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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 01 AUGUST 2019


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 01 AUGUST 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic: Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism. Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

1) Mob Lynching has become a recurring phenomenon in India which is surging hate violence targeting religious and caste minorities. Explain the causative factors and suggest ways to address it.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question: 

The article captures the dismay of mob lynching as a social evil prevalently being witnessed in the country.

Demand of the question:

One has to discuss the causative factors of such a social evil and suggest ways to address it.

Directive word: 

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

Explain what is mob lynching in brief.

Body

Mob lynching refers to killing someone for an alleged offense without following any due process of law. In last few years mob lynching has emerged as a collective hate crime which targets people of specific identity or forms a minority community or strangers under suspicion. Lynching may be sparked variously by disputes over allegations of cow smuggling or slaughter, wild rumors of cattle theft or child kidnapping.

Discuss the causative factors to it.

Then move on to examine to what extent abysmal condition of the criminal justice system provides safe-havens and impunity to the perpetrators of such horrendous acts of mobocracy in India.

Explain what needs to be done.

Take hints from the article and suggest solutions – such as Implementation of the Supreme Court judgment in Prakash Singh case: a police establishment board has to be constituted for internal transparency and accountability. Distinguishing the core functions of police from the functions at the periphery as per the Malimath committee report. Use of latest technologies like the Internet of Things (IoT) for remote monitoring of the identified sensitive areas. It can save the time of the police. The police officials must be empowered to take punitive actions against the perpetrators in case of emergency.

Conclusion 

Conclude that constructive reforms to tide over the grim threat of criminalization of politics which castes its terrifying shadow over large swathes of the country is the need of the hour.

Introduction:

The  country  is  witnessing  a  series  of  incidents  of  lynching  and  targeted  mob  violence  against  vulnerable groups. The causes behind and the threats it impose calls for bringing in an anti-lynching law. Manipur became the first to pass a remarkable law against lynching, late last year.

Body:

Supreme court ruling: Supreme Court — anguished by what it described as ‘horrific acts of mobocracy’ — issued a slew of directions to the Union and State governments to protect India’s ‘pluralist social fabric’ from mob violence. The court felt compelled to act in the shadow of four years of surging hate violence targeting religious and caste minorities. It also urged Parliament to consider passing a law to combat mob hate crime.

Causative factors:

  • With modernity, there is growth of individualism and an erosion of associational life and intolerance towards pluralism.
  • Associations encourage us to appreciate others culture and moderate our aggressive instincts.
  • Mob has no face, this impunity leads mob to take extreme steps
  • Weakening of civil society organizations and other organic institutional links.
  • A culture of political mobilization that uses violence as a tool of politics.
  • Indifferent attitude towards other cultures and religions.
  • Indifferent attitude of Police leads people to take law in their own hands. e.g. Tamil Nadu Lynching
  • According to India spend report, in 21% of the cases, the police filed cases against the victims/survivors.
  • Rise in penetration of Social media and its usage to spread rumours and hatred. E.g.: Bangalore Exodus of North east people.
  • Growing Prevalence of Fake news and Hate News. E.g.: Dadri Lynching. There are instances of organized hate campaigns as well.
  • According to ‘India spend’ 52% of attacks in last 8 years are based on rumours.
  • The silence of political class. They are ineffective to create deterrence through strong law.
  • Ineffective and delayed justice. E.g.: Manipur Lynching of rape accused.
  • High Unemployment rates leave millions of youth unengaged. E.g.: Manesar Maruti Plant Incident

Measures needed:

