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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 29 JULY 2019


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 29 JULY 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation, agriculture.

1) Agriculture is one of the main contributors of groundwater crisis in India, critically analyse the causes and in what way India’s reliance on water for farming is partly self-inflicted? Suggest solutions.(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question:

The article explains in what way Erratic monsoon rains and skewed farm incentives have led to the growing groundwater crisis, impacting farm incomes and availability of drinking water.

Key demand of the question:

Explain and analyse the main contributions for the ongoing ground water crisis and agriculture as a major contributor to it.

Directive:

Critically analyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Quote facts from the article to bring out the current crisis.

Body:

The answer must first explain the reasons contributing to the ground water crisis and major emphasis should be upon how agriculture has become a major contributor to the crisis. Explain that growing demand for water is almost entirely driven by farmers. Nowhere in the world does agriculture consume as much water as in South Asia. This reliance on water has made the region one of the most water-scarce places in the world. In India itself, more than 80% of water demand is used for farming, and agricultural water consumption is expected to stay at these levels even in 2050.

Conclusion:

Conclude with solutions to the above challenges, suggest policy reforms and their urgent need.

Introduction:

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Water Development Report states that India is the largest extractor of groundwater in the world. Fifty-four percent of India’s groundwater wells have declined over the past seven years, and 21 major cities are expected to run out of groundwater by 2020. Erratic monsoon rains and skewed farm incentives have led to the growing groundwater crisis, impacting farm incomes and availability of drinking water

Body:

Reasons for ground water exploitation in India:

  • Groundwater is one of the most important water sources in India accounting for 63% of all irrigation water and over 80% of the rural and urban domestic water supplies.
  • Subsidies:
    • Subsidies on electricity are thought to play a central role in the Indian groundwater crisis.
    • The vast majority of groundwater pumps are unmetered, and if charged, are billed at a flat, non-volumetric, and highly subsidized tariff.
  • Water intensive crops:
    • Government encourages farmers to produce water-intensive crops like rice and sugarcane through increased minimum support prices (MSP). This has also led to groundwater depletion, income inequality and unsustainable agriculture.
    • Farmers are digging more and more borewells, but the sources of the problem are many, including transition to water-intensive crops and spate of construction activity along catchment areas.
  • Unpredictable monsoon:
    • Successive droughts and erratic rainfall have led to excess extraction of groundwater. That explains 61 per cent decline in groundwater level in wells in India between 2007 and 2017.
  • Land use changes:
    • India’s huge groundwater-dependent population, uncertain climate-reliant recharge processes and indiscriminate land use changes with urbanization are among the many factors that have rendered the Indian groundwater scenario to become a global paradigm for water scarcity, for both quantity and quality.
    • Trans-boundary upstream water sources and archaic irrigation methods for the water shortage.
  • Government failure:
    • The government finance for well digging and pump installation with capital subsidies, massive rural electrification and pervasive energy subsidies all have enabled this process to aggravate.
    • In the north western parts of India and southern peninsula, the early and rapid rural electrification, free or subsidised power to the farm sector, large productive farmers and attractive procurement prices for major cereals led to intensive use of groundwater.
    • Zero marginal cost of pumping and lack of restriction on volume of water resulted in inefficient and unsustainable use of the resource.
  • Lack of adequate planning, crumbling infrastructure, indiscriminate drilling of borewells, large-scale consumption of water, and a false sense of entitlement in using water carelessly are causing water shortages.

Measures needed:

  • Reducing electricity subsidies:
    • An analysis of panel data across 370 districts in India found that a reduction in electricity subsidy was correlated with a decrease in groundwater extraction .
    • Most empirical studies are in favour of pricing electricity on the basis of actual consumption. They show that the energy prices at which the farmers start responding to tariff changes in terms of reducing the demand for water and electricity would be socio-economically viable.
  • Micro-irrigation:
    • Encouraging farmers to adopt micro-irrigation techniques such as drip irrigation and micro-sprinklers.
    • According to the CWMI report, adopting micro-irrigation techniques can save roughly 20% of the groundwater used annually on irrigation in India.
  • Creating awareness:
    • Creating sustainable change would require a bottom-up approach by empowering the local community to become active participants in managing groundwater.
  • Proper implementation of initiatives:
    • 12th five-year plan proposed a policy of participatory groundwater management (PGM), which involves a collaborative approach among government departments, researchers, NGOs and community members.
    • The plan involves training community workers to carry out aquifer mapping and implement innovative ways to use groundwater conservatively with the local community.
    • Government has come up with a 6,000-crore World Bank-aided Atal Bhujal Yojana with community participation to ensure sustained groundwater management in overexploited and ground water-stressed areas in seven States.
    • World Bank’s Water Scarce Cities Initiative seeks to promote an integrated approach to managing water resources and service delivery in water-scarce cities as the basis for building resilience against climate change.
    • India needs better policies that directly help small-holders and labourers to adapt and adjust to risks associated with groundwater depletion and a more variable future climate.
  • Crisis can be tackled by restoring and enhancing groundwater recharge areas, stopping polluted water from recharging groundwater, rainwater and roof top harvesting and the restoration of ponds, lakes and other river systems.
  • Growing less water-intensive crops in the dry season and transitioning away from irrigation-intensive systems where there is little water.
  • Behavioural economics and other novel approaches can be brought to bear on maximizing agricultural production with minimal water use instead of focusing on marginal increases in yields with unbounded water use.
  • Water-deficient states should promptly move towards micro-irrigation systems. These techniques have significantly higher efficiency vis-à-vis flood irrigation techniques.
  • States should continue to focus on command area development (CAD). This is now part of Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY) which focuses on “more crop per drop”.
  • The cropping patterns in the states should be changed as per the agro-climatic zones. Improper cropping patterns affect both crop productivity and irrigation efficiency.
  • Farmer producer organizations (FPO) provide a sense of ownership to farmers and encourage community-level involvement with lower transaction costs.
  • India needs to establish data networks to track not only crop transpiration but also total inflows and recoverable outflows of irrigation water but also the losses to unrecoverable sinks such as evaporation.

Conclusion:

There is a need to modernise the regulatory framework for accessing groundwater soon after massive expansion in mechanical pumping led to the realisation that recharge could not keep pace with use.


Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

2) In recent years, suicide cases have received alarming attention, for they account for the majority of India’s health burden. Critically analyse the high suicide death rate in the country and how India is responding to this challenge?(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question: 

The article discusses in detail the recent rising incidences of suicide cases across the world thus necessitating us to analyse the challenge India is facing on this front.

Demand of the question:

The answer must discuss in detail the problem of suicide and other mental ailments in India, the reason why Indian society is prone to it and assesses how we have responded to the challenge. 

Directive word: 

Critically analyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

Quote facts from the article to set the background of the question.

Body

Bring out the fact that suicide and mental ailments form a chunk of India’s disease burden, from data on suicide death rates, gather insights into the high suicide death rates in the country. Explain the reasons why suicide death rate is so high for India. Bring out the steps taken to deal with this challenge and discuss the way forward.

Conclusion 

Conclude with both long-term and short-term solutions for the issue.

Introduction:

Sociologist Emile Durkheim had famously hypothesised that ‘suicides are a result of not just psychological or emotional factors but social factors as well’.  Every 40 seconds, someone somewhere in the world takes his or her own life.

Body:

Suicide statistics:

  • According to the World Health Organization (WHO), for every 100,000 women, about 16 women take their own lives. By the data available, India’s suicide rate for women is the sixth highest in the world.
  • Suicide is the second biggest cause of death, especially amongst younger men, exceeded only by death due to traffic accidents.
  • Suicide is the leading cause of death among young women. We lose about 25 men for every 100,000 men to suicide.
  • According to National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB)’s ‘Accidental Deaths and Suicides in India’ report for 2015, there were 1,336,623 suicides across the country that year.
  • Among all states, Maharashtra (16,970) had the highest number of suicides in 2015, followed by Tamilnadu.
  • As per report, one-third of the suicides in the country in 2015 were committed by young adults under age 30, and another one-third by people in the age group 30-45.

Reasons for high number of suicides in India are a mix of psychological or emotional influences and social dimensions:

  • Women :
    • Women are struggling with disproportionate socio-economic burdens.
    • Their high SDRs relative to men are rooted in factors as varied as the difference in socially acceptable methods of dealing with stress and conflict for women and men, domestic violence and the different ways in which poverty affects the genders.
    • Married women form the biggest victim group of suicide deaths among women in general. This group becomes more vulnerable due to arranged and early marriage, young motherhood and economic dependence.
  • The past few decades have witnessed economic, labour and social changes on a scale rarely seen before. Such rapid change with the economic dislocation and change in social and community links it brings can be destabilizing.
  • The social stigma:
    • The social stigma attached to mental health disorders in India is a major hurdle in addressing them.
    • Stigma and general lack of knowledge and understanding when it comes to mental health disorders prevent timely intervention.
  • Lack of Medical and Psychological Care:
    • State capabilities for addressing mental health issues are close to non-existent.
    • The country has about 5,000 psychiatrists and less than 2,000 clinical psychologists.
    • Expenditure on mental health accounts for a tiny fraction of total public health spending.
  • Farmers suicide:
    • India’s economy vastly depends on agriculture with around 60% of its people directly or indirectly depends upon it.
    • Different reasons like droughts, low yield prices, exploitation by middlemen and inability to pay loans lead Indian farmers to commit suicide.
  • Youth suicide:
    • Reason for such high numbers can be attributed to lack of economic, social, and emotional resources.
    • More specifically, academic pressure, workplace stress, social pressures, modernisation of urban centers, relationship concerns, and the breakdown of support systems.
    • Some researchers have attributed the rise of youth suicide to urbanisation and the breakdown of the traditional large family support system.
    • The clash of values within families is an important factor for young people in their lives. As young Indians become more progressive, their traditionalist households become less supportive of their choices pertaining to financial independence, marriage age, rehabilitation, taking care of the elderly etc
  • Depression:
    • WHO says that depression and suicide are closely linked and, at its worst, depression can lead to suicide.18 per cent of the total number of people suffering from depression globally were in India in 2015.
  • Discrimination:
    • Discrimination and slurs for having belonged to an ST community and having procured admission into the college through the SC/ST quota.
    • Racial slurs, Sexist slur etc. leading to extreme harassment of individuals.
    • Caste-based discrimination and resentment from upper-caste students and faculty is common in the high-pressure environment of medical colleges, as well as in other higher educational institutes in the country.
    • The 2007 report by the Thorat Committee has shown how rampant and varied the caste-based discrimination practices were in AIIMS, the country’s premier medical college.

Measures taken by Government:

  • There have been some positive developments over the past few years.
  • The decriminalization of suicide was long overdue and welcome.
  • The same holds true for the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India’s mandating that insurance companies are to make provisions to cover mental illnesses in their policies along with physical illnesses.
  • Concerned over the spate of suicides in Indian colleges, the ministry of human resource development has circulated a manual to the country’s higher education institutions, asking the authorities to adopt measures to prevent students from taking the extreme step.
  • The manual lists measures such as early identification of suicidal tendencies, a buddy programme and a double-blind helpline where both the caller and the counsellor are unaware of each other’s identity.
  • Other experts have suggested proactive steps at the adolescent stage itself with the introduction of mental health in school curricula.
  • Mental healthcare act 2016: This Act will ensure these people have the right to live a life with dignity and not be discriminated against or harassed by the authorities. .
  • The SC has also said that Section 309 of IPC also violates right to life as given under Article 21 of the Constitution of India.

Measures needed:

  • First, stop-gap solutions to setting up expert committees and counsellors in schools have not been able to solve the problem.
  • The deep-rooted causes must be addressed. The government must undertake a comprehensive study on the reasons behind these suicides.
  • Second, the curriculum should be designed in ways that stress the importance of mental exercises and meditation. E.g.: The Delhi government’s initiative on the ‘Happiness Curriculum’ may be a step in the right direction.
  • Third, with regards to higher education, 12 measures were suggested by the Justice Roopanwal Commission.
  • Making Equal Opportunity Cells with an anti-discrimination officer functional in universities and colleges.
  • Starting from the most “innocuous” of ragging practices to “extreme harassment,” such discriminatory behaviour in fact constitutes violence and is an assault on the human rights of a person that prevents them from leading their lives with dignity and obtaining an education.
  • Educational approaches in schools, namely, teaching about the facts of suicide, developing educational modules in life skills, and problem-solving and training teachers
  • Psychological support and care should be given to the individual. The state can seek assistance from NGOs as well as religious missionaries for this purpose.
  • Strengthening the existing National Mental Health Programme and the district mental health programme, along with focus on training resources and streamlining of funds are some other recommendations for fighting depression and suicide.
  • Finally, it is high time we seek to reinvent our educational ecosystem in ways that impregnate new meanings, new ideas of living, and renewed possibilities that could transform a life of precarity into a life worth living.

Conclusion:

Suicide is preventable. Youth who are contemplating suicide frequently give warning signs of their distress. Parents, teachers, and friends are in a key position to pick up on these signs and get help. Most important is to never take these warning signs lightly or promise to keep them secret.


