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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 05 AUGUST 2019


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 05 AUGUST 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic: Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary; Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.

1) Do you think a mere increase in the court’s strength may suffice to liquidate the burgeoning issue of large pendency of cases? Examine. (250 words)

The hindu

Why this question:

Pendency of cases across courts in India has increased in the last decade.

Union Cabinet recently has approved a proposal to increase the strength of judges in Supreme Court from the present 31 to 34 (i.e. by 10%), including Chief Justice of India (CJI). Cabinet has approved a bill to amend the Supreme Court (Number of Judges) Act, 1956.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the issue of pendency of cases and in what way increasing the number of judges alone cant be a solution to the problem and there have to be a multi-pronged approach.

Directive:

ExamineWhen asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Describe the current conditions with few vital statistics to substantiate.

Body:

There are more than 3 crore cases pending in different courts of India. Many of these cases are pending for more than 10 years. Explain first why there are too many cases pending in Indian courts? Suggest Solutions to the Problem of Pending Cases in Indian Courts.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

Any move to increase the strength of the judiciary ought to be welcomed, given the perennial complaint that availability of judges is not increasing in proportion to the institution of cases. In this perspective, the Union Cabinet’s decision to raise the strength of the Supreme Court from 31 to 34, including the Chief Justice of India, will help in dealing with the large pendency — 59,331 cases on July 11, 2019.

Body:

Reasons for increase in pendency:

  • The valuable time of SC is being taken up by mundane matters that do not impinge on larger questions that involve interpretation of laws and constitutional provisions
  • Routine bail matters land up in the Supreme Court within days of persons being arrested.
  • Every major crime or disaster seems to invite a litigant, ostensibly in public interest, who mentions the matter before the Chief Justice for urgent hearing.
  • The court is being invited to even oversee flood relief work.
  • Rising pendency also results from the injunction [a judicial remedy issued in order to prohibit a party from doing or continuing to do a certain activity] of cases by Courts.
  • For example, in the case of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) cases, injunctions have led to about 60 percent of cases being stayed, whose average pendency is 4.3 years. The average age of cases waiting for final judgment is inordinately high at 7.9 years.
  • Shortage of judges: around 5,580 or 25% of posts are lying empty in the subordinate courts. It leads to poor Judges to Population Ratio, as India has only 20 judges per million population. Earlier, Law Commission had recommended 50 judges per million.
  • Frequent adjournments: The laid down procedure of allowing a maximum of three adjournments per case is not followed in over 50 per cent of the matters being heard by courts, leading to rising pendency of cases
  • Burden of government cases: Statistics provided by LIMBS shows that the Centre and the States were responsible for over 46% of the pending cases in Indian courts.
  • Judges Vacation: Supreme Court’s works on average for 188 days a year, while apex court rules specify minimum of 225 days of work.
  • Lack of court management systems: Courts have created dedicated posts for court managers to help improve court operations, optimise case movement and judicial time. However only few courts have filled up such posts so far.
  • Inefficient investigation: Police are quite often handicapped in undertaking effective investigation for want of modern and scientific tools to collect evidences.
  • Increasing Literacy: With people becoming more aware of their rights and the obligations of the State towards them, they approach the courts more frequently in case of any violation

Measures needed:

  • A reasonable restraint on the duration of oral arguments and a disciplined adherence to a schedule of hearings may be needed.
  • In this case, one of the principal objectives should be to preserve the apex court’s primary role as the ultimate arbiter of constitutional questions and statutory interpretation.
  • All other questions involving a final decision on routine matters, especially civil cases that involve nothing more than the interests of the parties before it, ought to be considered by a mechanism that will not detract from the court’s primary role.
  • Addressing the Issue of Vacancies: Ensure the appointments of the judges be done in an efficient way by arriving at an optimal judge strength to handle the cases pending in the system. The 120th Law Commission of India report for the first time, suggested a judge strength fixation formula.
  • Supreme Court and High Courts should appoint efficient and experienced judges as Ad-hoc judges in accordance with the Constitution.
  • Use of Information technology (IT) solutions: The use of technology for tracking and monitoring cases and in providing relevant information to make justice litigant friendly. A greater impetus should be given to
  • Process reengineering: Involves redesigning of core business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in productivity and quality by incorporating the use of technology in court rules. It will include:
  • Electronic filing of cases: e-Courts are a welcome step in this direction, as they give case status and case history of all the pending cases across High courts and Subordinate courts bringing ease of access to information.
  • Revamping of National Judicial Data Grid by introducing a new type of search known as elastic search, which is closer to the artificial intelligence.