  • Government should criminalize the act of mob violence. Manipur became the first to pass a remarkable law against lynching, late last year. The precedent should be followed in other states too.
  • Awarding of penalties on public servants for failing to investigate properly due to malafide intentions or wilful neglect of their duties.
  • Establishment of Special Courts for the trial of mob violence.
  • Empowering local law enforcement officials to take pre-emptive action.
  • There needs to be continued responsiveness on part of the local administration in dealing with anxiety and suspicion in local communities.
  • Create a mechanism to insulate investigations of communal violence from political interference.
  • Community Sensitisation and awareness through multi-media campaigns. Counter-information campaign to check fear-mongering and fake news.
  • Strengthen civil society Organisation. This helps to nurture solidarity.
  • Re-orient values and traditional principles towards enhancing compassion, empathy and fraternity among people.
  • Find productive engagement avenues for large unemployed or under-employed youths.
  • A targeted region specific approach is need of the hour as reasons for such acts vary widely across space.
  • Police reforms are vital along with sensitization drive to make transformational changes in their behavioural and attitudinal approach towards tackling of crime.

Way forward:

  • The term ‘hate crimes’ should also be added as a provision in the comprehensive definition of the “lynching”.
  • Others states’ and centre should follow suit and legislate a law for anti-lynching as per SC directives.
  • Rehabilitation should be done at the ground level to make the victims spring back to normalcy.
  • Measures to curb spreading of fake news on social media should also be looked at parallel.
  • Ensure public officials are faithful to their constitutional responsibilities and victims.

Conclusion:

                Parliament must create a special law against lynching, asserting that “fear of law and veneration for the command of law constitutes the foundation of a civilised society”. Lynching should be nipped in the bud and Manipur has shown the way forward. It has taken the leadership in creating the new India, where every citizen should claim – of safety, fairness and fraternity.


Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources, corporate governance.

2) Discuss the effectiveness of the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) related amendments made to the Companies Act?  Analyse the pros and cons of the same. (250 words)

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Why this question:

Parliament on Tuesday cleared amendments to the companies’ law that will tighten norms pertaining to CSR spending for corporates, strengthen enforcement provisions and help unclog National Company Law Tribunal.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must evaluate the amendments made with respect to CSR in the companies act.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Define what is CSR.

Body:

One has to discuss the salient features of the companies act and the key features pertaining to the CSR.

Explain the newly introduced provisions – provision wherein the unspent CSR amount would be transferred to an escrow account for three financial years. Subsequently, if the amount remains unspent then the same would be moved to funds specified in Scheduled VII of the Companies Act. Under the Act, certain class of profitable companies are required to shell out at least two per cent of their three-year annual average net profit towards CSR activities etc.

Weigh the possible pros and cons and provide for your opinion.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance of such amendments and importance of CSR to the country.

Introduction:

Corporate Social Responsibility is a management concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and interactions with their stakeholders. India became the first country to make CSR spending mandatory through a law, i.e. through Section 135 of the Companies Act, 2013. The recent amendments aim to ensure more accountability and better enforcement to strengthen the corporate governance norms and compliance management in corporate sector.

Body:

Key features of the Companies (Amendment) Bill, 2019:

  • A key change in the Bill is related to CSR spending, wherein companies would have to mandatorily keep unspent money into a special account.
  • The companies will have one year to firm up the CSR proposal and another three years to spend funds.
  • In case money remains unspent for one plus three years, the money will have to be moved to an escrow account, could even be the Prime Minister’s Relief Fund.
  • The amended law requires companies to confiscate 2% of their profits towards CSR, with unspent balances appropriated to the Central coffers if unspent for 3 years.
  • Companies will be penalized for slip-ups in spending this quota and the Centre can direct them to spend it.

Extra information: Other provisions:

  • Provides more teeth to the central government to deal with violators and reducing burden on special courts.
  • Seeks to enable the National Financial Reporting Authority (NFRA) to perform its functions through divisions and executive body.
  • Seeks to empower Registrar of Companies (RoC) to initiate action for removal of a company’s name if the latter is not carrying out business activities as per the Act.
  • Proposes to transfer some functions from NCLT to the Central government such as dealing with applications for change of financial year and conversion from public to private companies.
  • In order to curb the menace of shell companies, the Bill proposes making non-maintenance of registered office and non-reporting of commencement of business grounds for striking off the name of the company from the register of companies.