Topic:  Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources. Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology

3) Medical Devices Industry (MDI) plays a critical role in the healthcare ecosystem and is indispensable to achieve the goal of health for all citizens of the country. Discuss.(250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question:

The Medical Devices Industry (MDI) plays a critical role in the healthcare ecosystem and is indispensable to achieve the goal of health for all citizens of the country. The manufacturing and trade in MDI is growing steadily which includes a wide range of products. Although the industry has been growing in double digits but is predominantly import-driven with imports accounting for over 65% of the domestic market.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss in detail the significance of Medical Devices Industry (MDI) in the health sector of the country. 

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Provide for an overview of medical device industry. 

Body:

Brief upon few relevant facts – medical devices industry in India consists of large multinationals, with extensive service networks, as well as small and medium enterprises (SMEs). The current market size of the medical devices industry in India is estimated to be $ 5.2 bn.

Discuss how it is a sunrise sector, bring out its possible potential that is yet to be realized, what are the various govt. initiatives that are required to be taken.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

The medical devices industry in India consists of large multinationals, with extensive service networks, as well as small and medium enterprises (SMEs). The Medical Devices Industry (MDI) plays a critical role in the healthcare ecosystem and is crucial to achieve the goal of health for all citizens of the country.  The manufacturing and trade in MDI is growing steadily in double digits. However, it is largely import-driven with imports accounting for over 65 percent of the domestic market. The investigations into faulty hip implants bring out the urgent need for a law to regulate medical devices.

Body:

Importance of Medical Devices in Healthcare:

  • Medical devices are essential for safe and effective prevention, diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of illness and disease.
  • Medical devices also have the capacity to act as “bridges” (as in devices like cardiac assist, pulmonary assist, and renal dialysis) enabling patients desperately in need of a transplant (e.g., heart, lung, kidney, etc.) to survive long enough to receive one.
  • Medical devices rarely provide anything approximating “cure”, but can have enormous effect of reducing or even eliminating symptoms and can, on occasion, go so far as to turn a potentially fatal condition (e.g., diabetes, esp. type 1) into a manageable, chronic condition.
  • This capacity of devices to enable patients to survive or just improve their quality of life in the absence of a cure will continue to grow as multiple scientific disciplines (biomaterials research, cell biology, information technologies, etc.) individually make advances and complement each other in medical device design.

Laws governing MDI in India:

  • Earlier, only 10 notified medical devices were regulated in India later this has since been broadened to 23 categories of devices.
  • These mainly include syringes, needles, perfusion sets, in-vitro devices for HIV treatment, catheters, intra-ocular lenses, cannulas, bone cements, heart valves, orthopedic implants, coronary stents, IUDs and condoms.
  • The important segments of medical devices in India are consumables and disposables that are mostly manufactured by Indian player, patients aids like hearing aids and pacemakers, various implants, and stents.
  • In India, medical devices continue to be regulated as “drugs” via the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940, and that newly introduced Medical Device Rules, 2017, which came into effect on January 1, 2018.
  • New rules classify medical devices based on risk, as is done by the Global Harmonization Task Force.

Issues in Indian medical device regulation:

  • In India a device such as a pacemaker cost less in the market and much more when implanted in a hospital.
  • For instance, a US-based company buys an ‘X’ pacemaker for Rs 25,000.
  • The Indian subsidiary then increases the price, fixes the MRP at Rs 50,000, and then sells it to a distributor at a “discounted price”, say Rs 46,000.
  • The distributor then sells it to a hospital at a price that is still discounted compared to the MRP, say at Rs 48,000.
  • Finally, the patient buys the device from the hospital at Rs 50,000, so within the chain all three make a profit.
  • Additionally, the patient pays the cost of the surgery, which varies from hospital to hospital.
  • Currently, there are no specific rules or a law that allows the government to direct a medical device company to give compensation to a victim after the device has been found faulty.

Way forward:

  • The medical device industry is a unique blend of engineering and medicine.
  • It involves the creation of machines that are then used to support life within the human body.
  • Given this, it needs not only careful regulation but also the highest ethical standards.
  • Certainly, major changes are needed in the sector.
  • It is up to the government to reinvigorate both the IPC and the CDSCO, and to give them more resources and a clearer mandate.
  • The issue of the trustworthiness of the private sector to be relied for the tertiary health care system also needs attention.
  • A large and vibrant public sector in tertiary health care is essential.
  • This is possibly the way to counteract the hurtful consequences of information asymmetries and poor regulation.
  • The government should re-examine its plan for universal health care, at this juncture.

Topic:Linkages between development and spread of extremism

4) What is meant by radicalisation? What are its types and how does India deal with radicalisation? Discuss.(250 words)

Timesofindia

Why this question:

The question aims to analyse the concept of radicalization.

