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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 03 AUGUST 2019


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 03 AUGUST 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic:  The Freedom Struggle – its various stages and important contributors /contributions from different parts of the country.

1) India’s many conflictual pasts should teach people understanding and appreciation, rather than revenge or retribution. Examine the statement in reference to Tipu Sultan on his achievements and his excesses.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question:

 The article discusses the contributions of Tipu Sultan, his achievements and excesses.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must explain the necessity of Developing an understanding of our conflictual pasts, and not retribution, is the way to deal with ‘historical wounds’.

Directive:

ExamineWhen asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Discuss the context of the question in brief.

Body:

The discussion should surround upon the contributions of Tipu in the history of Karnataka and in what way the recent political views that have differed to see his contributions.

over the last few decades in Karnataka, there has been a steady inflation of shrill debates about Tipu’s legacy.

Discuss how such incidences shouldn’t be seen from the perspective of politics or retribution but from the angle of contribution.

Conclusion:

Form a fair and balanced opinion and conclude.

Introduction:

The controversy surrounding Tipu Sultan, the 18th century ruler of Mysore, has emerged in Karnataka once again. This happened over the new state government’s decision to cancel the celebrations of the ruler’s birth anniversary.

Body:

Contributions of Tipu Sultan:

  • He was born in 1750 and, as a 17-year-old, fought in the first Anglo-Mysore War (1767-69) and subsequently, against the Marathas and in the Second Anglo-Mysore War (1780-84). Haider died while this war was on, and Tipu succeeded him in 1782.
  • In the wider national narrative, Tipu has so far been seen as a man of imagination and courage, a brilliant military strategist who, in a short reign of 17 years, mounted the most serious challenge the Company faced in India.
  • He fought Company forces four times during 1767-99, and gave Governors-General Cornwallis and Wellesley bloody noses before he was killed defending his capital Srirangapatnam in the Fourth Anglo Mysore War. With Tipu gone, Wellesley imposed the Subsidiary Alliance on the reinstated Wodeyar king, and Mysore became the Company’s client state.
  • Tipu reorganised his army along European lines, using new technology, including what is considered the first war rocket. He devised a land revenue system based on detailed surveys and classification, in which the tax was imposed directly on the peasant, and collected through salaried agents in cash, widening the state’s resource base.
  • He modernised agriculture, gave tax breaks for developing wasteland, built irrigation infrastructure and repaired old dams, and promoted agricultural manufacturing and sericulture. He built a navy to support trade, and commissioned a “state commercial corporation” to set up factories.
  • As Mysore traded in sandalwood, silk, spices, rice and sulphur, some 30 trading outposts were established across Tipu’s dominions and overseas
  • Tipu Sultan for long emblematised the valiant struggle of Mysore against the British and was the only one to die on the battlefield. All others were defeated by, collaborated or made their peace with, the emerging British power.

However, there are concerns raised against Tipu Sultan

  • On nearly every historical figure, perspectives differ. Haider and Tipu had strong territorial ambitions, and invaded and annexed territories outside Mysore. Haider annexed Malabar and Kozhikode, and bloodthirsty tyrant who burnt down entire towns and villages, razed hundreds of temples and churches, and forcibly converted Hindus. The historical record has Tipu boasting about having forced “infidels” to convert to Islam, and of having destroyed their places of worship.
  • The disagreement then, is between those who see the “Tiger of Mysore” as a bulwark against colonialism and a great son of Karnataka, and those who point to his destruction of temples and forced conversions of Hindus and Christians to accuse him of tyranny and fanaticism.

Conclusion:

Placing a personality in binary terms, i.e. extreme good or bad is neither rational nor progressive. Historical perspectives should be critically analysed only to study from the past so as to live in a better present and build a better tomorrow. Attempts to see such narratives in political, communal or religious lines to create divisions in society should be vehemently opposed. It is improper to judge figures of the past by canons of the present. History should be used to teach people about tolerance and brotherhood rather than dividing based on communal lines.


Topic Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

2) India has suffered from the problem of inappropriately trained doctors of varying quality since a very long time. Discuss in what way the newly passed National Medical Commission Bill, 2019 can address the issues associated with the regulating medical education and practice.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question:

Recently, the National Medical Commission Bill, 2019 was passed by the parliament. The bill sets up the National Medical Commission (NMC) which will act as an umbrella regulatory body in the medical education system.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must evaluate the pros and cons of the National Medical Commission Bill, 2019 and in what way it can address the current issues facing the medicine fraternity and their field.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Briefly set the background of the question.