Way forward:

  • Some countries have brought in a clear division at the level of the apex judiciary by having separate constitutional courts, which limit themselves to deciding questions of constitutional importance.
  • It may be worthwhile considering the 229th Report of the Law Commission, suggesting a new system under which there will be one Constitution Bench in Delhi, and four ‘Cassation Benches’ for different regions of the country.
  • These will be final appellate courts for routine litigation.
  • This arrangement may also increase access to justice to those living in far-flung areas of the country and who may otherwise have to come to Delhi and spend more time and money in pursuing appeals. It may also cut down on the time taken for disposal of cases.

Conclusion:

The fundamental requirement of a good judicial administration is accessibility, affordability and speedy justice, which will not be realized until and unless the justice delivery system is made within the reach of the individual in a time bound manner and within a reasonable cost. Therefore, continuous formative assessment is the key to strengthen and reinforce the justice delivery system in India.


Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

2) Analyse in what way helping farmers produce solar energy can help realise the government’s target of doubling farmers’ incomes.(250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question: 

The article discusses how solar energy can help the farmers realise doubling their income. 

Demand of the question:

One has to analyse and suggest in what way harnessing the solar plant potential can help farmers augment their income.

Directive word: 

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

Discuss the initiatives taken on this front by the government recently.

Body

With the latest Budget mentioning how annadata (farmer) can become the urjadata (producer of solar power). Discussion should focus on explaining how alternative model can help farmers produce solar power on their lands. Take hints from the article and substantiate your opinion and establish how solar energy generation along with agriculture can prove to be a game changer for farmers in India.

Conclusion 

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

The Union Finance Minister (FM) in her maiden budget speech reiterated the idea of farmer being a solar energy producer through solar farming. In the Parliament, the agriculture minister for state, responding to a question on the prime minister’s promise of doubling farmers’ income (DFI) by 2022, admitted that the existing set of policies cannot double farmers’ real incomes by 2022.

Body:

Farmers as solar power producers can help achieve DFI:

  • The PM has set a target of producing 100 GW of solar power by 2022.
  • He wants to be one of the frontrunners in International Solar Alliance for clean energy.
  • So far, the model that has been adopted to develop solar power is inviting bids from large business players and big players did enter.
  • Some people who entered early into Power Purchase Agreements (PPA) with state governments had to suffer, when the costs came down.
  • Then, the state governments also forced them to revise the costs of PPA downwards, upsetting their economic calculations.
  • But, this model of generating solar power was not very inclusive.

Measures needed:

  • Replace all pump sets with solar pumps and the excess power generated can be purchased by the state government.
  • This gives the farmers a good margin over their cost of producing it.
  • Encourage farmers to grow “solar trees” on their lands in a manner that enough sunlight keeps coming to plants below.
  • Here, the farmers can keep growing irrigated crops as they have been doing, but the solar trees generate a lot of excess power that can be purchased by the state government.
  • The power generated under this variant is multiple times more than that produced under the first variant, and, the income augmentation can also be several times more.
  • Solar -cum-agricultural farms: Carrying out expansion of solar power capacity as well as for crop farming together is known as solar-cum-agricultural farm.
  • The power produced by the photovoltaic modules installed in the fields can help meet energy needs of the farm operations besides selling the remaining power.
  • The rainwater falling over the photovoltaic panels can be collected for irrigation, turning it into solar-cum-agriculture-cum-rainwater harvesting farm.

