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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 31 JULY 2019


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 31 JULY 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic: Parliament and State Legislatures – structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.

1) What is Article 35(A)? Why is it a controversial, even sentimental issue for the Kashmir Valley? Critically analyse. (250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question:

The question is in the context of Article 35 A corresponding to the constitution of Jammu and Kashmir.

Key demand of the question:

Discussion should focus upon explaining the nuances of Article 35 A and the controversies surrounding it.

Directive:

Critically analyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief define article 35 A.

Body:

Article 35A of the constitution provide Jammu and Kashmir Legislature a carte blanche to decide who all are ‘permanent residents’ of the State and confer on them special rights and privileges in public sector jobs, acquisition of property in the State, scholarships and other public aid and welfare.

 It is mandatory according to the provision that no act of the legislature coming under it can be challenged for violating the Constitution or any law of the land.

Discuss the main provisions of Article 35 A.

What are the controversies surrounding it and what needs to be done to overcome the challenges?

Conclusion:

Conclude with solutions to the issue.

Introduction:

Article 35A is a provision incorporated in the Constitution giving the Jammu and Kashmir Legislature a carte blanche to decide who all are ‘permanent residents’ of the State and confer on them special rights and privileges in public sector jobs, acquisition of property in the State, scholarships and other public aid and welfare. The provision mandates that no act of the legislature coming under it can be challenged for violating the Constitution or any other law of the land.

Body:

A petition has been filed in the Supreme Court which says Article 35A restricts citizens from other States from getting employment or buying property within Jammu and Kashmir is a violation of fundamental rights under Articles 14, 19 and 21 of the Indian Constitution.

Article 35A is Controversial due to:

  • Article 35A is against the “very spirit of oneness of India” as it creates a “class within a class of Indian citizens”.
  • It treats non-permanent residents of J&K as ‘second-class’ citizens.
  • Non-permanent residents of J&K are not eligible for employment under the State government and are also debarred from contesting elections.
  • Meritorious students are denied scholarships and they cannot even seek redress in any court of law.
  • Further, the issues of refugees who migrated to J&K during Partition are still not treated as ‘State subjects’ under the J&K Constitution.
  • It was inserted unconstitutionally, bypassing Article 368 which empowers only Parliament to amend the Constitution.
  • The laws enacted in pursuance of Article 35A are ultra vires of the fundamental rights conferred by Part III of the Constitution, especially, and not limited to, Articles 14 (right to equality) and 21 (protection of life).

Article 35(A) is sentimental to a few because:

  • Some experts say that the removal of Article 35A would change the demography of Kashmir. The separatist might fan anti-India feelings in the valley by politically misusing the issue. The hardening of the posture by the separatists will consequently disturb normalcy in the state.
  • Asymmetrical federalism has been quite successful in India in preserving its unity and integrity. The Indian constitution purposefully mandates differential treatments for different units of the Indian Union.
  • The Indian Constitution grants special status to J&K via Article 370 which together with the Instrument of Accession has been the cornerstone of J&K s successful incorporation into the Indian Union. In this context, scrapping Article 35A would be violative of Article 370 as well as the instrument of accession.
  • The removal of Article 35A would also indirectly impact the special provision bestowed upon Mizoram, Nagaland under Article 371.
  • Critics also allege that it will lead to erosion of Jammu and Kashmir’s autonomy.
  • The rights of the legislature of J&K are not unlimited. The legislature can grant preferential treatment only in selective cases regarding property rights, employment, settlement and scholarship.

Conclusion:

This matter requires the active participation of all stakeholders. It is necessary to give confidence to the residents of J&K that any alteration in status quo will not take away their rights but will boost J&K’s prosperity as it will open doors for more investment, resulting in new opportunities. Article 35A, which was incorporated about six decades ago, now requires a relook, especially given that J&K is now a well-established democratic State.