Key demand of the question:

Explain in detail the concept of radicalization, its types and in what way India deals with deradicalization.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief define radicalization.

Body:

Explain the context of question with the help of recent incidences, explain what are the different types of radicalization – Right-Wing Extremism, Politico-Religious Extremism, Left-Wing Extremism etc.

Then discuss India’s efforts in this direction to deradicalize.

Conclusion:

Conclude that the problem of radicalization has seen an uptrend and in absence of any clear policy will continue to spread. It is important therefore to conduct meaningful research to aid the development of a framework that not only deals with de-radicalization but also rehabilitate the misguided youth of the nation.

Introduction:

The word “radical” refers to change in the fundamental nature of something, thus Radicalism is set of beliefs or actions of people who advocate thorough or complete political or social reform. Radicalisation refers to the process of an individual’s transformation from a moderate, law-abiding citizen into an active, anti-state, violent extremist.

Body:

Types of Radicalisation:

  • Right-Wing Extremism: It is characterized by the violent defence of a racial, ethnic or pseudo-national identity, and is also associated with radical hostility towards state authorities, minorities, immigrants and/or left-wing political groups. E.g.: Ku Klux clan in USA.
  • Politico-Religious Extremism: It results from political interpretation of religion and the defence, by violent means, of a religious identity perceived to be under attack (via international conflicts, foreign policy, social debates, etc.). Any religion may spawn this type of violent radicalization. E.g.: ISIS using Islam as an alibi.
  • Left-Wing Extremism: It focuses primarily on anti-capitalist demands and calls for the transformation of political systems considered responsible for producing social inequalities, and that may ultimately employ violent means to further its cause. It includes anarchist, Maoist, Trotskyist and Marxist-Leninist groups that use violence to advocate for their cause. E.g.: Naxalism in India.
  • Internet Radicalization: Internet is used by terrorist as an effective tool for radicalisation and terror financing. Terror groups use the internet to advocate the use of violence to further a religious, ideological or political cause.

Steps needed to deal Radicalism in India:

  • A consistent counter radical strategy is required to tackle radicalism.
  • Institutions have to be strengthened: Educational and political institutions should be strengthened at ground level so that people of any state feel empowered. Also, enough number of job opportunities should be provided to people to decrease their chances of joining any radicalist organization.
  • Central agencies like RAW,IB to play important role in covert operations to know the extremist propaganda and to inform the state special cell regarding the mechanism to regulate the actions of the radicalized youth.
  • There should be sufficient evidence behind banning any organization. This is necessary to avoid court cases. Also, Intelligence Agencies, Law Enforcement Agencies and Judicial Courts need to act in unison on this matter.
  • Once government identifies any radicalist organization, it needs to take hold of their physical and financial resources.
  • Countering activities of radicalists. If hate can be taught, then love and social responsibilities toward people and the nation can also be taught. This is necessary to de-radicalize people.
  • It needs to be ensured that people who been de-radicalized feel safe and secure in the country.
  • The corner stone for radicalization is poverty, deprivation and isolation and lack of employment and standard education opportunities, these to be addressed by the government and policies to be formulated for inclusive participation and facilitation of all means for their development.
  • Political executive plays an important role in drawing the youth into decision making and giving responsibility for the development of the community.
  • Social media to be regulated when such info of such activities to be held and to draw a legalized guide lines to regulate in due means without contradicting the privacy of an individual.

Conclusion:

Radicalisation is a danger to internal security and polarises the Indian society deepening the sectarian differences. Thus it is imperative to fight radicalisation on all fronts. Initiatives like UDAAN they must be inclusive in nature and drag youth from all sections ,Nehru yuva kendra to be given impetus in such areas to involve youth in all capacity ,cultural and sports activities so there are less chances for them to get influenced from such ideological goals.


Topic: Linkages between development and spread of extremism

5) Do you agree that underdevelopment often creates the conditions for insurgency and spread of extremist ideologies among the people, who perceive that their needs are not being taken care of by the government? Discuss in detail the linkage between development and spread of extremism.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question:

The question is based on the static portions of the GS -III paper, it aims to analyse the linkage between development and spread of extremism.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must analyse in detail the linkage between development and spread of extremism.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin with brief introduction on extremism.