Body:

Explain the key features of the bill, discuss the merits and demerits of the provisions. The Bill seeks to repeal the Indian Medical Council Act, 1956 and provide for a medical education system which ensures: (i) availability of adequate and high-quality medical professionals, (ii) adoption of the latest medical research by medical professionals, (iii) periodic assessment of medical institutions, and (iv) an effective grievance redressal mechanism.

Explain what were the issues with MCI, in what way the new bill addresses the issues.

Conclusion:

Conclude with positive note and way forward.

Introduction:

The National Medical Commission Bill, 2019 was passed recently by the parliament. The bill sets up the National Medical Commission (NMC) which will act as an umbrella regulatory body in the medical education system. The NMC will subsume the MCI and will regulate medical education and practice in India. Apart from this, it also provides for the reforms in the medical education system.

Body:

Key highlights of the bill:

  • The bill provides for the constitution of four autonomous boards entrusted with conducting undergraduate and postgraduate education, assessment and accreditation of medical institutions and registration of practitioners under the National Medical Commission.
  • Composition of National Medical Commission: It will have government nominated chairman and members, and the board members will be selected by a search committee under the Cabinet Secretary. There will be five elected and 12 ex-officio members in the commission.
  • As per the Bill, the government, under the National Medical Commission (NMC), can dictate guidelines for fees up to 40% of seats in private medical colleges.
  • The bill also has a provision for a common entrance exam and licentiate (exit) exam that medical graduates have to pass before practising or pursuing PG courses. For MBBS, students have to clear NEET, and before they step into practice, they must pass the exit exam.
  • Recognised medical institutions don’t need the regulator’s permission to add more seats or start PG course. This mechanism is to reduce the discretionary powers of the regulator.
  • Earlier, medical colleges required the MCI’s approval for establishment, recognition, renewal of the yearly permission or recognition of degrees, and even increase the number of students they admitted. Under the new bill, the powers of the regulator are reduced to establishment and recognition. This means less red tape, but also less scrutiny of medical colleges.

Significance and the need:

  • The Bill seeks to regulate medical education and practice in India.
  • The Bill attempts to tackle two main things on quality and quantity: Corruption in medical education and shortage of medical professionals.
  • The Bill aims to overhaul the corrupt and inefficient Medical Council of India, which regulates medical education and practice and replace with National medical commission.
  • Over the years, Medical Council of India has been marred by several issues regarding its regulatory role, composition, allegations of corruption, and lack of accountability.
  • In 2009, the Yashpal Committee and the National Knowledge Commission recommended separating the regulation of medical education and medical practice.

Potentials of the bill:

  • According to the Bill, the Commission may grant limited licence to practice medicine at mid-level as Community Health Provider to such person connected with modern scientific medical profession who qualifies such criteria as may be specified by the regulations.
  • The NMC has the potential to link the disease burden and the specialties being produced.
  • In the UK, for example, it is the government that lays down how many specialists of which discipline need to be produced, which the British Medical Council then adheres to.
  • In India, the MCI has so far been operating independently. This gap can be bridged by the NMC.
  • By introducing qualifying exams like NEET and NEXT, NMC can instil uniformity in the standard of competence and skills.
  • It can reduce the burden of taking multiple exams, ensure a minimum level of knowledge in science, and reduce corruption by restricting student admission to those qualifying these exams.
  • The State Medical Council will act as a grievance redressal body for any complaints relating to professional or ethical misconduct against a registered medical practitioner.
  • This will protect the interest of the patients and checks the corrosive impact of the process of commercialisation of medical services.
  • The differential pricing of medical education can benefit the economically weaker sections of society.
  • NMC will have a final say in the determination of fees for up to 50% of the seats in private medical institutions and deemed universities.
  • NMC can encourage and incentivise innovation and promote research by laying down rules that make research a prerequisite in medical colleges.

Conclusion:

India has suffered from the problem of inappropriately trained doctors of varying quality since a very long time. Decades back, the Mud liar Committee Report (1959) pointed out that doctors had neither the skills nor the knowledge to handle primary care and infectious diseases that were a high priority concern at the time. In recent times, the excessive reliance on a battery of diagnostic tests is reflective of commercial considerations and weak knowledge.


Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation. Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

3) Discuss the key areas that require restructuring to transform India’s Innovation ecosystem with special emphasis on the lessons it can take from other countries.(250 words)

The hindubuisnessline

Why this question:

The article discusses the case study of Israel with respect to the innovation ecosystem prevailing.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the areas that India need to focus and restructure to transform Innovation ecosystem and the lessons that it should take.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Describe about innovation ecosystem in the country.

Body:

Explain that India is a rising economic power and an increasingly important locus of innovation. India is changing from a locus of low-cost contract research and reverse engineering to a global center of high-value, indigenously generated innovation. To sustain this transformation, Indian policy makers increasingly recognize the need for continuing economic reforms, new public investments in the nation’s infrastructure, and new policy initiatives and institutions to encourage innovation, expand the skills and knowledge base of its population, and facilitate entrepreneurship.

Discuss how India can take lessons from Israel and suggest measures.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

India was ranked 52 among 130-odd economies in the recently released Global Innovation Index 2019. Nevertheless, its performance was commended as it topped the Central and South Asian region for the ninth consecutive year and its growth — from 81st rank in 2015 to 52nd this year — is the fastest by any major economy. What is also significant is that India continues to outperform on innovation relative to its gross domestic product (GDP).

Body:

Key areas that need emphasis:

  • Funding:
    • The funding scenario is still in nascent stage in India.
    • Researchers need to depend upon Government funding which has been very low. Our investment in R&D is a paltry 0.7 per cent of GDP.
    • Private funding is abysmal in India, whereas there is only transfer of innovations from their home countries.
    • FDI in India has focused on setting up back-end offices for R & D centers in developed countries.
  • Poor R&D:
    • Insufficient scientific research in India’s private sector seems to be part of the problem. The large pharmaceutical sector, for example, remains dominated by the fabrication of generic products rather than original formulations.
    • As per UNESCO Institute of Statistics data, India spends 0.8% in GDP on R&D, which is notably less than China’s 2% or the 2.7% of the US 0r 4.2% of Israel.
    • Physical as well as other enabling infrastructure is missing to help in research capabilities.
  • Policies :
    • Government is the single largest enabler for the innovation ecosystem.
    • Government’s role in encouraging R&D and helping companies start is vital to ensuring success.
    • Weak industry-academia linkage: Unlike western countries, there is disconnect between industry needs and academics creating a vacuum in research and innovation.
    • Issues regarding Intellectual Property rights (IPR): Weak enforcement of IPR rules prevent the development of innovation ecosystem in the nation.
    • There is a severe backlog and high rate of pendency for domestic patent applications. According to reports there is a backlog of almost 2 lakh patents pending examination due to manpower shortages.
  • Bureaucratic inefficiencies:
    • Firstly, there are a large number of procedures to be followed and clearances to be obtained to start and operate a business.
    • Secondly, each of these procedures can take an inordinately large amount of time.
    • Policymakers should invest in human intellectual capital and create a knowledge-based economy.
  • Weak Education System:
    • Indian education system is very weak especially when it comes to educating about entrepreneurship.
    • Students hardly get to know about entrepreneurship during their school studies.
    • Finding a team with right approach could be challenging for entrepreneurs especially when they are looking for people of non-tech skills.
    • Today, Israel spends 7 per cent of its GDP on education.
    • A large section of the country’s public research is concentrated in national research centres such as the S. N. Bose Center, the Raman Research Institute and organizations such as the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science. In comparison, research at universities has been neglected.
  • Corruption:
    • While under no circumstances, corruption can be justified, it is a bitter truth that it is rampant in many government departments.
    • Even private sector is not spared by bribes, unwarranted objections.
    • The urge to make illegal money, immense misuse of power, frivolous publications and patents, faulty promotion policies, victimization for speaking against wrong or corrupt practices in the management, sycophancy, and brain drain
  • Labour:
    • Lack of manufacturing capability in India has been attributed to red tapism and corruption, but the low productivity of labour is also a big factor.
    • Stringent labour laws governing lay-off of employees make it very difficult to fire workers in case of non-performance or during times of financial distress when it becomes imperative to lay-off workers to maintain the financial viability of the business operations.
  • Ecosystem Limited to Big Cities:
    • The startup ecosystem in India is limited to big cities including Bangalore, Delhi, Bangalore, Pune and Chennai etc.
    • There are very few resources that are actually working toward strengthening the startup ecosystem.