Economic Survey findings:

  • Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations’ (ICRIER) global survey found that it is being practiced in many countries like Japan, China, Germany, etc and India is ripe for this.
  • The problem is mobilising enough capital to install these solar trees.
  • In one acre, you can have 500 solar trees in such a manner that even tractors can move through them and farmers can keep growing their normal crops.
  • It does not affect their productivity as there is ample sunlight coming from the sides for the crops to perform photosynthesis.
  • The second precondition is that the state should be ready to sign the power purchase agreement.

Way forward:

  • Setting up of such integrated agri-photovoltaic farms is typically a cost-intensive proposition, heavy investments may be unaffordable for most Indian farmers.
  • It is advisable to encourage the solar energy entrepreneurs to consider joining hands with the farmers on mutually agreed terms, instead of going in for solo photovoltaic units.
  • This will be mutually beneficial for both of them otherwise, agri-solar farms may not proliferate.

Conclusion:

The Indian government should help farmers by providing subsidies and loans to acquire solar powered agricultural tools. Agricultural experts should encourage guiding farmers in operating them. India must exploit the potential of this decentralised technology to achieve the dual national targets of 100 GW of solar and doubling farmer’s income by 2022 — setting a world-class example of greening the economy and overcoming its developmental challenges, simultaneously.


Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

3) A combination of increased urbanization, climate change and weak infrastructure is rapidly depleting water supply in cities across the country, discuss the various causes leading to such a crisis in Indian cities along with suggestions to overcome the same. (250 words)

livemint

Why this question:

The article discusses in detail in what way the Indian cities are dealing with water crisis.

Key demand of the question:

Discussion should be about the problems in Indian cities related to water crisis.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Quote the recent incidences depicting the water crisis situations in the cities.

Body:

The article very well captures how and why Indian cities are facing water issues and if not addressed in time the situation may get even worse.

Explain the interlinkages between water crisis and other factors that are contributing to it. 

Take hints from the article and organize your answer according to the context of the question.

Conclusion:

Conclude with suggesting solutions to the problem.

Introduction:

The NITI Aayog report on Composite Water Management Index (CWMI) said that India is facing its ‘worst’ water crisis in history. Taps in Shimla went dry in summer of 2018, posing an unprecedented water crisis in the hill town. According to a forecast by the Asian Development Bank, India will have a water deficit of 50% by 2030. Recent studies also ranked Chennai and Delhi at the top of the 27 most vulnerable Asian cities in terms of low per-day water availability Mumbai and Kolkata follow close.

Body:

India’s water crisis is more serious that its energy crisis:

  • The water crisis in India is more dire than imagined.
  • The annual per capita availability of water continues to decline sharply from about 5,177 cubic metres in 1951 to about 1,720 cubic metres in 2019.
  • The NITI Aayog in its report on Composite Water Management Index (2018) has underlined that currently 600 million people face high to extreme water stress.
  • Twenty-one cities, including Delhi, Bengaluru, Chennai and Hyderabad will run out of groundwater by 2020, affecting 100 million people.
  • Apart from mega cities, many fast-growing small and medium cities such as Jamshedpur, Kanpur, Dhanbad, Meerut, Faridabad, Visakhapatnam, Madurai and Hyderabad also figure in this list.
  • The demand-supply gap in most of these cities ranges from 30 per cent to as much as 70 per cent.
  • About two lakh die every year due to inadequate access to safe water, about three-fourths of the household do not get drinking water at their premise and about 70 per cent of water is contaminated.
  • The rate of groundwater extraction is so severe that NASA’s findings suggest that India’s water table is declining alarmingly at a rate of about 0.3 metres per year.
  • At this rate of depletion, India will have only 22 per cent of the present daily per capita water available in 2050, possibly forcing the country to import water.
  • About 81 per cent of India’s ultimate irrigation potential, estimated at 140 million hectares, has already been created and thus the scope for further expansion of irrigation infrastructure on a large scale is limited.
  • Climate experts have predicted that there will be fewer rainy days in the future but in those days it would rain more.

