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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 30 JULY 2019


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 30 JULY 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic:  population and associated issues.

1) Discuss the different fertility transitions witnessing rural and urban India also discuss the contrast in the trends in North vs South India.(250 words)

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Why this question:

The article discusses in detail the newer trends in the fertility transition across the country.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss in detail the Spatial Patterns of Fertility Transition in India in terms of rural-urban and north-south contrast.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief set the background of the question by taking cues from the article.

Body:

The answer must capture the following aspects in detail – 

First discuss the reasons for vastly different fertility transitions going on in rural and urban India, and the north and south of the country.

Quote data from new Sample Registration Survey (2017) data for India.

Explain how over the last decade, fertility has fallen sharply in both rural and urban India.

Discuss the parameters that have changed, reasons for their change etc.

Then appreciate the pressing need to think over these changing trends to harness the true potential of the demography along with effective management of the population.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

The highlight of the new Sample Registration Survey (2017) data for India is undoubtedly the continuing rapid fall of fertility rates. But nestled within the data is a story of two contrasting trends in rural and urban India that underscore how India can sometimes truly be two (or more) countries. India’s total fertility rate (TFR) (the average number of children that a woman will have in her lifetime) is declining. It is now 2.2 per woman, nearing the replacement rate of 2.1, according to the latest government data.

Body:

Trends in fertility pattern:

  • Falling fertility in India has produced two diametrically opposite processes going on simultaneously, the new data shows.
  • One, fertility in the higher age groups (mothers aged 35 and above) has fallen substantially in rural areas, as couples choose to limit their family size, and stop having children after they have had the desired number
  • Second, in urban areas, fertility among older women has grown, as better educated women are able to delay marriage and childbirth, and improved healthcare allows women to have children later in life.
  • While fertility in general is lower among more educated women, there is one notable exception: in urban areas, fertility rates among women in their 30s are higher among better educated rather than less educated women.
  • TFR goes below 2 in both urban and rural areas, where girls complete schooling and reduces further as they pass college.
  • Among the major states, fertility in the southern states has fallen well below replacement levels.
  • In fact, the TFR in urban India as a whole has now fallen to levels that in some countries are taken as a cause for concern in terms of being too low.
  • TFR in urban India fell to 1.7 as of 2017, comparable to that of Belgium, Iceland and Norway, and lower than that of the United States or the United Kingdom (1.8). Japan, which is regarded as being in the grip of a demographic crisis with too low fertility rates is still far behind urban India at 1.4 children per woman.
  • The focus on above-replacement fertility in the northern states has dominated the national dialogue around fertility to the detriment of the southern states and urban areas where fertility is falling far faster than expected.
  • Some other less affluent states are also now at Japan-like “crisis” levels. Urban Odisha, West Bengal (1.3), Jammu & Kashmir (1.2), Himachal Pradesh (1.1) have TFR even lower than in the south, and lower than that of Japan.

Other notable observations:

  • The total fertility rate has more than halved in both urban and rural areas, falling even below the replacement level in the former where it is 1.7, down from 4.1 in 1971.
  • In rural areas, TFR has fallen from 5.4 to 2.4 during the same period.
  • For rural areas, it varies from 1.6 in Delhi and Tamil Nadu to 3.3 in Bihar.
  • For urban areas, the variation is from 1.1 in Himachal Pradesh to 2.4 in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.
  • Of the 22 states, only six have a TFR of 2 or more in urban areas. There are 10 states where TFR is below 2 in rural regions.

Decreasing fertility rate and its challenges:

  • The decrease in fertility and the associated decrease in the dependency ratio, in turn lead to an increase in the share of the population concentrated in the working ages and hence in the ratio of the working age to the non-working age population.
  • Dependency ratio:
    • The proportion of workers rises sharply, even as the proportion of dependants falls. In many countries, the ratio of workers to dependents goes up, giving a huge boost to per capita income.
    • India will see a significant rise in working age adults India’s dependency ratio that is the number of dependents to working people is low at 0.6, compared with the developed countries. That ratio is going to decline further with fertility rates continuing to fall.
  • For the next few decades India will have a youthful, dynamic and productive workforce than the rest of the world.
  • A demographic trend where the proportion of persons aged 15-24 in the population increases significantly compared to other age groups which paired with limited employment opportunities may contribute to increased poverty, hunger, malnutrition, poorer health, lower educational outcomes, child labour, unsupervised and abandoned children, and rising rates of domestic violence.
  • Education constraints:
    • There are serious problems with Indian higher education. These include a shortage of high quality faculty, poor incentive structures, lack of good regulation
    • India is home to the world’s largest concentration of illiterate people in the world
  • Health:
    • At the primary level, there are also serious problems with health and nutrition that impact the effectiveness of education and the capacity for learning.
    • In future large proportion of older working aged people who face longer periods of retirement, accumulate assets to support themselves.