Topic: Women related issues. Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation. Development processes and the development industry the role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders. Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

2) Do you agree that Abolition of Triple Talaq by the parliament has corrected a historical wrong done to Muslim women and that it is a victory of gender justice and will further equality in society? Discuss. (250 words)

Indianexpress

 

Why this question: 

The question is in the backdrop of the victory of the Triple talaq bill which got a nod in the upper house of the parliament.

Demand of the question:

The question expects one to analyse and weigh the pros and cons of the passage of the triple Talaq bill.

Directive word: 

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

Briefly describe what is meant by the process of Triple Talaq.

Body

Discuss a brief history of the case, rulings of the apex court and key provisions of the bill. 

About it – It defines talaq as talaq-e-biddat or any other similar form of talaq pronounced by a Muslim man resulting in instant and irrevocable divorce.  Talaq-e-biddat refers to the practice under Muslim personal laws where pronouncement of the word ‘talaq’ thrice in one sitting by a Muslim man to his wife results in an instant and irrevocable divorce.

Discuss the significance of it for Indian Muslim women and in what way the bill empowers them.

Conclusion 

Conclude that time has come to put an end to the suffering of Muslim women who have been at the receiving end of instant talaq for several years. More than 20 Islamic countries have already banned the practice.

Introduction:

The President of India recently gave assent to The Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Marriage) Bill, 2019, better known as the Triple Talaq Bill, thereby criminalizing the practice of instant Triple Talaq. The law makes all declaration of talaq, including in written or electronic form, to be void (i.e. not enforceable in law) and illegal. The Supreme Court in Shayara Bano case (2017) had declared the practise of Triple Talaq (talaq-e-biddat) as unconstitutional. However, the penal provision of the bill i.e. a Muslim husband declaring instant Triple Talaq can be imprisoned for up to three years is alleged to be disproportionate for a civil offence.

Body:

The Abolition of Triple Talaq is a great step towards gender equality due to:

  • Triple Talaq goes against the constitutional principles of gender equality, secularism, right to life of dignity, etc. It goes against Article 14 (Right to Equality) and Article 15(1) which states that there shall be no discrimination against any citizen on the basis of gender, race, etc. and this kind of talaq is biased against the interests of women.
  • According to a study, 92% of Muslim women in India wanted the triple talaq to be banned.
  • It gave men the right to arbitrarily divorce their wives without any valid reason.
  • The law provides the rights of subsistence allowance, custody of minor children to victims of triple talaq i.e. talaq-e-biddat.
  • The Government held that 473 cases of Triple Talaq have taken place even after two years of judgement pronounced by the Supreme Court.
  • The law has been placed as a deterrent to eradicate social evils. For example:
  • Untouchability was abolished by the Constitution, but the continued practise of untouchability forced Parliament to enact the Untouchability (Offences) Act in 1955 and later renaming it as Protection of Civil Rights Act in 1976.
  • To eliminate atrocities faced by women in domestic space, parliament enacted:
    • The Dowry Prohibition Act in 1961
    • Prevention of domestic violence Act 2005
  • Triple Talaq is banned in more than 20 Islamic countries including Pakistan.
  • The constitution of the country says that it shall strive to bring a uniform civil code for the entire country. Doing away with triple talaq will definitely be a step closer to the constitution-makers’ dream of having a uniform civil code for all citizens.
  • Experts also opine that only the essential or integral features and aspects of a religion (article 25) are protected by the Constitution. Triple talaq was not an integral feature of Islam.