Way forward:

  • The Economic Survey recommends doubling national expenditures on R&D with most of the increase coming from the private sector and universities.
  • Improve math and cognitive skills at school level.
  • There is a need to encourage investor-led research. In this direction, the Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB) has already been established. It is a promising start that needs to expand with more resources and creative governance structures.
  • R & D should focus on technology and extension services that are directly related to common people.
  • Engage private sector, state government and Indian Diaspora.
  • The private sector should be incentivised to undertake and support R&D through CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) funds.
  • Growing strength of India’s economy and increasing anti-immigrant atmosphere in some Western countries has the potential to attract back scientific Indian Diaspora.
  • Schemes like Ramanujan Fellowship Scheme, the Innovation in Science Pursuit for Inspired Research (INSPIRE) Faculty scheme and the Ramalingaswami Re-entry Fellowship, Visiting Advanced Joint Research Faculty Scheme (VAJRA) should be enhanced to leverage the scientific Diaspora

Conclusion:

Many experts have faulted India’s innovation that focuses on getting products and services to people at an affordable cost, rather than aiming for global leadership. They are wrong. Solving India’s challenge will eventually open opportunities for Indian enterprises globally.

Case study: Israel, which came into being around the same time as India in 1948, has a lot of lessons to offer for its ally — especially when it comes to converting challenges into a competitive advantage. With a population of just 8.5 million, it has a very small domestic market.

Though located in an area that is home to earliest of civilisations, its enterprises cannot look at broadening its market by exporting to neighbouring countries as Israel is surrounded by enemies. That apart, it is endowed with very little natural resources including water. Its 22,000 square kilometre area is predominantly arid, fit to grow almost nothing.

Any other country with such adversity would have given up and become dependent on allies for survival. Not Israel. Its policy-makers decided early to invest in human intellectual capital and create a knowledge-based economy. By doing so they hoped that Israel could become home to technology focussed industries that do not depend on natural resources that their country sorely lacks while, at the same time, offering products that could be easily exported (despite an unfriendly neighbourhood) to meet the demand anywhere in the world.


Topic:  Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security; money-laundering and its prevention.

4) Meticulous co-operation and intelligence-sharing are needed between the countries to fight the new age terrorism which has global reachand sophisticated tools at its disposal. Discuss.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question:

Key demand of the question:

Explain in detail the need for Meticulous co-operation and intelligence-sharing are needed between the countries to fight the new age terrorism. 

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

State the present challenges or the ones faced in the past on this front.

Body:

Briefly define terrorism and state with examples of how a

new version of terrorism has evolved. Discuss the reasons that led to the emergence of new age terrorism.

Suggest way forward how countries should tackle this threat and conclude suitably.

Conclusion:

Conclude by suggesting solutions to the issue.

Introduction:

International terrorism poses an increasingly dangerous and difficult threat to world. Today’s terrorists seek to inflict mass casualties, and they are attempting to do so across globe. They are less dependent on state sponsorship and are, instead, forming loose, transnational affiliations based on religious or ideological affinity and a common hatred. This makes terrorist attacks more difficult to detect and prevent.

Body:

Trends in Terrorism:

The increase in attacks and deaths across more countries has meant that the impact of terrorism is becoming more widespread, even as deaths from terrorism are decreasing. As the intensity of terrorism has increased over the last two decades, its impact has also spread to more countries around the world.

Measures need to tackle global terrorism:

  • A comprehensive and multidimensional strategy for the “War on Terror” must involve an integrated view of these strategic military and economic domains, among others.
  • Addressing UN High-Level conference on Heads of Counter Terrorism, India extended a five-point formula –
    • Exchange of timely and actionable intelligence.
    • Prevention of misuse of modern communication through collaboration with the private sector.
    • Building capacities for improved border controls.
    • Sharing of info related to the movement of passengers.
    • Designation of Counter-Terror focal points to fight global terror.
  • In addition, there should be a concerted effort from the countries affected by the scourge of terrorism to pressurize countries who engage in state-sponsored terrorism.
  • It is necessary for countries fighting terrorism to learn more closely from their differences, rather than try to generalise from experience.
  • The success or failure of each of these approaches must be studied & applied to smaller countries suffering from global terrorism based on applicability.
  • United Nations must become the global Centre to fight global terrorism. For such, Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism must be agreed upon on basis on common definition of terrorism.
  • The functioning UNSC 1267 Committee should be strengthened.
  • The complete implementation of UN Global Counter-Terrorism Coordination Compact that was agreed upon in 2018.
  • Intelligence sharing between countries needs to be strengthened and countries currently not affected by global terrorism need to take the threat seriously.