Pros:

  • Corporate Social Responsibility links Corporate Sector to Social Sector
  • Promote Relationship: Relationship is the oxygen of life. It enhances the “social quotient” of the company hence help in getting appeal for its product from people. Ex Lifeboy soap success story
  • It imparts an ethical, responsible character to company’s profile, helps it to justify its product, growth and create a distinct aura of company in public sphere. E.g.: Nanhi Kali project of Godrej group.
  • Competitive advantage: Businesses that show how they are more socially responsible than their competitors tend to stand out. TATA group enjoys much social appeal when compared with fellow competitor The Classmate notebooks which contributed Rs. 1 towards social welfare gained appeal over other brands.
  • Boosts employee morale: CSR practices have a significant impact on employee morale, as it reinforces his confidence on Company’s empathy.
  • Presence and involvement of company in CSR activity will provide a soft corner to it in government’s approval, preferences. Its active involvement to implement government flagship program like Swaccha Bharat Mission enhances company’s credibility in government’s eyes.
  • Promotes Socio-Economic Development: If the company is engaged in CSR programs it attracts foreign investment and helps the country to get valuable foreign exchange. This in turn leads to socio-economic developmental activities.

Cons:

  • There’s no reason why a for-profit private enterprise should be expected to be good at executing social projects.
  • Subjecting the CSR obligations of the companies by the government to a yearly quota and a short 3-year deadline is counter-productive.
  • The government, as it seeks to hold companies accountable to a high bar on CSR, its own track record in utilizing its countless cess is nothing exceptional.
  • India Inc can render a far greater service than these social responsibilities to society, by being compliant with tax laws, not cutting corners on labour or environmental laws, paying its MSME dues on time and treating its lenders and shareholders fairly.
  • There is no justification for more back-door levies as the government already takes a lot from India Inc by way of the highest corporate tax rate in the world.

Way forward:

  • The Centre needs to introspect whether it has imposed too many arbitrary conditions, as to the large unspent amounts reported by companies.
  • Do away with mandatory CSR, lower corporate taxes, and introduce tax deductions for certain activities that the government wishes to promote.
  • Revisiting some of the unnecessary rules of the Act may help in better compliance.
  • Companies taking up genuine projects should be given time to thrash out the most cost-efficient mode of delivering social impact.
  • The global wave towards Environmental, social and governance (ESG) investing is mounting pressure for companies to be more socially responsible; the government must do its best to encourage this trend in India.
  • The right role and the right balance between corporate profits, government taxes, and individual charity promote social welfare.

Conclusion:

Socially beneficial activities involve an element of welfare, charity and providing maximum good to maximum number of people. While doing them the donator will definitely get benefitted in terms of positive wishes, economic gains or prestige enhancement. Hence Corporate Social Responsibility makes companies more profitable and sustainable


Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.

3) Socially inclusive innovation ecosystem as well as equitable distribution of necessary infrastructure for stimulating innovation across the country is the need of the hour. Discuss the statement in the light of recently launched Atal Community Innovation Centre (ACIC) to spur community Innovation.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question:

 Government of India launched Atal Community Innovation Centre in New Delhi to encourage the spirit of innovation at the community level.

Key demand of the question

The question aims to evaluate the innovation ecosystem in the country.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief quote some data and discuss the current conditions of innovation levels in the country.

Body:

Discuss about the innovation potential of India.

Then move on to discuss about AIM – This initiative has been launched under the Atal Innovation Mission (AIM), a flagship initiative of NITI Aayog. 

The purpose of this new initiative is to make innovation ecosystem socially inclusive as well as to ensure equitable distribution of infrastructure for innovation across the country. 

The Atal Community Innovation Centre has been launched to focus on the 484 backward districts where the innovation infrastructure is very weak. 

The new program has been specifically designed for underserved, unserved regions of Tier 1 or Metro cities, Tier 2 and Tier 3 cities, Smart Cities, Aspirational districts, North-East, Jammu and Kashmir as well as the rural and tribal regions of India.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

.