Issues with the law:

  • Divorce is a civil matter and making Triple Talaq a criminal offence is disproportionate to criminal jurisprudence.
  • The Supreme Court declared Triple Talaq as invalid and did not ask the government to make it a penal offence.
  • Thereby criminalizing the Triple Talaq goes against the spirit of the Supreme Court judgement.
  • Religious groups infer the banning of a traditional practice sanctified by Sharia as interfering in the religious aspects of minorities.
  • The bill introduced in Parliament proposes a three-year jail term for a man divorcing his wife through triple talaq. Although most Muslim women feel it is time to end the practice, they are wary of the slipshod manner in which the government has passed the bill in the Lok Sabha.
  • If the aim of the law is to protect the rights of women, how is that possible with their husbands in prison? If they have children under the age of 18, who will take care of their education, health, financial and other needs? The woman will not be protected but instead be vulnerable to more abuse.
  • The Bill does not provide the victimised woman any additional benefits in terms of her rights in marriage and divorce.
  • Since the Bill says that triple talaq is cognizable and non-bailable, married Muslim man become vulnerable target as policemen can arrest and investigate the accused with or without the complaint from wife or any other person.

Way forward:

  • The legislation brings India at par with other Muslim majority states including Pakistan and Bangladesh.
  • This was long overdue for a country that has taken pride in its adherence to the principles of secularism, democracy, and equality.
  • Personal laws of other religious communities, Hindus and Christians, have gone through renditions to address some concerns relating to gender equality in matters of inheritance and polygamy.
  • Despite the gains, gender equality does not permeate all aspects of civil law.
  • This legislation presents an opportunity to put in place a civil code that steeped in equality—across faiths and gender.

Conclusion:

Terming Triple Talaq as unconstitutional as a step towards establishing uniform civil code (Enshrined in Article 44 of directive principle of state policy), but criminalising it goes against the ethos of Fundamental rights i.e. article 25 and 26 the freedom of religion. Triple Talaq has led to the subjugation of Muslim women even after 72 years of independence but its solution must come through coexistence rather than coercion.


Topic:Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

4) What are Private equity funds? Trace the growth of PE Funds in India. List down the advantages and disadvantages of the same.(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question:

 The news of Café Coffee Day founder V.G. Siddhartha’s disappearance has brought into focus the role of private equity (PE) investors in shaping the startup culture in India.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must evaluate the concept of private equity funds and trace the growth of PE funds and the advantages and disadvantages.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Define what are PE funds.

Body:

Equity capital that is not quoted on a public exchange is Private Equity. Private equity funds are investment companies that, as a rule, do not hold publicly-traded securities but seek the equity stakes in private companies.

Then discuss the Growth of PE Funds in India.

PE investors have been enticed by India’s growing status as an economic powerhouse, its strong entrepreneurial spirit.

Discuss their advantages and disadvantages.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward, suggest upon the importance of PE funds and need for their regulatory mechanism.

Introduction:

A Private Equity Fund, also known as Private Equity, is equity capital which comprises of investors who invest directly in private companies. This equity capital is not listed on the stock exchange and usually follows general investment criteria of investing in varied industries or follows industry specific criteria. Considering that holding periods for private equity funds are long, therefore, private equity capital is raised from institutional and retail investors who can afford to invest large sums of money for longer time periods.

Body:

Growth of PE funds in India:

  • In India, PE line of financing is still in its nascent stages.
  • While in the early 2000s, the focus of PE investments was towards the booming sector of Information Technology due to its dynamic growth opportunities.
  • However, after the burst of the dot-com bubble, PE investors shifted focus to other commercially viable industries.
  • Another hindrance to the rising graph of the PE investment was the economic meltdown in 2008- 2009 which substantially deflected the investment deals size.
  • However, consequently Flipkart’s USD 150 million, 4th round funding in 2012 Q1 kicked off an overall positive sentiment in funds investing in the domestic e-commerce industry.
  • India witnessed an increase in the number and size of PE investments made in 2014 aggregating to around $11.5 billion, which was 17% higher than the total investment value as compared to the same period the previous year.
  • PE investors have been steadfastly interested in certain lucrative sectors including E-commerce, financial services, power and, energy among others.
  • Most notably, in the current economic scenario, Indian real estate industry owes its foundation to private equity.
  • PE financing, in a broad ambit – now makes up 75 percent of the funds in India’s real estate sector, compared with just about a fourth in 2010.