Causative factors for water crisis:

  • A combination of population explosion, unplanned growth of the city and its expansion to some traditional catchment areas (a region from which rainfall flows into a river, lake, or reservoir) have led to a reduction in the natural flow of water, and large-scale deforestation.
  • Climate change, leading to much lower precipitation during the winter months. As a result, the natural flow and recharge of water in the region has fallen sharply
  • Failure of State governments to check unplanned development and exploitation of water resources. There is no attempt at the central or state levels to manage water quantity and quality
  • The vegetation pattern has changed, tree cover is shrinking and unscientific dumping of debris in water streams is rampant.
  • The debris blocks the natural course of water bodies.
  • Increasing number of tube wells resulting in depletion of groundwater.
  • Changes in farming patterns lead to consumption of more water for irrigation and also change the soil profile because of the use of fertilizers
  • The states ranked lowest like Uttar Pradesh, Haryana and Jharkhand – are home to almost half of India’s population along with the majority of its agricultural produce.
  • There is also a lack of interest in maintaining India’s traditional water harvesting structures.

Measures needed:

  • Structural measures:
    • Putting in place an efficient piped supply system (without leakage of pipes) has to be top on the agenda.
    • Ancient India had well-managed wells and canal systems. Indigenous water harvesting systems need to be revived and protected at the local level. Examples: Karez, Bawli, Vav etc
    • Digging of rainwater harvesting pits must be made mandatory for all types of buildings, both in urban and rural areas.
    • Treating the Greywater and reusing it needs to be adopted by countries like Israel (upto 85%). It could be used to recharge depleted aquifers and use on crops.
    • Initiatives such as community water storage and decentralized treatment facilities, including elevated water towers or reservoirs and water ATMs, based on a realistic understanding of the costs involved, can help support the city’s water distribution.
    • Technologies capable of converting non-drinkable water into fresh, consumable water, offering a potential solution to the impending water crisis are needed. Example: Desalination technologies in Coastal areas, Water-sterilization in polluted water areas.

 

  • Non-structural measures:
    • The World Bank’s Water Scarce Cities Initiative seeks to promote an integrated approach, aims at managing water resources and service delivery in water-scarce cities as the basis for building climate change resilience.
    • Groundwater extraction patterns need to be better understood through robust data collection
    • Decentralisation of irrigation commands, offering higher financial flows to well-performing States through a National Irrigation Management Fund.
    • Public awareness campaigns, tax incentives for water conservation and the use of technology interfaces can also go a long way in addressing the water problem. Example, measures such as water credits can be introduced with tax benefits as incentives for efficient use and recycling of water.
    • A collaborative approach like the adoption of a public-private partnership model for water projects can help. Example, in Netherlands, water companies are incorporated as private companies, with the local and national governments being majority shareholders.
    • Sustained measures should be taken to prevent pollution of water bodies and contamination of groundwater.
    • Ensuring proper treatment of domestic and industrial waste water is also essential.

Conclusion:

Primarily water is not valued in India. “People think it is free”. In order to meet the future urban water challenges, there needs to be a shift in the way we manage urban water systems. An Integrated Urban Water Management approach must be adopted which involves managing freshwater, wastewater, and storm water, using an urban area as the unit of management.


Topic:  Public Distribution System- objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing.

4) “Providing portability of food security benefits all across the nation through One Nation One Ration Card can prove to be a game changer in the public distribution aspects of the country”. Comment.(250 words)

Newindianexpress

Why this question:

 In a major boost to National Food Security, Government of India launched the One Nation-One Ration Card scheme on a pilot basis in four States namely Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Gujarat.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss the key features of the scheme and how it is helping in augmenting the PDS in the country.

Directive:

Commenthere we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Discuss the concept of one nation one card.

Body:

Discuss the following – 

Features: Families who have food security cards can buy subsidized rice and wheat from any Fair Price Shop in these states. Their ration cards should be linked with Aadhar Number to avail this service.

Way ahead: The Centre is intended to extend the programme to all states by August next year so that the portability of the food security card implemented. There will also be creation of a Central Repository of all Ration Cards to help national level de-duplication.

Benefits: The national portability of Ration cards will ensure all beneficiaries especially the migrants in getting access to Public Distribution System (PDS) across the nation from any PDS shop of their own choice.