Introduction:

The Atal Innovation Mission (AIM), flagship initiative of NITI Aayog, has launched the Atal Community Innovation Centre (ACIC) to spur community Innovation in underserved and unserved areas of the country. ACIC can serve as the bridge between the knowledge base existing in communities and the advanced technical ecosystem prevalent in the market base, addressing the needs of society.

Body:

Features of the program:

  • ACIC is a new initiative of Atal Innovation Mission to support community innovation drive in the country.
  • The program is directed to encourage the spirit of innovation through solution driven design thinking to serve the society.
  • The purpose of this new initiative is to make innovation ecosystem socially inclusive as well as to ensure equitable distribution of infrastructure for innovation across the country.
  • The Atal Community Innovation Centre has been launched to focus on the 484 backward districts where the innovation infrastructure is very weak.
  • The new program has been specifically designed for underserved, unserved regions of Tier 1 or Metro cities, Tier 2 and Tier 3 cities, Smart Cities, Aspirational districts, North-East, Jammu and Kashmir as well as the rural and tribal regions of India.
  • ACIC will be established either in PPP mode or with support of PSUs and other agencies.
  • The maximum grant-in-aid support form AIM will be up to 2.5 crores subject following compliance to ACIC guidelines and contributing matching form the host institutions and their funding partner(s).

Impact of the ACIC programme:

  • Build capacity of the potential innovators through community engagement in innovation related events.
  • Conduct events like Ideathons to encourage scouting solutions for addressing community challenges.
  • Provide training and mentorship to entrepreneurs to groom their capacity to innovate.
  • Assist the potential startups in unserved and underserved regions in creating a sustainable, scalable & profitable business model.
  • It will help in providing solutions to the problems that India is facing such as pollution, high fossil fuel import bill
  • It will play a major role towards establishing India as Innovation and Technology led Start-up nation and improve the ranking of India in Global Innovation Index.
  • ACICs will become a conduit for CSR funding by private and public sector firms in addition to direct funding through Atal Innovation Mission(AIM).

Conclusion:

ACICs will add a new chapter to India’s innovation story. It is a platform where the most innovative minds of the country can get access to solutions to modern entrepreneurial challenges.


Topic:Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

4) The tragic death of Café Coffee Day’s founder V.G. Siddhartha earlier this week has a wake-up question for our Startup nation, do you think the system is treating our entrepreneurs fairly? Critically examine. (250 words)

Livemint

 

Why this question:

CCD is a big brand and Siddhartha’s untimely demise reflects poorly on the prevailing business atmosphere, replete with “pressures” mentioned in a letter to the board of CCD and its employees.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must evaluate the atmosphere in the country that is made available to the entrepreneurs. 

Directive:

Critically examineWhen asked to examine, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Discuss the importance of entrepreneurs for the economy in general.

Body:

The answer should mainly talk about the factors of ease of doing business in India. To what extent India has a conducive atmosphere for entrepreneurs.

Throw light on the case of CCD, what must have gone wrong, what are the possible corrections government can take to prevent such incidences.

Conclusion:

Conclude by suggesting way forward.

Introduction:

India recently raised to 77th position in the World Bank’s Ease of Doing Business report rankings. However, the ground reality remains different with a lot of unease for doing business.CCD is a big brand and Siddhartha’s untimely demise reflects poorly on the prevailing business atmosphere, replete with “pressures” mentioned in a letter to the board of CCD and its employees.