Way forward:

  • Health and education parameters need to be improved substantially to make the Indian workforce efficient and skilled.
  • Enhance, support and coordinate private sector initiatives for skill development through appropriate Public-Private Partnership (PPP) models; strive for significant operational and financial involvement from the private sector
  • Focus on underprivileged sections of society and backward regions of the country thereby enabling a move out of poverty; similarly, focus significantly on the unorganized or informal sector workforce.
  • Measures should have pan Indian presence and not just concentrated in metropolitan cities as most of the workforce is likely to come from the rural hinterland.
  • Investing in people through healthcare, quality education, jobs and skills helps build human capital, which is key to supporting economic growth, ending extreme poverty, and creating more inclusive societies
  • New technology could be exploited to accelerate the pace of building human capital, including massive open online courses and virtual classrooms
  • Policymakers should have a greater incentive to redouble their efforts to promote human capital so that it can contribute to economic growth and job creation

Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

2) “India’s digital transformation has given rise to an entrepreneurial mindset not just among urban masses but also among rural youth”. Comment. (250 words)

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Why this question:

 The article highlights the positives that the digital literacy has brought in , especially the rural areas where the digital literacy has penetrated the regions of rural pockets that still lack literacy.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must bring out the positives of digital literacy and the effects it has especially on rural India.

Directive:

Commenthere we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief define digital literacy.

Body:

First explain how Digital literacy will provide the opportunity to rural people for education, financial inclusion, accessing best health services, getting employment, selling their good and services etc.

Digital technology successfully reducing the geographical distance, reducing the transaction cost, permitting real time events and providing the true information. All this will help the development of rural India.

Discuss the various initiatives taken by the government of India in rendering digital services to rural india. 

Explain how it has brought the entrepreneurial mentality among the rural youth.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

Digital Literacy is the ability of individuals and communities to understand and use digital technologies for meaningful actions within life situations. The goal of Digital Literacy is to teach and assess basic computer concepts and skills so that people can use computer technology in everyday life to develop new social and economic opportunities for themselves, their families, and their communities.

Body:

Importance of digital literacy for Rural India:

  • Digital literacy will provide the opportunity to rural people for education, financial inclusion, accessing best health services, getting employment, selling their goods and services etc.
  • Digital technology successfully reducing the geographical distance, reducing the transaction cost, permitting real time events and providing the true information.
  • Digital literacy sessions, coupled with life skills training, help the rural youth in villages to gain exposure to concepts beyond textbooks and theory.
  • Digital literacy is an empowering tool for adolescents and youth. It has the potential to raise the literacy levels in rural areas and give young people the functional knowledge to be aware and responsible citizens.
  • Digital literacy helps in participation in the e-Governance, reaping the benefits of Digital financial inclusion like DBT, filing RTI applications etc.

Digital literacy and Rural Indian Entrepreneurship:

  • Boosted Connectivity between Established Businesses and New Entrepreneurs: The digital India programme has brought the communities together. The start-ups can now access reliable data and trusted information about setting up and running their business, just with the use of their fingertips.
  • Facilitated Global Reach of the Indian Companies: The Digital India had empowered more and more young entrepreneurs to build innovative solutions and start their own venture for both Indian and global audience.
  • Ease of Establishing a Company: Digitization of the economy has made it easier to start a company. Benefits like self-certifications and online registration of the companies allow the potential entrepreneurs to start their business hassle free. Digital India is a much-needed change that this country of youths has been longing for.
  • Building up of an Organised Market and Healthy Start-Up Ecosystem: Building a digital India is an encouraging initiative that is taking the start-up ecosystem of the country to the next level.
  • Empowered the Youth to Become “Job-Giver”: This initiative launched by the government is enabling the Indian youth to become job creators and not job seekers. From start-ups to the existing business houses, the programme is encouraging talent, while driving innovation.
  • Lowered cost of working: Digitization has encouraged millions of young minds to come up with new ideas while giving confidence to the investors to seek partnership with the start-ups. This has further lowered the cost in terms of timing.