Body:

Explain how it is true that underdevelopment often creates the conditions for insurgency and spread of extremist ideologies among the people, who perceive that their needs are not being taken care of by the government. While it has been the policy of governments around the world today to emphasize on “inclusive development”, there are always groups in every state who feel alienated because they perceive that they are left out of the developmental efforts. Such perceptions coupled with inefficient and corrupt governance create an ideal condition for extremism and militancy. More than lack of development, it is the perception of injustice, misgovernance and inability of the system to engage the disaffected lot that lead people to violence and extremism.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

Extremism can be defined as any ideology considered to be far outside the mainstream attitudes of a society or to violate common moral standards. It means an ideology deflected from the mainstream of common moral standards which can be perceived as good or bad depending upon the political and philosophical values. Improvement in standard of living is something that everyone craves for and deserves it too. It involves, apart from decent food clothing and shelter, quality education and health and also dignified living.

Body:

Causes for Extremism:

  • Lack of governance:
    • Governance is considered the most important issue as we lack a long term strategic perspective. Government has been giving more priority to Industrialization and less preference to development of tribal areas. Tribals have been denied their constitutional rights and justice.
  • Socio-economic issues:
    • With regards to socio economic issues education must be the prime intervention and this needs to be addressed with innovation. Once education enters the blood stream of the people of particular region they would be discrete with their violent actions.
    • Most of these people who are entering into the movement of extremism are lacking primary education, basic amenities and infrastructure facilities.
  • Policing:
    • Efficient and impartial policing is an important requirement of good administration. Weaker section of people does not have much faith in police.
    • People have no faith that justice will be done to them against the powerful person in the society. Here lies one of the attractions of the Naxalite movement and extremist thoughts.
  • Process of getting Justice:
    • Frustrations have built among the society where disputes and conflicts are not settled in time. Today’s judicial system is time consuming in nature. The parties to the dispute lose control over even the terms and details of the dispute once it goes to the court. This way the people minds are turning towards extremist thoughts.
  • Developmental issues related to rise and spread of extremism: Developmental issues which pertain to the spread of extremism are linked to lack of access to basic resources to sustain livelihood.
    • Forest policy:
      • In the name of development, habitat of principal adivasi communities were declared reserve forests & in accordance with Forest conservation Act 1980, no forest land can be diverted to non forest use without permission
      • Rights of primitive forest dwellers were restricted resulting in losing access to land.
      • Mass resentment leading to extremist activities.
    • Displacement & rehabilitation:
      • Displacement/ forced eviction of people occur due to developmental projects such as irrigation, industrial projects, mining projects, power plants etc. It can be physical, emotional or cultural.
      • Tribal people are most prone to displacement because tribal areas are rich in mineral resources such as Orissa, Jharkhand. This impacts multidimensional trauma on them leading to serious consequences.
    • Labour, unemployment and wages:
      • Unemployment and insecurity of livelihood are growing source of dissatisfaction and anger among youth, both in urban and rural areas.
      • Minimum wages for agriculture work are not implemented, increased share of unorganized workers in unorganized sector, no effective coverage of labour welfare laws.
      • Hence this multifaceted form of exploitation in the absence of any developmental propaganda forms the major cause of spread of extremism.

Thus, the above causes show that underdevelopment and socio-economic lacunae lead to extremism.

  • Effective implementation of legislation:
    • PESA, MNREGA, Scheduled tribes and other traditional forest dwellers acts must be implemented effectively.
  • Land Related Measures:
    • A serious effort must be made to continuously implement the land ceiling issues for distribution amongst the most vulnerable section of the landless poor.
    • Land should be acquired by government for SEZ by paying proper compensation to the farmers.
    • Land tribunals or fast track courts must be set up for speedy disposal of land ceiling cases. The loopholes in the respective state ceiling laws must be corrected.
  • Basic amenities and Infrastructure:
    • Failure to provide infrastructure and services as per national norms is one of the much discriminatory manifestations of governance in extremism affected areas. Basic services to standards among the people in these areas to be given top priority.
  • Governance Issues:
    • Areas in central India where unrest is prevailing covers several states like Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Chattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand and parts of Maharashtra are manually administered.
    • State interventions both for development and for law and order are fairly low. Local populations present in the tribal areas are being exploited by the armed and rich people. Government should taken necessary action in protecting these people.
    • The basic steps required in the direction include establishment of credibility and confidence of government, keeping a continuous vigil for fulfilment of people’s vision, effective protection, peace and good governance sustainable development with equity in tribal areas will make extremism low in tribal areas.
  • Livelihood Security:
    • should strengthen the subsidiary and supportive activities in horticulture, poultry, fisheries, animal husbandry under the strict guidelines of ministry of agriculture through establishment of quality infrastructure & efficient market linkages at the village level.
    • Universalize basic social services to standards amongst the people of extremist affected areas so that the discriminatory manifestations of governance can be removed.
  • Institutional arrangements for centre-state cooperation:
    • Since problems in formulating a counter-Extremist policy as well as in dealing with the issue on a day-to-day basis are sourced to the lack of centre-state cooperation, a permanent institutional mechanism in the form of a coordination centre can be established to thrash out emerging differences.
    • A coordination centre does currently exist within the MHA, but requires the active participation of state representatives to ensure smoother coordination