Body:

State of India’s business atmosphere:

  • Foreign investors, Indian entrepreneurs and corporations still find themselves stuck in archaic laws and regulatory red tape.
  • Clarity is lacking and piecemeal amendments made to laws haven’t helped.
  • Major legislative reforms have taken place, led by the goods and services tax (GST) and the new insolvency law, but these, too, have struggled to make a difference due to problems in their implementation.
  • Important concepts for Merger and acquisition deals remain shrouded in legalese-driven ambiguities. This pushes Indian entrepreneurs and companies back, despite India jumping 30 places last year in the World Bank’s ease of doing business rankings.
  • As per the World Bank, the enforcing contracts indicator measures the time and cost for resolving a commercial dispute through a local first-instance court (competent court), and the quality of judicial processes index, evaluating whether the country has adopted a series of good practices that promote quality and efficiency in the court system. India ranks very low in this.
  • India’s ranking in the ‘enforcement of contract’ component is 164 .The report says that it takes an average of 1,445 days (or nearly four years) to enforce a contract in India. In this, the distance to frontier (DTF) ranking score is 40.76. The all-told cost to a litigant to recover amounts legitimately due to him is 31% of the value of the claim.
  • The judiciary in India is already plagued with pendency of cases and case disposal is slow due to multiple factors like: More appeals; Low judges to cases ratio; Lack of modernisation of courts
  • Plenty of grey areas exist, especially on tax matters. Guilt in many cases is a matter of legal interpretation. Such nuances tend to be lost on the public at large, all the more so after the past few years’ uproar over black money and unpaid corporate loans.
  • Society should change the way it treats entrepreneurs and they should not be called thieves, etc. without proof or substantiation.
  • There is a broad anxiety over the vilification and worse that faltering firms and their promoters are often put to by an insensitive financial system.

Measures needed:

  • Government is taking measures like Parliament even passed the Commercial Courts, Commercial Division and Commercial Appellate Division of High Courts Act.
  • Labour laws should foster an enabling environment so far as employment practices are concerned.
  • Faster reforms in the power sectors, facilitation of entry and exit of firms, level playing field for small and large firms, improvement in access to finance will lead to improvements in ease of doing business norms.
  • To secure changes in the remaining areas will require not just new laws and online systems but deepening the ongoing investment in the capacity of states and their institutions to implement change and transform the framework of incentives and regulation facing the private sector. India’s focus on ‘doing business’ at the state level may well be the platform that sustains the country’s reform trajectory for the future.
  • For attracting new investment, both foreign and domestic, several macroeconomic issues have to be addressed. These include political and economic stability, law and order maintenance, quality physical infrastructure, and buoyancy in financial markets.
  • For the tax regime to be effective, India would do well to follow the due, and fair, process of law, especially when the offender is an entrepreneur. Our law enforcers and society will also have to re-examine their attitudes towards business.

Conclusion:

India is at crossroads where it now has to cater to the aspirations of a billion people. Existing frameworks can prove to be inadequate and there is a great need to leverage a billion minds and become a global power. Startups and entrepreneurship is the best way forward in becoming a knowledge superpower.


Topic: Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security.

5) Discuss the important initiatives and laws taken by government of India to deal with Left wing extremism effected areas. (250 words)

Livemint

Why this question:

The question is straightforward and is about discussing the important initiatives and laws taken by government of India to deal with Left wing extremism effected areas.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss important initiatives and laws taken by government of India to deal with Left wing extremism effected areas.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

One can start by pointing out the regions effected by LWE in India.

Body:

Explain that in order to holistically address the LWE problem in an effective manner, Government has formulated National Policy and Action Plan adopting multi-pronged strategy in the areas of security, development, ensuring rights & entitlement of local communities etc.

Brief upon the various schemes undertaken – Security Related Expenditure (SRE) Scheme, Special Central Assistance (SCA) for 30 most LWE affected districts, Scheme of Fortified Police stations etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude that an ideology based on violence and annihilation is doomed to fail in a democracy which offers legitimate forums of grievance redressal. Thus steps are required to tackle the issue in the right direction.