Advantages:

  • Untapped Potential: The arena of potential company investments for private equity a vastly uncharted and untapped territory. There are several options looming in the horizon, from unlisted privately owned companies which have just begun expanding, unpopular divisions of larger organizations or even companies which aren’t doing well on the stock market and make them private.
  • Stringent Company Selection Process: Firms which handle private equity investments are highly selective and spend a considerable amount of resources to assess the potential companies which they could invest in. This also involves an understanding of the risks involved and how to ease the same. From scores of potential companies, managers can be highly selective and choose one company which possesses all the required characteristics.
  • Clear Accountability: Management teams of private equity owned companies are accountable to an engaged professional shareholder who has the right to protect their shareholding and act accordingly.

Disadvantages:

  • Money laundering: It is alleged that some PE capital is actually political money routed via tax havens such as Mauritius to convert it into white money.
  • Some so-called equity PE deals are actually debt transactions involving the issue of fully convertible debentures or compulsorily convertible preference shares.
  • The agreement may even carry a “put” option in favour of the PE investor or a “buyback” clause that makes it incumbent upon the promoter to buy the security at a specified price and time. Promoters who do not have the money are forced to borrow or sell other assets to arrange money for the buyback

Conclusion:

The private equity segment has also played a crucial role in the growth and development of many small and medium-size enterprises. It has also stimulated employment opportunities in the country and aided the progress of strategic capabilities.


Topic: Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security.

5) North-East suffers from violent movements based upon ethnic identities leading to clashes. Discuss the role played by Non-state actors in leading to the current conditions of the region.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question:

The question aims to analyse the insurgency situations often witnessed by the North east region owing to the role played by non-state actors.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the insurgency in north east prevalent due to non-state actors.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin with brief upon the situation in north east states.

Body:

Discussion should include the following: 

Explain the existing situation, trace the historical factors responsible for the uprising of insurgency, rise of non-state actors, role played by them. 

Then explain what should be the role of the government in overcoming the challenges, discuss policies and schemes in place to address the situation.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

Due to its distinct socio-cultural background and particular historical evolution, the North-East region of India holds several fault lines around which many non-state actors have been thriving for a very long time.

Body:

The role played by Non-state actors in leading to the current conditions of the region:

  • This region has been one of the most neglected regions in terms of developments and is the main cause behind the resentment of the people living in this area. The insurgent groups take advantage of resentment of people and get support base.
  • Alienation of population from mainstream political process, where the insurgent group continue to boycott the dialogue and electoral process. E.g.: NSCN-Khaplang group.
  • Active and covert foreign support to these insurgent groups, through training, logistic and moral support has also been a big hurdle to eradicate these groups. China is alleged to support such acts for instance . ULFA members of Assam were given shelter by China.
  • Non state actor -sponsored terrorism, often motivated by fundamentalist ideologies, backed by secretive but efficient financial networks, use of IT, clandestine access to chemical-biological and nuclear materials, and illicit drug trafficking, has emerged as a major threat to international stability.
  • They bring fake currency to India and try to hit Indian economy. E.g.: India Bangladesh border
  • They smuggle weapons, drugs into India, directly targeting the youth
  • Extremist non state actors also include religious fanatics which propagate religious hatred which can led to communal tensions in the country.
  • They also incite people for regionalism thus demanding their separate state which further increases secessionist tendencies.

Measures needed:

  • Thorough background check of all insurgents groups should be carried out before the central government enters into any Ceasefire or Suspension of Operations Agreements with the insurgents.
  • Political solutions to the Assam problem should be discussed openly as widely as possible to avoid backlash from the tribal and the minority population of the state.
  • Focus of the Ministry of DoNER and NEC should be on investment in mega-projects which will make big difference to the development of the region.
  • Institutional capacities in the North east should be developed urgently.
  • Pragmatic land use policy should be formulated for attracting industries in the region. Micro, small and medium enterprises should be encouraged.
  • Greater awareness about the Look East Policy and its benefits to the North East should be generated among the policymakers and the intelligentsia of the region.
  • Ties with Myanmar should be deepened by exploiting Myanmar’s anxieties about China as well as existing deep civilization and spiritual ties.
  • The North East region must be included in the India-ASEAN Vision for trade and cooperation. Development Plan for the North East should factor India-ASEAN strategic cooperation.
  • Special economic zones along India-Bangladesh border, especially in Meghalaya and Assam should be set up.