Way forward:

  • Strengthening the Digital literacy program through National Digital literacy mission and initiatives like Digital Saksharatha Abhiyan (DISHA).
  • Use of PPP and CSR funds to further encourage Private players in spreading digital literacy in rural areas.
  • The National Digital Telecommunication Policy 2018 should be implemented in true letter and spirit.
  • Speeding up the implementation of BharatNet.
  • Localisation of data in the regional languages, ease of accessibility, reducing digital divide can further boost the penetration of Digital India.

Conclusion:

The benefits of Digital India can be made all inclusive and equitable by better Digital literacy. It can cut down on distress migration, expand opportunities for trade of the agricultural products, increase the per capita income of the rural youths.     


          

Topic: Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.

3) Do you think giving the government the authority to fix the tenure and salaries of information commissioners, would be a proxy way to kill the RTI? Analyse and suggest solutions to strengthen the ambit of RTI.(250 words)

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Why this question: 

The article discusses in detail in what way in the wake of a bruising battle over the RTI Act, much-needed steps to improve transparency are being ignored.

Demand of the question:

One must discuss the recent amendments made by the government and the pros and cons of such steps and the effects it has on the functioning of the RTI. One has to suggest solutions to overcome such issues.

Directive word: 

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

State the recent amendments made to the RTI act.

Body

First explain the  proposed amendment –  the salaries, allowances and other terms and conditions of service of the CIC and ICs “shall be such as may be prescribed by the central government”. The tenure of information commissioners at the centre and the states is proposed to be amended from “a term of five years” to “terms as may be prescribed by the central government”.

Then discuss why is it being opposed and on what grounds?

Explain what needs to be done to preserve the true spirit of the act and to ensure it functions to the best possible way.

Conclusion 

Conclude by suggesting solutions to make the act more effective.

Introduction:

The Right to Information (Amendment) Bill, 2019 that amends the Right to Information Act, 2005 has been introduced in Lok Sabha. However, former information commissioners and RTI activists have come out strongly against the move by the central government to amend the RTI Act, 2005.

Body:

Amendments:

  • The Bill primarily amends Sections 13 and 16 of the Right to Information (RTI) Act, 2005.
  • The Centre shall have the powers to set the salaries and service conditions of Information Commissioners at central as well as state levels.
  • Term of the central Chief Information Commissioner and Information Commissioners: appointment will be “for such term as may be prescribed by the Central Government”.
  • While the original Act prescribes salaries, allowances and other terms of service of the state Chief Information Commissioner as “the same as that of an Election Commissioner”, and the salaries and other terms of service of the State Information Commissioners as “the same as that of the Chief Secretary to the State Government”, the amendment proposes that these “shall be such as may be prescribed by the Central Government”.

Reasons for opposition:

  • The original Act had quantified the tenures, and defined the salaries in terms of existing benchmarks. The amendments are being viewed as implying that, in effect, the terms of appointment, salaries and tenures of the Chief Information Commissioners and Information Commissioners can be decided on a case-to-case basis by the government. This will take away the independence of the RTI authorities.
  • Therefore, the Bill is being seen as a “threat to the independence” of the Central Information Commissioner.
  • By diminishing the status of the CIC, IC and State CIC from that of a Supreme Court judge would reduce their ability to issue directives to senior government functionaries.
  • The amendments would empower the Centre to make rules to decide the tenure, salary, allowances and other terms of service of information commissioners of the Central and also State Information Commissions.
  • This will fundamentally weaken the institution of the information commissions as it will adversely impact the ability of commissioners to function in an independent manner.
  • The separation of powers is a concept which underscores independence and is vital to India’s democratic checks and balances.
  • The Commission which is vested by law with status, independence and authority, will now function like a department of the Central government.
  • When power is centralised and the freedom of expression threatened, it affects the fundamental federal fabric.
  • The government has brought about the Bill in complete secrecy and there have been no public consultations on the Bill, which will impact the fundamental right to information of the citizens of the country.

Government’s rationale:

  • The mandate of Election Commission of India and Central and State Information Commissions are different.
  • Hence, their status and service conditions need to be rationalised accordingly.
  • The Central Information Commissioner has been given the status of a Supreme Court judge.
  • But, his judgments can be challenged in the High Courts, which is inconsistent.
  • Besides, the RTI Act did not give the government rule-making powers, which the amendment proposes to correct.