Introduction:

Left Wing Extremism (LWE) movement has its roots in the Naxalbari area W.Bengal in the 1960’s.These Maoists insurgents started running a parallel system of administration in parts of central and Eastern India. They kill civilians, destroy public buildings and extract ransom from businessmen. In the recent years, however, LWE movement is showing decline, because of the shift in the approach of the successive Governments

Body:

Government approach on security front:

  • In the past operations like Operation Steeplechase, Operation Greenhunt and Operation Greyhound (Andhra Pradesh) were used to tackle the Naxalites. The Combat Resolute Action force (COBRA) is still in place which performs combing actions against Naxal Spread and influence.
  • Government would try to bring the insurgents on negotiation table, and offer ceasefire. But the insurgents would misuse the ceasefire to mobilize more weapons and troops.
  • Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) would conduct “Area domination exercises”, But when insurgents feel strong presence of CRPF, they would simply vanish, and the moment CRPF retreated, they would come back in the area.
  • Because of the above constraints government changed the strategy. Instead of offering ceasefire or conducting area domination exercises, it focused on (surgical) strikes based on hard intelligence. As a result, many of the key leaders have been arrested or eliminated, and the armed insurgent camps have been decimated.
  • Security Related Expenditure (SRE) Scheme Under this scheme funds are provided to states for meeting the recurring expenditure relating to insurance, training and operational needs of the security forces, rehabilitation of Left Wing Extremist cadres (who surrender in accordance with the surrender and rehabilitation policy of the State Government concerned), community policing, security related infrastructure for village defence committees and publicity material
  • Scheme of Fortified Police Stations: Some 400 police stations in 9 LWE affected States at a unit cost Rs. 2 crores were sanctioned under this scheme Civic Action Programme Under this scheme financial grants are sanctioned to CAPFs to undertake civic action in the affected states.
  • Surrender Policies by State Governments: Naxal-affected states have also announced surrender policies whereby they offer cash assistance, land and other benefits in lieu of surrender. However, there is no effective intelligence mechanism to identify Naxal cadres.
  • Special Infrastructure Scheme (SIS) to construct fortified police stations.
  • 2016’s demonetization drive also affected the LWE-funding
  • Further, in 2017, Home Ministry launched ‘SAMADHAN’ doctrine. It involves:
    • Controlling arms supply to Maoist using GPS trackers and Unique Identification number (UID) for Gelatin sticks and explosives manufacturers.
    • Each CRPF battalion deployed in the Maoist hotbed is given atleast one UAV.
    • More helicopter support for operations, including private helicopter services.
    • Joint Task Forces along inter-State boundaries, better inter-state coordination and intelligence sharing.
    • Stricter implementation of Prevention of Money Laundering Act (PMLA) to choke funding to LWE groups.

Government approach on Development front:

  • In 2014: Ministry of Tribal Affairs launched Vanbandhu Kalyan Yojana for holistic development of the tribal people by targeting their education, employment, healthcare, infrastructure and connectivity.
  • In 2015: Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Act was amended to setup District Mineral Foundation (DMF). Through this fund, all mining districts receive portion of the mining royalties. The money is spent on the development activities decided by the local people.
  • Civic Action Plan: Each CRPF company is given Rs.3 lakh for holding medical camps, sanitation drives, sports meets, distribution of study material to children, minor repairs of school building, road, bridges to build confidence among the locals.
  • Media Action Plan: Each district is given Rs.7 lakh to advertise Government schemes.
  • Union Government is organizing extensive training and capacity building programs for of the state service officials for implementation of Forest Rights act and PESA Act.
  • Additional Central Assistance’ (ACA) for LWE affected districts for creating public infrastructures and services such as school, hospital, road and rail connectivity, mobile connectivity, and electricity network.
  • Schemes employment, skill development, ITI construction etc. have special funds earmarked for LWE with Key Performance Indicators (KPI).
  • Union Government implemented the 14th Finance Commission report due to which LWE State Governments have more funds at their disposal to carry out tailor-made developmental schemes as per their requirements.
  • In order to holistically address the LWE problem in an effective manner, Government has formulated National Policy and Action Plan adopting multi-pronged strategy in the areas of security, development, ensuring rights & entitlement of local communities etc.