Topic:  Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security.

6) In what way external state and non-state actors create problems to India’s internal security? Discuss.(250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon publications

Why this question:

The question is direct from the static portions of GS paper III.

Key demand of the question:

Explain in detail the role of way external state and non-state actors and in what way they pose threat to the internal security of the country.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief define who are external state and non- state actors.

Body:

Explain that India has been facing challenges on the front of internal security since independence from various state and non-state actors. Politico-social and economic sphere of sovereign state has been controlled by the popular elected government. But peace and security can be disturbed by some external and non-state actor, through various means and ways.

Discuss who are state and non-state actors, what are the various challenges posed by them for the Indian internal security.

Conclusion:

Conclude by stating what needs to be done to overcome the challenges.

Introduction:

India has been facing challenges on the front of internal security since independence from various state and non state actors. External State actors refer to those entities which have formal backing of a sovereign state for carrying out any intended action. Non state actors on the other hand, have a considerable power of influencing international events but they do not have formal state backing. Examples of state actors are the army, bureaucracy, intelligence agencies etc. whereas non state actors would be NGOs, civil society organizations, extremist outfits, multinational companies etc.

Body:

External State actors are responsible for posing a challenge to internal security in multiple ways:

  • Countries surrounding India have been active in exploiting the volatile situation presented by the turmoil in the northeast. Not only countries such as China, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Myanmar, but also smaller powers such as Bhutan and Nepal have been involved in the region.
  • Through political backing, economic assistance, logistic support, military training or arms supplies these countries have varyingly contributed to the ongoing violence in this region.
  • The state may carry out a limited war against Indian state and this might have ramifications for our internal security too
  • They might support the various insurgent groups, Naxalites, or separatist groups through funding, training or logistics
  • There have been instances where state actors have been responsible for carrying out cyber warfare through hacking and other espionage.

Non state actors however have played their nefarious role too in creating problems for India:

  • Insurgency:
    • North-East suffers from violent movements based upon ethnic identities leading to clashes. China is alleged to support such acts for instance. ULFA members of Assam were given shelter by China.
  • Terrorism:
    • Pakistan has been a major exporter of terrorism to India. Non-state actors like terrorist groups for instance Lashkar-e-Taiba, Jaish-e-Mohammad are a continuous threat.
    • Non state actor -sponsored terrorism, often motivated by fundamentalist ideologies, backed by secretive but efficient financial networks, use of IT, clandestine access to chemical-biological and nuclear materials, and illicit drug trafficking, has emerged as a major threat to international stability.
    • These groups aim to not only create instability in states like J&K, they also have a larger aim of destabilising the country. This is done through sporadic terrorist strikes, which spreads terror and panic. This could also adversely affect the ability of the Indian state to pursue economic modernisation.
  • Naxalism:
    • Left wing extremism affects states like Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and West Bengal.
  • Drug trafficking:
    • Inter and Intra state trafficking takes place, through golden crescent and golden triangle routes.
    • Drugs from Golden Crescent (Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran) have affected Punjab and Golden Triangle (Laos, Myanmar and Thailand) has affected North Eastern states.
  • Human-trafficking:
    • Children and women trafficking takes place via Bangladesh and Nepal.
  • Counterfeit currency:
    • It corrodes economy from inside, by facilitating black money and money laundering activities as well as funding terrorism, which itself creates a demand for fake currency, thereby creating a positive feedback loop. This is the issue arising especially from Pakistan.
  • Communalism:
    • Propagandas are run and funded by enemy country and other non-state actors (NGOs and CSOs) to destabilize India by damaging the socio-religious fabric and ensure riots.
  • Cyber Security:
    • Recent cyber-attacks by Legion, ATM skimming are examples. Pakistani hackers often hack government websites.
  • They can also incite people for regionalism thus demanding their separate state which further increases secessionist tendency

Conclusion:

Both state and non state factors from outside have created problems in our internal security framework. Hence while it is imperative to guard our borders and strengthen our diplomacy, on the other hand, we need to check the various non state actors who come in hidden forms. There is a need for a national internal security doctrine to deal with various challenges.