This will provide freedom to the beneficiaries as they will not be tied to any one PDS shop and reduce their dependence on shop owners and curtail instances of corruption.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

One Nation One Ration Card Scheme which will allow portability of food security benefits will be available across the country from 1st July, 2020. This means poor migrant workers will be able to buy subsidized rice and wheat from any ration shop in the country.

Body:

Highlights of the scheme:

  • The poor migrant workers will be able to buy subsidised rice and wheat from any ration shop in the country but for that their ration cards must be linked to Aadhaar.
  • Migrants would only be eligible for the subsidies supported by the Centre, which include rice sold at Rs. 3/kg and wheat at Rs. 2/kg, It would not include subsidies given by their respective state government in some other state.
  • This scheme will ensure that no poor person is deprived of subsidised grains.
  • The scheme can be implemented as already 77% of the ration shops across the country have PoS machines and more than 85% of people covered under the National Food Security Act (NFSA) have their cards linked to Aadhaar.
  • For remaining beneficiaries, all the States have been given one more year to use point of sale (PoS) machines in the ration shops and implement the scheme.

Significance of Scheme:

  • For migrant labourers:
    • India has had food security benefit schemes which have domicile based access.
    • 36 crore people or 37% of the population is that of migrant labourers. The scheme is therefore important for anyone who is going to move from one place to the other.
    • It happens that when one moves from one place to the other (for e.g. a government employee being transferred from one place to another), it takes about two to three months to get a ration card at that next place and then further more time to start getting commodities against the same.
    • After the implementation of the scheme, it would be ensured that a migrant is able to access the benefits which are due to him in any part of the country.
    • This would be ensured on the basis of Aadhaar authentication and a validated data.
  • For Women:
    • ONORC will be particularly beneficial for women and other disadvantaged groups, given how social identity (caste, class and gender) and other contextual factors (including power relations) provide a strong backdrop in accessing PDS.
  • Provides Choice:
    • ONORC will give the beneficiaries the opportunity to opt for the dealer of their choice. If any dealer misbehaves or misallocates, the beneficiary can switch to another FPS shop instantly.
    • ONORC lets the beneficiaries choose the PDS shop that best delivers on the attributes.
  • Curbing corruption:
    • In ONORC Scheme, the fundamental prerequisite is de-duplication so that it is ensured that the same person does not figure as a beneficiary in two different locations of the country.
    • With the help of the scheme, the government would be able to rightly target the beneficiaries to provide them with the foodgrains under the PDS. The scheme is linked with Aadhaar and biometrics, this removes most possibilities of corruption.
    • The government is creating a central data repository to get all the details of ration card which are being maintained by states so that the repository acts as a clearing house or a server to do the cross checking on the basis of Aadhaar authentication.
    • This ensures that there is no corruption or duplication of the benefits that are being passed on to the beneficiaries. The government will ensure all these things with the help of technology.

Challenges:

  • Since the scheme is based on technology, the government may face some technical challenges during the implementation of the scheme.
  • The scheme will increase the woes of the common man and, the middlemen and corrupt PDS shop owners will exploit them.
  • Tamil Nadu has opposed the proposal of the Centre, saying it would result in undesirable consequences and is against federalism.
  • Within some states issue of intra state portability.
  • Different states have different rates and these mismatching rates will be a big challenge.
  • Few regional parties have expressed apprehensions on bearing the cost of additional ration cards. This is a matter which is to be settled between the states and the Government of India.
  • One of the apprehensions mentioned by few states is the cost of additional food grain to be supplied to the migrant workers.
  • However, the whole system is based on the entitlements mandated under the NFSA and this prevents the charges of additional cost. Beneficiaries will continue to pay the same issue prices that are fixed under the NFSA.
  • The quality of services is markedly inferior for the subaltern groups with latent methods of discrimination such as lack of information, mixing of inferior grains, longer waiting time and, at times, even verbal abuse.

Way Forward:

  • The food security scheme under the NFSA costs more than Rs 1 lakh crore per year. It is very expensive but is highly needed. There is a need to ensure that subsidized food grains ultimately go to the person or the family that is entitled to.
  • The ONORC should also include access to health and other things.
  • At the principal level, within the government, there is broad consensus on having a unified kind of service delivery system based on technology and identity.
  • A unified service platform combining all the citizen centric services on the basis of few parameters of identity and other indicators of technology, is the need of the hour.
  • ONORC combined with a rating system based on the experiences akin to the Uber/Ola system, the government can improve PDS by closer monitoring and control. Those PDS dealers who perform better could be rewarded.