Measures needed to strengthen RTI:

  • Reduce pendency: To begin with, the government could take steps to reduce pending appeals. In June 2019, about 31,000 appeals were pending, over 9,000 of those pending for over a year. Currently, four out of the ten positions of information commissioners are vacant.
  • Prune the exemption list: According to an RTI ratings report by the Canada-based Centre for Law and Democracy, India’s rank slipped from second position in 2011 to eighth in 2018. In its current form, Section 8 of the RTI Act lists ten exemptions, ranging from any information that may hurt national security, impede the process of ongoing investigations to cabinet papers and deliberations of the council of ministers. These must be reduced.
  • Protect whistle-blowers: According to a tracker of assaults on RTI activists set up by the Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative (CHRI), a Delhi-based international non-profit, 84 RTI activists have been murdered since 2005 for seeking information on illegal construction, alleged scams in social welfare schemes, and corruption in panchayats. While seven activists have committed suicide, more than 350 have either faced assault or harassment. Starting with timely and effective investigation, India needs to put in place long-term measures to prevent these assaults
  • CIC as a constitutional body: The currently statutory body must be made a constitutional body to uphold its sanctity.
  • Political parties under RTI: All political parties claim to serve the public but are unanimous in their reluctance to share information with citizens. They must be put under ambit of RTI.

Way forward:

  • The RTI has unshackled millions of users who will continue to use this democratic right creatively and to dismantle exclusive power.
  • Independent structures set up to regulate and monitor the government are vital to a democratic state committed to deliver justice and constitutional guarantees.
  • The separation of powers is a concept which underscores this independence and is vital to our democratic checks and balances.
  • So when power is centralised, the freedom of expression is threatened which can lead to the decline of democracy.
  • The need of the hour is the Government should take into account the concerns of the experts and should arrive at an amicable solution, which ensures sufficient independence to the Commission.

Conclusion:

RTI Act has transparency, accountability and participation as its mandate and is considered equally important legal document after the Constitution. There is a necessity to undertake the measures to strengthen this powerful tool that can deliver significant social benefits.


Topic:  India and its neighborhood- relations.

 4) India-Bhutan relations not only reflects the contemporary nature of their relationship but also lay the foundation for their future development in the 21st century. Elucidate the statement in the backdrop of India’s emphasis on neighborhood-first policy.(250 words)

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Why this question:

Prime Minister Narendra Modi will visit Bhutan on 17-18 August to underline his government’s emphasis on India’s “neighborhood first” policy, as well as the country’s special relationship with the strategically located Himalayan nation.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must analyse India- Bhutan relations at a broader picture with special focus on India’s neighborhood first policy.

Directive:

ElucidateGive a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Discuss the context of the question.

Body:

The answer must discuss in detail India- Bhutan relations.

Diplomatic relations between India and Bhutan were established in 1968 with the appointment of a resident representative of India in Thimphu.

Before this India’s relations with Bhutan were looked after by India’s Political Officer in Sikkim.

The basic framework of India- Bhutan bilateral relations was the Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation signed in 1949 between the two countries, which was revised in February 2007.

The India-Bhutan Friendship Treaty not only reflects the contemporary nature of their relationship but also lays the foundation for their future development in the 21st century.

Discuss the role India’s neighborhood first policy would have on India-Bhutan relations.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 

Introduction:

Bhutan, nestled in the Himalayas, has shared a cordial relations with India based on our long-standing diplomatic, economic and cultural relations. India has been an all-weather friend of Bhutan since the latter’s independence. The India –Bhutan treaty of friendship and cooperation was signed in 1949 and was updated in 2007, subjecting the Himalayan nation’s security needs to supervision. The Treaty provides for perpetual peace and friendship, free trade and commerce, and equal justice to each other’s citizens.

Body:

To underline the government’s emphasis on India’s “neighbourhood first” policy, as well as the country’s special relationship with the strategically located Himalayan nation, Prime Minister is expected to visit Bhutan very soon.

India Bhutan relations in past:

  • India and Bhutan have enjoyed a “special” relationship, according to analysts. “India and Bhutan have closely aligned their foreign policy on many occasions. E.g.: the common position both countries have taken with regard to China’s ambitious Belt and Road Initiative.
  • The two countries have also taken a common position vis-à-vis terrorism referring to Bhutan joining India in pulling out of the 2016 South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation Summit, which was to be hosted by Pakistan, following a string of terrorist attacks in India.
  • The two sides have agreed to “cooperate closely with each other on issues relating to their national interests”, in line with the 2007 India-Bhutan Friendship Treaty.

