashmir to buy land and come in. This could flare up the situation.
  • Rejection of the Government move by Pakistan could also lead to further pumping in of state sponsored terrorists to spoil the security situation in JK
  • Extremist terrorists may attack vulnerable targets or attack troops as a way of ramping up tensions, forcing the Indian government to respond militarily and creating that spiral of violence that they benefit from.
  • The separatists will get a great boost. It gives them a talking point: We’ve been telling you for all this time that the Indian government doesn’t see you as one of them and doesn’t respect Kashmiri identity.
  • Further, with OBOR running through Kashmir region, it could sour the relations between India and China going forward as India considers it as a intrusion into her sovereignty.

Measures needed:

There is a need for sustained and coordinated efforts of public outreach involving all the key stakeholders.

State:

  • Non-violent and democratic methods to achieve political aspirations.
  • The way out of the deadlock is to strengthen democracy.
  • Empowerment of Local Governments which involves people at the grassroots level.
  • Setting aside of the mutual fears of the people of Jammu and of Kashmir and bringing the people of Ladakh into this ambit as well.
  • Socio economic development through various governmental schemes.
  • Conducting recruitment rallies to employ the youth, who are in a different state of mind.

Security Forces:

  • While the army’s Operation Sadbhavna (a military civic action initiative of 20 years) has helped in extending marginal outreach, the lack of mass engagement has prevented the development of any perception change and the creation of alternative narratives to counter the propaganda from Pakistan and the separatists.
  • Direct outreach: conduct of public meetings or “awami sunwais” in the field in areas where the reach of the administration had become marginal. Example: Awami Sunwai’s of the past.
  • Maximum opportunity to the common citizens to speak, criticise and complain, so they can realise that there are enough people willing to listen rather than talk down to the common Kashmiri.
  • Need to engage the security personnel especially army and CRPF for public outreach and conduct of public meetings and include the politicians and the public officials along with.

Religious heads:

  • Involvement of local clergies who has substantial hold on the local populace and seek its cooperation in messaging the youth and others on the uniqueness of the Indian system.
  • Exploitation of social media, as much as the countering of online propaganda of radicalisation.

Non-State Actors:

  • The other major determinant is J&K is the part of Non-State Actors like Separatists, Neighbouring Pakistan and the state sponsored terrorists.
  • They have a considerable hold on the people and their opinions.
  • Engaging the non-state actors through interlocutors, Tier-2 diplomacy should help alleviate the fears and misunderstandings that have cropped up.

Media:

  • Media described as the fourth pillar of democracy plays a very vital role.
  • They are responsible for reporting of the incidents in a true and unvitiated manner. However, the political patronage and ownership by big media houses has made more one sided views.
  • With internet on the surge and ease of access of information at tips, they help in shaping the views and opinions of people.
  • Media should be ethical and democratic in its approach. It should spread the message of peace and harmony across people.

Conclusion:

The significant move, in theory, opens up potential opportunities for development-led economic growth in the Union Territories of J&K and Ladakh. Thus, the move is bound to have a significant impact on the demography, culture, and politics of J&K. Whatever its intent in enabling the full integration of Jammu and Kashmir with India, this decision to alter the State’s status could have unintended and dangerous consequences.


Topic: Moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.

7) The political leader is also the primary moral leader of a society”. Explain the reason for the above spectacle. (250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon publications

Reference

Why this question:

The question is set in the context analyzing the role of ethics in leadership.

Key demand of the question:

Explain the significance of a political leader and in what way she/he is the primary moral leader of the society.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Define what you understand by a political leader.

Body:

Highlight the role of a political leader in a society, explain that he/she is the one who brings values to the surface in a society. 

Explain that Leadership is one of the most observed and least understood phenomena on earth. Discuss other facets of leadership and justify the answer with suitable example.

Conclusion:

Conclude by reasserting the significance of the same.

Introduction:

A political leader acts as an important link in establishing the cordial relation between the policies and its impact on society. The primary driver behind his action is based on the motive of framing rules and legislation in taking his state towards path of progress, in which ethical conduct of the leader is an essential requirement.

Body:

A political leader is primarily an individual of morality and unless and until he doesn’t acquire this virtue the state prosperity and the belief of masses could not be achieved, whether in a monarch or democratic regime. Public life, governance, and legislation are concerned with the well-being of the citizens of a society.

The people we choose to represent us matter beyond the mere fact that we have someone representing us. In a representative democracy, a citizen’s identity and desires are appropriated by a representative who tries to reconcile the disparate wishes of their constituents.

Morality is important for political leaders. For example, if president has weak morality for community, he can be far from people. Because it means he do not respect the other people who actually have rights to give opinion / thought that may be can support what president want to decide, and it will make all people are feel fair. However, if leader has high moral and ethical standards for the community, he will be more attend to the people, by listen and accept all their critic or advice, and also more concerned to problems or issues that can hamper to solving all problems and make peace.

Political leaders are also need to be primary moral leaders because:

  • Millions across the world feel that the current globalised system is not working in their best interests.
  • From unemployed workers to the small island states in the South Pacific whose livelihoods are threatened by climate change, people are angry that decisions taken by governments and in corporate boardrooms appear blithely indifferent to their daily struggles.
  • In all countries, too much focus is placed on leaders assuming that they can make decisions unilaterally and that those decisions will be implemented. E.g.: In Russia, Putin is president of a country crippled by the fall of the Soviet Union and the nature of Russian society. He has promised prosperity and to return Russia to greatness. He is all-powerful so long as he focuses on those things.
  • There are many politicians who will cynically exploit genuine grievances for their own ends.
  • At the same time, all across the world we see rising levels of xenophobia and intolerance and a narrowing of political vision focused on parochial introspection.

Conclusion:

Thus, there is a need to reject cynical populists who offer scapegoats instead of real solutions, and calls on responsible politicians, civil society and business leaders to reassert our basic, common values of dignity for all.