Conclusion:

While ONORC has the potential to improve outcomes particularly for the subaltern groups, like any delivery mechanism, the entire value chain of making the system work needs to be closely monitored and backed by infrastructure. The availability of point of sale (PoS) systems at PDS shops, and its functioning needs to be ensured to check compromises in the entitlements.


Topic:  Security challenges and their management in border areas.

5) Border administration/ management is a multifaceted task due to difficult topography and challenging relations with some countries. Elucidate the challenges and approaches for effective border management.(250 words)

Why this question:

The question expects us to discuss the challenges of border management and the strategies India has employed to tackle such challenges. 

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the issues faced by the country in managing its borders owing to hostile relations with neighbours or other countries and in what way it should manage and handle.

Directive:

ElucidateGive a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin with brief introduction stating the context of the question.

Body:

Discussion should include the following: 

Explain the existing issues India is facing on border security fronts.

Explain challenges – Unilateral actions by some nations to change the status quo in their favour.

Misuse of borders (especially porous open borders) for smuggling, illegal migration, etc.

Little or no support from counterparts of neighbouring nations and in some cases active support by cross border elements to illegal activities.

Cultural, ethnic and linguistic affinity across borders and clan loyalties

Multiple agencies are involved in border management, lack of Inter agency cooperation and coordination

Support of state and non-state actors to aid infiltration, smuggling, trafficking.

Then discuss the measures that can be taken. 

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

India has one of the longest and most varied of international borders. Historical and political reasons have left India with an artificial unnatural border. Border Management is an integral approach towards borders in which along with security enhancement, infrastructure & human development is undertaken. The challenge of coping with long-standing territorial and boundary disputes with China and Pakistan, combined with porous borders along some of the most difficult terrain in the world, has made effective and efficient border management a national priority.

Body:

India has had to deal with numerous challenges with respect to border management such as:

  • India’s rate of growth has far outpaced that of most of its neighbours and this has generated peculiar problems like mass migrations into India.
  • Current fence:
    • The present one has a high rate of degradation due to snow and has to be repaired after every season which costs about Rs. 50-60 crore every year
    • Over time infiltrators have devised ways to cross it.
  • India’s internal security challenges are inextricably linked with border management. This is so because Indian insurgent groups have for long been provided shelter across the nation’s borders by inimical neighbours.
  • No real-time coordination:
    • Due to the lack of understanding of military issues among the decision-making elite, India’s borders continue to be manned by a large number of military, paramilitary and police forces
    • Each of which has its own ethos and each of which reports to a different central ministry at New Delhi, with almost no real coordination in managing the borders.
  • Border management is designed for a ‘fire fighting’ approach rather than a ‘fire prevention’ or pro-active approach
    • It is based on a strategy of ‘reaction and retaliation’ rather than on a holistic response to the prevailing environment, resulting in stress and decision making problems at the functional level.
  • Due to the non-permanent presence of the Myanmarese army in that region, the reason primarily being the hostile terrain, ousting the Indian militants remains a challenge.
    • Similarly, ethnic rebels from Myanmar have found bases within states like Mizoram. Thus, the 1,643 kilometre long Indo-Myanmar border remains a challenge.
  • The border security scenario is marked by
    • increased cross-border terrorism
    • infiltration and ex-filtration of armed militants
    • emergence of non-state actors
    • nexus between narcotics traffickers and arms smugglers
    • left-wing extremism
    • separatist movements aided and abetted by external powers
    • The establishment of madrasas, some of which are potential security hazards.
  • Perennial and Seasonal Rivers via which terrorists can infiltrate.
  • Un-demarcated boundaries with overlapping claims cause constant friction along borders.
  • Mountainous and Hilly terrain especially in North Indian borders which are snow clad and inhabitable during winter season.
  • Unilateral actions by some nations to change the status quo in their favour.
  • Little or no support from counterparts of neighbouring nations and in some cases active support by cross border elements to illegal activities.
  • Cultural, ethnic and linguistic affinity across borders and clan loyalties
  • Multiple agencies are involved in border management, lack of Inter agency cooperation and coordination
  • Support of state and non-state actors to aid infiltration, smuggling, trafficking etc.