Conclusion:

The issues of internal armed rebellion are sensitive and needs a strategic multi-pronged approach of deterrence and development. Militarization against own countrymen will not bring any solution. The government has to reach out to the local people and ascertain them of their good intent of bright futures for their children in education and peace


Topic:  Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security.

6) The Maoist insurgency doctrine often glorifies violence as the primary means to overwhelm the existing socio-economic and political structures. Critically analyse the statement with examples.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question:

The question is based on the theme of Maoist insurgency, its spread, causes and repercussions.

Key demand of the question:

Explain in detail the Maoist insurgency doctrine, its philosophical basis and in what way it can be overcome.

Directive:

Critically analyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Explain the background of the question.

Body:

Explain the dynamics Of Maoist Insurgency in India. 

Discuss what are the factors responsible for the growth and spread of Maoism in India. In areas under Maoist domination, the absence of governance becomes a self- fulfilling prophecy since the delivery systems are extinguished through killings and intimidation. This is the first step in the strategy of the Maoists to seek to control the countryside. Explain how they stridently take up issues like ‘displacement of tribals’, ‘corporate exploitation’, ‘human rights violations’ by security forces etc. and often make fantastic claims in this regard which get reported even by the mainstream media etc.

Suggest what needs to be done.

Discuss few initiatives taken by the government to tackle the issue.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

The Naxalite–Maoist insurgency is an ongoing conflict between Maoist groups known as Naxalites or Naxals and the Indian government. Maoism is a form of communism developed by Mao Tse Tung.   It is  a  doctrine  to  capture  State  power  through  a  combination  of  armed  insurgency, mass mobilization and strategic alliances. Since its inception at Telangana in the 1930s, the insurgent movement has become one of the major threats to the democratic structure and internal security of the Indian nation.

Body:

Glorification of Violence as solution to problems:

  • Some sections of the society, especially the younger generation, have romantic illusions about the Maoists, arising out of an incomplete understanding of their ideology. The central theme of Maoist ideology is violence.
  • The Peoples Liberation Guerilla Army (PLGA), the armed wing of CPI (Maoist), has been created with this purpose in mind. In the first stage of the insurgency, the PLGA resorts to guerrilla warfare, which primarily aims at creating a vacuum at the grass-roots level of the existing governance structures.
  • This is achieved by killing lower-level government officials, police-personnel of the local police stations, the workers of mainstream political parties and the people’s representatives of the Panchayati Raj system.
  • After creating a political and governance vacuum, they coerce the local population to join the movement. A strident propaganda is also carried out against the purported and real inadequacies of the existing state structure.
  • In areas under Maoist domination, the absence of governance becomes a self- fulfilling prophecy since the delivery systems are extinguished through killings and intimidation.
  • Most of the Front Organisations are led by well-educated intellectuals with a firm belief in the Maoist insurgency doctrine. These ideologues function as masks to cover the violent nature of the CPI (Maoist) ideology. They also form the propaganda/disinformation machinery of the party.
  • They stridently take up issues like ‘displacement of tribals’, ‘corporate exploitation’, ‘human rights violations’ by security forces etc. and often make fantastic claims in this regard which get reported even by the mainstream media.
  • The Front Organisations also skilfully use state structures and legal processes to further the Maoist agenda and weaken the enforcement regime. The important functions of these Organisations include recruitment of ‘professional revolutionaries’, raising funds for the insurgency, creating urban shelters for underground cadres, providing legal assistance to arrested cadres and mass- mobilisation by agitating over issues of relevance/ convenience.
  • In a nutshell, the CPI (Maoist), the main LWE outfit in India, aims to overthrow the existing democratic state structure with violence as their primary weapon, and mass mobilization and strategic united fronts as complementary components and plans to usher in So-called ‘New Democratic Revolution’ in India.

However, the socio-economic underdevelopment is the naked truth which has driven Naxalism to its work. Government has taken many initiatives to step up the development in the underdeveloped areas.