Assured by India for its distinct identity and autonomy since India’s independence Bhutan has been in the good book of India since the very beginning. There has arisen a need to revisit the India’s Bhutan policy and address issues that have come up in the past few years.

  • Hydro-power projects:
    • Three hydro-electric projects (HEPs) totalling 1416 MW, (336 MW Chukha HEP, the 60 MW Kurichu HEP, and the 1020 MW Tala HEP), are already exporting electricity to India.
    • Delays in constructing and commissioning in Bhutan by Indian companies have led to the country’s burgeoning national debt.
    • India’s power-surplus status and the advent of other renewable energies like wind and solar power will make it more difficult for Bhutan to ensure that its hydropower sector becomes profitable.
    • Unless India finds ways to help, it will be accused of the same sort of “debt-trapping” that China is accused of today.
  • Trade and Commerce:
  • India is Bhutan’s largest trading partner. India and Bhutan have signed an Agreement on Trade, Commerce and Transit in 2016, which provides for a free trade regime between the two countries aimed at boosting the bilateral trade for mutual benefit.
  • The goods and services tax still hurts Bhutanese exporters, and demonetisation has left lasting scars on the banking system.
  • Government’s decision to cut cooking gas subsidy just before the 2013 elections in Bhutan has often been shown as proof of Indian interference.
  • Security Issues:
    • Doklam crisis and incidences of Indian presence being mistakenly represented as Indian encroachment have the potential to deteriorate the relationship between the two countries and push Bhutan into the lap of China.
    • It has even raised doubts of a few that India is acting as a “Big Brother”.
  • Joint Ventures:
    • The joint ventures are stuck because the Indian PSEs insist on having more managerial control and have refused to come up with agreed financing.
  • Connectivity:
    • India’s plan for regional connectivity seems to have hit a dead-end with Bhutan.
    • The Bhutanese Parliament didn’t ratify the implementation of BBIN project which will further affect the connectivity.

 

The measures for continuing the cohesive and durable relationship with Bhutan are:

 

  • The principles of Panchsheel and Gujral doctrine must drive our relations towards Bhutan.
  • The hydropower projects, where delays in construction and commissioning by the Indian companies took place, have led to the Country’s increase in the national debt. The tariffs need to be re-negotiated.
  • The advent of wind / solar energy in India makes it more difficult for Bhutan to ensure that its hydropower sector becomes profitable. This concern must be addressed.
  • India must be careful not to seem bossy, and end up souring up its relationship with Bhutan as was done in the case of Nepal. Considering this legacy of Independent democracy, India should refrain from interfering in sovereign matters of Bhutan.
  • A politically stable Bhutan is important to India. An unstable and restive Bhutan would not only jeopardize India’s investments in that country but also provide a safe haven for anti-India activities and anti-India militant groups.
  • India needs to focus on policing cross-border trade.
  • India needs to discard the tradition of offering economic subsidies and negotiating project proposals with neighbouring capitals and focus instead on enabling agreements, and let market forces leverage the existing economic and geographic complementarities.
  • Standby credit facility extended to Bhutan need to be reassessed as per current exchange rates and economic stability.
  • The Doklam crisis can be taken as a wake-up call and be used as an opportunity rather than as a continuing threat with China.
  • More people to people contact: Steps should be taken to involve people in national, regional or cultural events so that close and strong relations between the two countries could be sustained.
  • India needs to give more attention in inviting Bhutanese youth to study in India at all levels.
  • Media, particularly social media, needs to be harnessed to reach out to Bhutanese policymakers and common people to give them the confidence that India will stand by them for their economic and cultural development.

 

Future of the relations:

 

  • There are many potential areas ideas like organic farming, eco-tourism, developing north eastern states that can be explored and cooperation to be strengthened.
  • There are high level groups on security, water management, power, trade, investment, culture which can smoothen the relations between nations.
  • India looks for the opportunity for Bhutanese students in every kind of institutions and the scholarship for them has also been expanded.
  • In cultural aspect, there is a Nehru-Wangchuck Cultural Centre in Bhutan and they also have very rich culture where exchanges do have a broad opportunity.
  • India being the fast growing economy has to align itself with Bhutanese ideas of sustainable development in various aspects.