Strategies for effective border management have been continuously evolving. Some of them are:

  • 24x7x365 day surveillance along Indo-Pak border with 5 layer smart fence
  • Agreement on basic guiding principles and standard operating procedures
  • Increasing confidence building measures and communication linkages to avoid unnecessary confrontation and escalation
  • Integrated border management by involving and enhancing cooperation with counterparts of neighbouring countries especially along open borders.
  • Effective implementation of the recommendations of One Border One Force by the Task Force on Border Management to weeds out inter agency frictions.
  • Community measures and awareness can be deployed along open borders to prevent illegal activities.
  • Implementation of Border Area Development Programme and other developmental initiatives so that there is no feeling of being left out.

Way forward:

  • Infrastructure along with border has to be improved – rail connectivity along with road connectivity has to be provided for quick mobilization.
  • Building of additional checkpoints and Border posts along major and minor trade routes connected with borders
  • Building of floating bridges, walls & electrical fences where there is high probability of infiltration.
  • Taking up of joint Border management with Countries like Myanmar, Bhutan and Nepal.
  • Improving healthcare, physical infrastructure and digital connectivity in villages around borders thus making them stakeholder in Border Management.
  • Madhav Godbole task force recommendations on border management need to be implemented.
  • It had recommended that the CRPF should be designated as the primary national level counter-insurgency force. This would enable the other central paramilitary forces like the BSF and Indo-Tibetan Border Police to return to their primary role of better border management.
  • It had also recommended that all paramilitary forces managing unsettled borders should operate directly under the control of the army and that there should be lateral induction from the army to the paramilitary forces so as to enhance their operational effectiveness.
  • The principle of ‘single point control’ must be followed if the borders are to be effectively managed.
  • The advances in surveillance technology, particularly satellite and aerial imagery, can help to maintain a constant vigil along the LAC and make it possible to reduce physical deployment.

Conclusion:

Keeping a strong vigil on its border is very important for any nation to check any kind of illegal activities or intrusion through them. For India, the task becomes difficult where terrain and climate is very complex across some of its border areas. Focussing on improved technology will help in making the task easier for the security forces and make its borders more secure.


Topic:  Security challenges and their management in border areas; linkages of organized crime with terrorism.

6) Discuss the similarities between the terrorism and organised crime, also discuss what are the various facets of linkages between organized crimes and terrorism.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question:

The question is direct from the static portions of GS paper III. 

Key demand of the question:

Explain in detail the linkages of terrorism and organized crime and the similarities between the two, one can discuss how it can be tackled.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Define the terms – terrorism and organized crime.

Body:

Explain there are a number of increasingly similarities between terrorism and organized crime. Both use extreme violence and the threat of reprisals. Both use extreme violence and the threat of reprisals. Both use kidnappings, assassinations, and extortion. Both operate secretly, though at times publicly in friendly territory.

Discuss the challenges posed by them.

Conclusion:

Conclude by suggesting solutions.

Introduction:

Organized crime is described as any group having a corporate structure whose main aim is to obtain money through unlawful activities often surviving on fear and corruption. Terrorism is an act that appears to be intended to terrorise or force a civilian population to influence policy of a government by extortion or to affect the conduct of the government by assassination or abduction.

Body:

Similarities between terrorism and organized crimes:

  • First similarity is that both operate secretly. Although both terrorist groups and criminal organizations have a strong central leadership, they are mainly based on cell structures to achieve their own goals. Day to day operations are carried out by members of small cells.
  • Both use violence and produce mostly civilian victims.
  • Intimidation and fear are characteristics of both groups.
  • They use similar tactics, such as kidnapping, assassination, extortion.
  • Terrorist and crime group organizations use front organizations such as legitimate businesses or charities.
  • Both uses similar ways to conceal profits and fund raising.
  • The activities of both groups are in cross the national-regional transnational divide; both groups require safe havens, and as a result both tend to take advantage of Diaspora communities.
  • Both groups are aided by corrupt officials whose services provide mutual benefits, such as access to fraudulent documents, including passports and other identification and customs documents to smuggle goods and weapons.