  • In 2014: Ministry of Tribal Affairs launched Vanbandhu Kalyan Yojana for holistic development of the tribal people by targeting their education, employment, healthcare, infrastructure and connectivity.
  • In 2015: Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Act was amended to setup District Mineral Foundation (DMF). Through this fund, all mining districts receive portion of the mining royalties. The money is spent on the development activities decided by the local people.
  • Civic Action Plan: Each CRPF company is given Rs.3 lakh for holding medical camps, sanitation drives, sports meets, distribution of study material to children, minor repairs of school building, road, bridges to build confidence among the locals.
  • Media Action Plan: Each district is given Rs.7 lakh to advertise Government schemes.
  • Union Government is organizing extensive training and capacity building programs for of the state service officials for implementation of Forest Rights act and PESA Act.
  • Additional Central Assistance’ (ACA) for LWE affected districts for creating public infrastructures and services such as school, hospital, road and rail connectivity, mobile connectivity, and electricity network.
  • Schemes employment, skill development, ITI construction etc. have special funds earmarked for LWE with Key Performance Indicators (KPI).
  • Union Government implemented the 14th Finance Commission report due to which LWE State Governments have more funds at their disposal to carry out tailor-made developmental schemes as per their requirements.
  • In order to holistically address the LWE problem in an effective manner, Government has formulated National Policy and Action Plan adopting multi-pronged strategy in the areas of security, development, ensuring rights & entitlement of local communities etc.

Conclusion:

It is imperative that government instead of being reactionary goes after them proactively. But it has herculean challenge of doing it in democratic way. It is obvious that there is and should be two pronged approach to counter it, one at ideological level and other at physical level. In former case, good governance by government and delivering good results in fields of Education, Health and overall standard of living will be instrumental.


Topic:  Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

7) ‘The cause of sedition is always found in inequality’ (Aristotle). Explain.(250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon publications

Why this question:

The question is based on the theme of Aristotle’s theory of justice in his work ‘Politics’.

Key demand of the question:

Explain in detail the statement, the context and theory propounded by Aristotle.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Briefly explain the gist of the statement in question.

Body:

Explain that justice for Aristotle is a complete virtue, though not absolute. It is a relative concept understood in relation to others in the society.

Aristotle theory of justice is linked to his idea of equality. Justice demands distribution of officers, rewards etc. According to the contribution based on merit of the citizens. He held that persons who are equal and possess equal merit ought to be treated equally. In other words, those who contribute more to the performance of good action in services of the state thus show greater civic excellence deserve more from the state than those who contribute less.

Therefore, Aristotle’s theory of justice is based on ‘proportional equality’, which means that people should receive from the state, in the way of just rewards, proportionately to their merits.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance of such theories.

Introduction:

“Conduct or speech inciting people to rebel against the authority of a State or monarch” can be considered as Sedition. Aristotle equates rebellion with sedition and the caused for the same is inequality present in the society.

Body:

According to Aristotle, in democracies, discontentment is bred by the demagogues who attack the rich either individually or col­lectively and build hatred among the people who become revengeful and violent and this situation leads to conflicts.

In oligarchies, revolutions occur when masses experience an unpleasant treatment by the officials resulting in dissensions within the governing class. Personal disputes may further the flames of fire and though imperceptible, changes in the class structure of society may invisibly alter the ethos.

Aristotle further believed that it is not necessary that oligarchy become democracy or vice versa, but they might change into a completely different system altogether. In aristocracies, revolutions occur when the circle of the rulers get narrowed down and become thinner and thinner. It is, in fact, the disequilibrium in the balance of the different elements or parts of the constitution that causes revolutions.

As far as the monarchies and the tyrannies are concerned, revolutions are caused by insolence, resentment of insults, fears, contempt, desire for fame, influence of neighbouring states, sexual offences and physical infirmities.

Conclusion:

                Thus, Aristotle emphasises to reduce the inequality in the society. Indian Constitution has also incorporated this goal of reducing the concentration of wealth in few hands in the Directive Principles of State Policy.