Conclusion:

Inequalities between classes have increased over the years which act as source of unrest. Indian Constitution in article 39 mandates states to prevent concentration of wealth in few hands but policy makers often ignore this resulting into two dimensions: BHARAT and INDIA. Only when adivasis and marginalized groups are taken care of both these worlds won’t merge. Structural violence causes much of violence. While not condoning radical violence, an honest response to extremism therefore must begin by ameliorating the structural violence in the society.

Way forward:

  • Strengthening of local self govt with additional financial and decision making power would promote development by making them stakeholders in development.
  • A majority of adivasis are uneducated, education can help them to demand their rights and fight for them.
  • Apart from this, discrimination related to residence, food, clothing, marriage and employment must be removed.
  • Roping in more NGOs and other groups that work with these tribals to help them get more skills and opening new vistas of employment based on their skills can help nip alienating feeling among them.
  • Land reforms in letter and spirit granting right of land to the tiller can root out long standing dissatisfaction among the tribals.

Topic: Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology

6) Discuss India’s achievements in the field of Space and Technology. How far has the application of this technology helped India in its socio-economic development? Explain.(250 words)

Reference

 

Why this question:

 India successfully launched its second moon mission Chandrayaan-2 recently from its most powerful rocket with a plan to land the rover on the unexplored lunar south pole.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss in detail India’s achievements in the field of Space and Technology and in what way it has impacted the socio-economic development of the country.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

write a few introductory lines about the recent achievements made by the Indian space agencies.

Body:

Discuss in detail how ISRO has achieved numerous milestones lately and has proved to harness space technology for national development. Relate how these achievements have direct link on the socio-economic development of the country.

Conclusion:

Conclude by reasserting significance of the same.

Introduction:

India is one of the front runners in space technology. It has been hailed as one the most successful programmes. From India’s first satellite Aryabhatta (1975) to the development of indigenous cryogenic engine India has made significant advances with little help and no technology sharing from developed countries. With the multi dimensional applications space technology ensures, India is moving in the right direction.

Body:

Over the last few years, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) took giant leaps forward, one success after the other.

  • Chandrayaan 2: India successfully launched its second lunar mission Chandrayaan-2 a week after it halted the scheduled blast-off due to a technical snag. India hopes the $145m (£116m) mission will be the first to land on the Moon’s South Pole.
  • INSAT: The system is a network of satellites that facilitates communication and broadcasting across the south Asian region. It ushered in a revolution in India’s television and radio broadcasting, telecommunications and meteorological sector.
  • Created Polarized Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) to make cost effective launch system. This has also increased international space collaboration by launching satellites of other nations at low costs.
  • Chandrayaan 1: It has launched Chandrayaan 1 lunar probe mission in 2008.
  • Mangalyan: ISRO has launched Mars Orbiter Mission in 2013 and created history by launching Mangalyan (mission spacecraft) into the Mars orbit in maiden attempt.
  • ASTROSAT: It has launched first space observatory in 2015 to become fourth agency to do so after NASA, Roscosmos and ESA.
  • Scramjet: Supersonic Combusting Ramjet has been launched by ISRO. This system works on Air-breathing Propulsion System which uses atmospheric oxygen to burn the fuel in the rocket.
  • RLV-TD: ISRO demonstrated its Reusable Launch vehicle space shuttle RLV -TD to launch satellites around earth orbit and re-enter into the atmosphere.
  • 104 satellites: ISRO has created history by launching 104 satellites in one go.
  • Crew Escape module: ISRO has test-launched Crew Escape Module paving the way for manned space mission Gaganyaan.

Besides, NAVIC (Indian Regional navigation satellites system) and South Asia Satellite are other missions which are a remarkable example of international coordination in the space arena. ISRO is preparing for its missions of Aditya (Solar Mission) and Gaganyaan (Manned Space Mission).