Topic:  Basics of cyber security, Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.

7) Is India on the right path to harness data as a “public good” in the service of the people? Discuss in the backdrop of the debate of ongoing data secrecy vs digital India.(250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question:

The question aims to analyse if the country is on the right path of dealing with privacy when it comes to handling data.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss in detail the issues involved in handling data and in what way the government should handle the concerns.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Define what is data privacy.

Body:

Take hints from the article and discuss in depth the relevance of data in today’s world and in what way different countries across the world are dealing with the issues associated with data security.

Justify as to how India stands at the cusp of a major opportunity, one where data and digital platforms can become an enabler of a meaningful life for every Indian. This is also the opportunity for India to become a global leader and present a new approach that other countries can emulate.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

Data privacy, also known as information privacy, is the necessity to preserve and protect any personal information, collected by any organization, from being accessed by a third party. It is a part of Information Technology that helps an individual or an organization determine what data within a system can be shared with others and which should be restricted.

Body:

Data as a ‘public good’ has the following potential:

  • Governments: They can improve targeting in welfare schemes and subsidies by reducing both inclusion and exclusion errors hence improving public service delivery.
  • Private sector firms: Data may be sold to corporate sector which may in turn use these to discover untapped markets or innovate new products. This also generates revenues for the government.
  • Citizens: They are the largest group of beneficiaries of the proposed data revolution. For example initiatives like DigiLocker, Non-Banking Financial Company-Account Aggregator (NBFC-AA). They enable citizens to demand and access their data in a machine-readable format, so that it can be used by them meaningfully.

However, there are many issues with the data privacy which raises voices for the Data secrecy:

  • The Andhra Pradesh government websites publicly displayed the Aadhaar number of women, their reproductive history, whether they had an abortion and so on.
  • Another website exposed the name and number of every person who purchased medicines from government-run stores, including those buying pills for erectile dysfunction.
  • Three Gujarat-based websites were found disclosing Aadhaar numbers of the beneficiaries on their websites.
  • Cambridge Analytica Scandal: It involved the collection of personally identifiable information of up to 87 million Facebook users. The data was allegedly used to attempt to influence voter opinion.

Thus, there have been instances of data privacy breach from both State and private entities. With Right to privacy becoming a fundamental right now in India, there are requirements to safeguard the data of the individuals.

Measures needed:

  • It is important to strike a right balance between digital economy and privacy protection.
  • Robust data privacy laws are needed to allow citizens enjoy the right to privacy. The law should encompass all the aspects- data collection, processing and sharing practices.
  • Privacy should not be used to undermine government transparency. Data protection law should be framed such that it does not make government opaque and unaccountable.
  • To utilize the data subject to user consent and appropriate privacy and fairness related constraints.
  • The choice to share the individually linked data will always be with the citizen under the Data Access Fiduciary Architecture.
  • Each department of the government must be made responsible for making available the data they hold as a data provider.
  • These departments must take care to appropriately treat private data and public data with the standards they require.
  • Check unauthorized leaks, hacking, cyber crimes, and frauds.
  • Improve business process, and secure digital payments.
  • Restrict use of data by data colonising companies such as Facebook, Whatsapp etc.

Conclusion:

The principle is that most data are generated by the people, of the people and should be used for the people. Enabling the sharing of information across datasets would improve the delivery of social welfare, empower people to make better decisions, and democratize an important public good. Maximising public good but also safeguarding against harm must be the mantra for the new digital India.