Conclusion:

India should play a proactive role to neutralize any threat of terrorism. There is a need for the world to join hands and take concrete multilateral initiatives to ensure that terror groups are dealt with a heavy hand. Accepting and ratifying the Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism (CCIT) proposed by India would be good first step.


Topic:  Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security; money-laundering and its prevention

5) What do you understand by Cyber warfare? Outline and discuss the cyber threats which India is vulnerable to and bring out the state of the country’s preparedness to deal with the same. (250 words)

Economictimes

Why this question:

The question is based on the concept of cyber warfare.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must explain what is cyber warfare, India’s preparedness aspects in detail.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Define what is cyber warfare.

Body:

Discussion should include the following: 

Discuss the concept of cyber warfare – Cyberwarfare is a broad term describing the use of technological force within cyberspace.

Then move on to discuss the preparedness aspect of India. 

Conclusion:

Conclude with need for preparedness and readiness in terms of policies, force and laws.

Introduction:

Cyber warfare is computer- or network-based conflict involving politically motivated attacks by a nation-state on another nation-state. In these types of attacks, nation-state actors attempt to disrupt the activities of organizations or nation-states, especially for strategic or military purposes and cyber espionage.

Body:

It involves the actions by a nation-state or international organization to attack and attempt to damage another nation’s computers or information networks through, for example, computer viruses or denial-of-service attacks.

India’s vulnerabilities to cyber threats:

India’s preparedness and challenges faced:

  • The attacks can be more tangible causing damage to physical or digital infrastructure.
    • This includes a country’s water system or electric grid.
    • Cyber tentacles can spread to political parties, universities and private businesses and Citizens.
    • Potentially worrisome cyber incidents include interference in political affairs, leaks and espionage and the compromising of critical national infrastructure.
  • A 2017 study conducted by Symantec found that India ranked fourth in online security breaches, accounting for over 5 per cent of global threat detections. In the beginning of 2017, the newly launched Bharat Interface for Money application (BHIM app) reportedly faced spam threats.
  • The real danger to India lies in targeted cyber attacks coming from adversarial nation states.
    • Countries like China can bring immense assets to bear in carrying out sophisticated cyber attacks. The success of Stuxnet, which damaged the Iranian centrifuge facility at Natanz is an example.
  • Cyber warfare is characterised by an absence of clarity.
    • India can never be certain about the capability of the other side and also the chances of success if we launch a cyber counterstrike.
  • There is a push towards greater digital dependence with demonetisation a cashless system is being propagated. Aadhaar and the wider platforms such Digital India and Smart Cities will push things further along. India is the world’s second largest digital nation with more than 350 million Indians are online and millions more will be getting connected in the years to come.
  • India is not even a signatory to some of the basic international frameworks on Cybersecurity like the Convention of Cybercrime of the Council of Europe which not only European nations but Japan, US, South Africa have become signatories to, except India.
  • Indian laws are not in tandem with the ever-changing global cyberspace.
    • The laws are old and hence need to be more dynamic in nature to deal with issues like cyber-espionage, data theft and so on.
    • The Information Technology Act, 2000 (IT Act 2000) is the sole law that deals with cyberspace in India and was passed way back in 2000.
    • Also, the Cyber Law of India has been subject to amendments on various occasions but hasn’t served the changing dynamics and the growing threats and manifestations of cyberwar.

Measures needed:

  • A Defence Cyber Agency could be the first step the government plans to for critical infrastructure and military networks that are increasingly becoming dependent on the Internet, thus increasing vulnerabilities.
  • The Defence Cyber Agency will work in coordination with the National Cyber Security Advisor. It will have more than 1,000 experts who will be distributed into a number of formations of the Army, Navy and IAF. According to reports, the new Defence Cyber Agency will have both offensive and defensive capacity.
  • Equally important is cyber propaganda. During the Doklam conflict, China tried its best to unleash cyber propaganda on India and indulged in complex psy-ops
  • Critical cyber infrastructure needs to be defended and the establishment of the National Critical Information Infrastructure Protection Centre(NCIIPC) is a good step in this direction
  • Individual ministries and private companies must also put procedures in place to honestly report breaches. It is only then that the NCIIPC can provide the requisite tools to secure these networks. This partnership must be transparent and not mired in the usual secrecy of intelligence organisations.
  • The upgrading of the Defence Cyber Agency to a Cyber Command must be implemented at the soonest.
  • A robust ecosystem must be built to secure India from acts of state and non-state actors, including protocol for grievance redressal in international forums.
  • Better capabilities must be built to detect and deflect attacks.
  • The computer emergency response team (CERT) must be strengthened and aligned with military and foreign affairs operations.
  • Building a joint task force between the government and key technology players will be crucial.
  • The government should push for the creation of a global charter of digital human rights.
  • A national gold standard should be created, which ensures that Indian hardware and software companies adhere to the highest safety protocols
  • Impart cybercrime investigation training and technological know-how to the various law enforcement agencies.
  • Cyber awareness must be spread and there should be multi-stakeholder approach- technological inputs, legal inputs, strengthening law enforcements, systems and then dealing with transborder crime involves lot of international cooperation.

Conclusion:

Most of the Indian banking industry and financial institutions have embraced IT to its full optimization. Reports suggest that cyber-attacks are understandably directed toward economic and financial institutions. With innovative, technology led programmes such as AADHAAR, MyGov, GeM, Digital Locker the new India is the land of technological prowess and transformation. Government and the private sector jointly have to give cyber security some priority in their security and risk management plan.


Topic: Human Values

7)  Is it always right to tell the truth, even if it hurts or destroys someone else? What matters more, the life of an individual or the majesty of the moral law? Explain. (250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon publications

Reference

Why this question:

The question aims to analyse the aspect of being truthful under varying circumstances.

Key demand of the question:

Discussion should analyse in what way being truthful and upholding the moral of being honest is difficult in certain situations and what is right whether to be truthful even in situations where the truth may hurt the individuals or the situation.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Define the value of truthfulness. 

Body:

One has to justify both the sides – if a lie preserves someone’s feelings, or protects someone from harm, it is the right thing to do. It is morally acceptable to lie when a falsehood protects someone from physical or emotional harm. Moreover, little white lies are socially accepted when they do no harm. For instance, telling a child that their drawing is nice or that their story is clever, is an example of this.

On the other hand, also explain If we do things that require justification, we are already doing something we aren’t supposed to be doing. Making excuses may sooth our logical mind temporarily, but it doesn’t do anything for the internal conflict that is created. When we deliberately do something that violates our core ethics, it sets in motion a destructive emotional conflict. The end result will be the slow erosion of our core values or the manifestation of some self-sabotaging behavior.

Conclusion:

Conclude with balanced opinion.

Introduction:

Being truthful means a strict adherence to a policy of honesty and openness. Although there are rare cases where dishonesty is not just acceptable but morally obligatory, the vast majority of our interactions with others demand conscientious honesty.

Body:

Importance of being truthful:

  • Being truthful also means being dependable and trustworthy. To be virtuous, it is important not just that our words be truthful, but that our actions are truthful and consistent with what we have promised.
  • As philosophers such as Immanuel Kant have written, truthfulness is a prerequisite both for building a stable, lawful society and engaging in meaningful interaction with others, so living up to one’s words is important not only on an individual level but also on the level of the community.
  • Deception by deliberate omission, though perhaps less immoral than outright lying, is still deception and should be forsworn.

Lying is wrong:

 

  • Being false or lying is bad because a generally truthful world is a good thing: lying diminishes trust between human beings
  • Lying is bad because it treats those who are lied to as a means to achieve the liar’s purpose, rather than as a valuable end in themselves
  • Lying is bad because it makes it difficult for the person being lied to make a free and informed decision about the matter concerned. Lies lead people to base their decisions on false information.

However sometimes people lie with good intentions, with the intention of sparing the feelings of others or preventing others from experiencing psychological harm. For instance people might tell their host that their meat loaf is delicious or tell a colleague that their work makes a valuable contribution.

It is morally acceptable to lie when a falsehood protects someone from physical or emotional harm. Moreover, little white lies are socially accepted when they do no harm. For instance, telling a child that their drawing is nice or that their story is clever, or telling new parents that their baby is the cutest ever are both examples of this.

Conclusion:

Lying to help another person was consistently perceived to be good, while lying that had no effect on the other person or that actually harmed them was perceived to be wrong. It relates to the principle of consequentialism which professes a pursuit of noble ends without much concern for the means so employed.