Contributions to Socio-Economic Development:

  • Acreage and production estimates for the principal crops such as wheat, rice, sorghum, cotton, mustard, and groundnut using Forecasting Agriculture Output using Space Agrometeorology and land based observations (FASAL). Precision farming using IRNSS. Agro Metrological (AGROMET) Towers to measure soil temperature, soil moisture, soil heat and net radiation, wind speed, wind direction, pressure and humidity.
  • Wasteland mapping, watershed development and monitoring as well as help in fisheries sector for augmentation of income.
  • Survey of various mineral and natural resources have been made possible through remote sensing.
  • Management of these resources, their development conservation and formulation of various policies are affectively done with the use of information derived through remote sensing.
  • It plays a vital role in delivering cyclone warnings and is used in search and rescue operations. Various meteorological services including information about monsoon, climate flood, cyclonic activities etc are provided through the technologies.
  • It has developed communication technology in India.
  • They have proved very useful in spread of education. Even in remote areas, the expertise educations have been made possible through the talk back channels of INSAT-3D satellite.
  • They have helped in environment conservation programmes estimation of agricultural production and water resources information’s.
  • Introducing telemedicine via satellite for making speciality treatment accessible to people in remote areas of India. Places around Bangalore, Kolkata and Tripura are networked with a hub using VSAT terminals.
  • The concept of “Gramsat” satellites have emerged to provide the basic requirements of villages.
  • Village Resource Centers located at coastal tracts are being provided with near real time information on satellite derived Potential Fishing Zones (PFZ). Information pertaining to inland fisheries, aquaculture, etc., is also provided through VRCs as relevant.
  • Another application of satellite communication is Satellite Aided Search and Rescue (SAS&R), as a part of India’s commitment to the International COSPAS- SARSAT programme for providing alerts and position location services for aircraft and ships in distress.
  • Commercialization of space launching technologies by ANTRIX has resulted into economic gain.
  • Apart from these various uses, the space programme has helped in social cultural and scientific consolidation and harmony.

Conclusion:

Over the last four and half decades, the Indian space programme has made impressive progress through well integrated, self-reliant programs. Through its space technology programme, India is promoting a knowledge based society which has led to social, economic and political transformation.


Topic:  Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

7) It is often said that” individuals have morality while groups have ethics”. Do you agree? Explain with examples.? (250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon publications

Why this question:

The question aims to analyse the concepts of morality and ethics and in what way they can be distinguished from one another.

Key demand of the question:

Explain in detail the concepts of morality and ethics applied to individuals and groups.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief define what is morality, what is ethics.

Body:

Morality and Ethics both concern themselves with what is right and what is wrong. Morality is set of principles that an individual considers being right. Whereas ethics is set of principles that a homogeneous group of people considers as right. Although both have a separate existence, they work in tandem with each other.

Morality is person specific. Although it is derived from the value system outside, the individual believes that the particular action is desirable from her, irrespective of another person’s view. It depends upon her understanding of things. Ethics on the other hands is set of moral values established in the given group of people as given point of time. Ethics often takes the form of traditions, laws. It is what society as a whole considers moral.

Quote relevant examples to justify better.

Conclusion:

Conclude with relevance of such concepts in ethical conduct of one’s life.

Introduction:

Morals are the beliefs of the individual or group as to what is right or wrong. A moral precept is an idea or opinion that’s driven by a desire to be good. Ethics are the guiding principles which help the individual or group to decide what is good or bad. An ethical code is a set of rules that defines allowable actions or correct behavior.

Body:

A person’s idea of morals tends to be shaped by their surrounding environment (and sometimes their belief system). Moral values shape a person’s ideas about right and wrong. They often provide the guiding ideas behind ethical systems.

Ethics are distinct from morals in that they’re much more practical. An ethical code doesn’t have to be moral. It’s just a set of rules for people to follow. Several professional organizations (like the American Bar Association and the American Medical Association) have created specific ethical codes for their respective fields.

In other words, an ethical code has nothing to do with cosmic righteousness or a set of beliefs. It’s a set of rules that are drafted by trade groups to ensure members stay out of trouble and act in a way that brings credit to the profession.

It’s important to know that what’s ethical isn’t always what’s moral, and vice versa. Omerta, for example, is a code of silence that developed among members of the Mafia. It was used to protect criminals from the police. This follows the rules of ethically-correct behavior for the organization, but it can also be viewed as wrong from a moral standpoint.

A moral action can also be unethical. A lawyer who tells the court that his client is guilty may be acting out of a moral desire to see justice done, but this is deeply unethical because it violates the attorney-client privilege.

Conclusion:

Both morality and ethics loosely have to do with distinguishing the difference between “good and bad” or “right and wrong.”