Conclusion:

Hydro-electric power generated by Bhutan’s run-of-the river dams is the economic bedrock of the India-Bhutan relationship. India needs to act robustly to address Bhutanese concerns that are weakening the traditionally strong India-Bhutan bilateral bond, as a strong relationship with India could reduce the chances of Bhutan succumbing to Chinese pressure.


Topic:Linkages between development and spread of extremism

5) The main support for the Naxalite movement comes from Dalits and Adivasis. Discuss the correspondence and linkages of the social conditions of these communities of the population and Naxalism of a particular region. (250 words)

Reference

Why this question:

The question aims to establish the interlinkages between the communities of Dalits and Adivasis with Naxal movements of the country.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss and establish the relation between the presence of such communities and the Naxal establishments of a region.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin with brief introduction on Naxal reach and expanse in the country.

Body:

Discussion should include the following: 

Discuss the double tragedy at work in tribal India; The first tragedy is that the state has treated its Adivasi citizens with contempt and condescension. The second tragedy is that their presumed protectors, the Naxalites, offer no long-term solution either.

Explain the plight of thousands of tribals and Dalits in India.  

Discuss that plethora of constitutional provisions are in place to protect the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, and yet, in practice no SC/ST law comes to their rescue or penalizes the culprits.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward and suggest what needs to be done.

Introduction:

Dalits and adivasis comprise about one-fourth  of  India’s  population:  Dalits  constitute  16per  cent  and  Adivasis  8  per  cent.  Most of them (80 percent of Dalits and 92 percent of Adivasis) live in rural areas.  High levels of rural poverty therefore, are likely to indicate high distress among SCs and STs.  Bihar,  Orissa,  Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal are the States  with  highest  rural  poverty,  and  they  also account for a high proportion of SC and ST poor.

Body:

Socio-Economic Conditions:

Dalits:

They continue to face wide-ranging economic, social disadvantages, and day to day humiliation and degradation, denial of justice and violent atrocities in India.

  • High poverty:  In  2004/05,  the  proportion of  SCs  below  the  poverty  line  was  as  high  8  per  cent  in  rural  and  40%  in  urban  areas.
  • Low education: Dalits had been excluded from the education system for centuries. In  the post-independence     period     educational opportunities  have  slowly  opened  up  for  them, but  education  levels  continue  to  be  very  low among  Dalits  and  the  gap  between  Dalits  and non-Dalits  remains  very 
  • Limited employment opportunities: most Dalits live in rural areas. The  incidence  of  landlessness  is  higher  among the  SCs  than  among  the  The persistently  high  poverty  of  SC  households  is closely  associated  with  low  levels  of  ownership of  capital  assets  like  land,  low  levels  of education and considerably lower diversification of  avenues  of  employment.
  • Political marginalisation: dalits have often had to  struggle  in  order  to  assert  this  right  and struggle  again  to  demand  accountability  from the  elected    The  reins  of  power have  remained  with  the  dominant  sections  of society,  whether  it  be  the  upper  castes  or  in recent  years  the  middle  castes.
  • Social discrimination: Dalits continue to face many kinds of social discrimination, related for instance to residence, food, clothing, marriage and employment.

Tribals:

Apart  from  poverty  and  deprivation  in general,  the  causes  of  the  tribal  movements are  many:  the  most  important  among  them  are absence of self governance, forest policy, excise policy,  land  related  issues,  multifaceted  forms of  exploitation,  cultural  humiliation  and  political marginalisation. Land alienation, forced evictions from land, and displacement also added to unrest.   Failure   to   implement   protective regulations  in  Scheduled  Areas,  absence  of credit  mechanism  leading  to  dependence  on money  lenders  and  consequent  loss  of  land and   often   even   violence   by   the   State functionaries  added  to  the  problem.

Thus, the above causes show that underdevelopment and socio-economic lacunae lead to extremism.