Linkages between Organized crimes and terrorism:

  • In general, there appear to be three ways that the crime-terror nexus interact:
    • Through shared tactics and methods;
    • Through the process of transformation from one type of group to the other over time; and JMLC
    • Through short- or long-term transaction-based service-for-hire activities between groups
  • In present global climate, high profile crime is committed to gain power and generate huge funds to live lavishly. Researchers have stated that there is strong link between terrorists with criminal organizations.
  • Both crime and terrorism have occurred under parallel conditions. These conditions comprise of economic adversity, social stratification, oppressive regimes, weak or limited law enforcement, socioeconomics, and the politics of a particular region.
  • Both crime and terrorism allow the marginalised or the subjugated to gain life success by choosing another path that breaks the institutional barriers of entry using innovative, illegal approaches. These methods provide opportunities for ideological wins, financial advantage and vertical movement in a society. .
  • Other linkage is through the spread of fake currency. Terrorists are the main agent of this currency. Indian mujahidin resorted to crime to raise funds. This includes robberies and kidnapping. Maoists terror movement also uses coercion, robberies of banks and kidnapping to collect huge funds.
  • Nexus between organized crime and terrorism increases also due to many factors such as globalization in which free flow of trade and human provide opportunity for both to intermingle, communication rebellion through internet, end of cold war that reduce state financing of terrorist therefore terrorist indulge in criminal activities to fill financial needs and lastly, global war on terror.

Conclusion:

In summary, the usual distinction between terrorist and criminal organizations  is  really  a  continuum,  with  purely  financial  motives  at one extreme and purely ideological or political objectives at the other.


Topic:Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

7) “We are what we think. All that we are arises with our thoughts. With our thoughts, we make the world.” Comment upon the relevance of statement in the context of ethical conduct of an individual.(250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon publications

Why this question:

The quote is given by Gautam Buddha, one has to elucidate upon the statement in relevance of ethical conduct.

Key demand of the question:

Explain in detail the relevance and significance of the quote.

Directive:

Commenthere we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Define and expand upon the quote.

Body:

The quote needs to be explained with detailed case studies, one should explain how it is clear that an individual is what he/she thinks, it’s the thoughts that build a person, the attitude and values are engrained based upon the thoughts of a person.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of thoughts and values in individual’s life.

Introduction:

It is said that our beliefs become our thoughts, our thoughts become our words, our words become our actions, our actions become our habits, our habits become our values, our values become our destiny.  Human action and attitude is determined by the thought process and the consciousness one possesses. It is made up of bundle of thoughts that gives a shape to his action and motive and ingrained in his personality.

Body:

Good & positive thoughts create positive vibrations that affect human beings for their welfare. Similarly, unhealthy, bad & negative thoughts emit negative vibrations that cause harm & damage to human beings. The French revolution was brought about by the thoughts relating to liberty, equality & fraternity. Great thinkers like Plato, Aristotle, Karl Marx, and M.K.Gandhi revolutionized the world even after them by their powerful positive thoughts. Only it is essential that we should have positive thinking. We must channelize our thoughts in positive way because the energy we put into the universe will dictate the world around us.

We keep hearing from our childhood ‘As you think, so you become.’ So let us beware of our thoughts, negative thoughts erode our energy & positive thoughts provide us enlightenment. Our thought matters. Our positive thoughts will create our feelings, our positive feelings will create our actions, and our positive actions will create our life positive. They are all interconnected.

The fact is that thinking capacity of man has made him supreme among all living beings. We only need to make our thoughts positive & systematic. The systematic thought is the most significant factor behind all the major changes & the revolutions which have taken place in the world till now.

Conclusion:

As Swami Vivekananda says, “Thoughts are our chief motivating force. Fill your mind with healthy and higher thoughts, as thoughts are founders of our character, which ultimately form our destiny.”