  • Effective implementation of legislation:
    • PESA, MNREGA, Scheduled tribes and other traditional forest dwellers acts must be implemented effectively.
  • Land Related Measures:
    • A serious effort must be made to continuously implement the land ceiling issues for distribution amongst the most vulnerable section of the landless poor.
    • Land should be acquired by government for SEZ by paying proper compensation to the farmers.
    • Land tribunals or fast track courts must be set up for speedy disposal of land ceiling cases. The loopholes in the respective state ceiling laws must be corrected.
  • Basic amenities and Infrastructure:
    • Failure to provide infrastructure and services as per national norms is one of the much discriminatory manifestations of governance in extremism affected areas. Basic services to standards among the people in these areas to be given top priority.
  • Governance Issues:
    • Areas in central India where unrest is prevailing covers several states like Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand and parts of Maharashtra are manually administered.
    • State interventions both for development and for law and order are fairly low. Local populations present in the tribal areas are being exploited by the armed and rich people. Government should taken necessary action in protecting these people.
    • The basic steps required in the direction include establishment of credibility and confidence of government, keeping a continuous vigil for fulfilment of people’s vision, effective protection, peace and good governance sustainable development with equity in tribal areas will make extremism low in tribal areas.
  • Livelihood Security:
    • should strengthen the subsidiary and supportive activities in horticulture, poultry, fisheries, animal husbandry under the strict guidelines of ministry of agriculture through establishment of quality infrastructure & efficient market linkages at the village level.
    • Universalize basic social services to standards amongst the people of extremist affected areas so that the discriminatory manifestations of governance can be removed.
  • Institutional arrangements for centre-state cooperation:
    • Since problems in formulating a counter-Extremist policy as well as in dealing with the issue on a day-to-day basis are sourced to the lack of centre-state cooperation, a permanent institutional mechanism in the form of a coordination centre can be established to thrash out emerging differences.
    • A coordination centre does currently exist within the MHA, but requires the active participation of state representatives to ensure smoother coordination

Conclusion:

Inequalities between classes have increased over the years which act as source of unrest. Indian Constitution in article 39 mandates states to prevent concentration of wealth in few hands but policy makers often ignore this resulting into two dimensions: BHARAT and INDIA. Only when Adivasis and marginalized groups are taken care of both these worlds won’t merge. Structural violence causes much of violence. While not condoning radical violence, an honest response to extremism therefore must begin by ameliorating the structural violence in the society.


Topic: Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

7) Discuss any four essential values imparted to an individual during the primary, secondary and higher education stages, respectively.(250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon publications

Why this question:

The question aims to discuss any four essential values that shape an individual’s character through the stages of education.

Key demand of the question:

Explain any four key values that you think are essentially shaped during one’s educational journey.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Discuss the importance of values in one’s life.

Body:

Discuss the answer into parts – Essential values during primary education, secondary education and tertiary education.

Values may vary from curiosity, kindness, freedom, discipline, hard work etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by stating their significance in life.

Introduction:

Schools are established by society to preserve and transmit culture and lee system i.e. the role of school is perceived to develop human resource in infirmity with the norms set out by the society.

Body:

Some of values learnt in school and college:

  • Unconditional Love and Kindness:
    • In most cases, if you love someone, he or she will love you back in return. This, however, is not the real meaning of love. Love should be unconditional. With more love in the world, kindness will follow and replace cruelty.
  • Honesty:
    • Students must be taught that dishonesty and cheating are wrong, and will get you nowhere in the future. As a student, one is only hurting himself or herself by cheating, because this action will eventually catch up to you in the end with bad consequences.
  • Hard Work:
    • When I was young, I learned that success was one percent inspiration and 99 percent perspiration. Nowadays, so many students want to cheat and cut corners in their studies because they are lazy and don’t place any value on hard work. This thinking must definitely change.
  • Respect For Others:
    • Unfortunately, in our highly competitive dog eat dog society, many people will tread on others to get ahead in life. Respect for others should include respecting different religions, races, sexes, ideas, and lifestyles.
  • Co-operation:
    • To achieve a common goal, it is necessary for all people to work together. If this is not done, a few people may profit, but the end result for everyone will be a failure. I still believe in the motto, “united we stand and divided we fall.”
  • Compassion:
    • Compassion is defined as being sensitive to the needs of people. If there were more compassion in the world, there would be less homeless, hunger, wars, and unhappiness.
  • Forgiveness:
    • Religion teaches us to forgive our enemies or people who hurt us. Anger in most cases is caused by unwillingness to forgive. There would be less violence and fighting in school if students could learn this moral virtue.

The problem is that the neglect of teaching moral values in schools is hurting our students and causing problems in society. If a person has never learned any moral values, how is she or he able to discern the difference between right and wrong? That is basically the essence of moral values education.

Conclusion:

With competition and materialism flying high in today’s fast-paced world, the value based Education is on a decline. Gandhiji and Rabindranath Tagore, both had stressed on the importance of Value based Education system for children.