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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 26 JULY 2019


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 26 JULY 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic:  women, Social empowerment

1) “Gender based segregation in the job market may be limiting women’s economic empowerment in India”. Critically analyse.(250 words)

Economic times

Why this question:

The question aims to examine the correlation between Job prospects available for women and vis-à-vis economic empowerment.

Key demand of the question:

The answer should examine in what way segregated jobs in the market based on gender factor can hinder the economic development of women in India.

Directive:

Critically analyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief explain what you understand by gender-based segregation of jobs.

Body:

One can start by quoting facts showing decline in the proportion of working women that has witnessed a sharp decline.

Explain that the key factors that have limited the role of women in the Indian economy: the role of entrenched gender norms in our society, the rising incomes of men (which raises family income and makes it easier for women to quit working), and the lack of quality jobs for women.

Quote more such factors that directly or indirectly impact the empowerment factor of women in India.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

Gender based segregation is the distribution of workers across and within occupations, based upon demographic characteristics like gender. Social mores, rising incomes of men, and gender-based segregation in the job market are limiting women’s economic empowerment in India

Body:

Current situation:

  • The latest round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) conducted in 2015-16 shows that the proportion of working women has witnessed a sharp decline compared to a decade ago.
  • In 2005-06, when the last NFHS survey was conducted, 43% of married women in the age group of 15-49 years had reported working in the past 12 months.
  • This proportion has declined to 31% in the latest survey. 98% of married men in the same age bracket reported having worked in the last 12 months, the data shows.
  • Despite an increase in the last 10 years, the proportion of married women earning more than their husbands remains low at 19%

Gender based segregation limits women’s empowerment:

  • The under-representation of women in the workforce is both a social and economic loss.
  • A McKinsey Global study in 2015 found that India could increase its GDP by 16-60% by 2025 by simply enabling women to participate in the economy at par with men.
  • Three key factors that have limited the role of women in the Indian economy: the role of entrenched gender norms in our society, the rising incomes of men (which raises family income and makes it easier for women to quit working), and the lack of quality jobs for women.
  • The latest evidence on regressive attitudes towards women comes from the Social Attitudes Research India survey covering Delhi, Mumbai, UP and Rajasthan in 2016.
  • A new study based on the survey shows that a significant share of men and women feel that married women whose husbands earn a good living should not work outside the home.

Way forward:

  • Many enterprises still need to recognize and seek out the benefits of a gender-balanced workforce at all levels, including decision-making and board membership.
  • There is no “one size fits all”. Employer plays a key role in guiding their member companies to the right tools and advocating the message that gender diversity. It is good for business development and sustainability.
  • This is all the more urgent, in view of the anticipated disruption, change and complexity of labour markets associated with the future of work.
  • To a large extent, the gender pay gap is related to the segmentation of the labour market along gender lines and how women’s and men’s jobs are perceived and valued.
  • Governments and private institutions can work together to remove traditional barriers for women.
  • Introducing a set of strategic gender initiatives and practices in an enterprise can go a long way in effecting positive change.
  • Reviewing procedures for merit-based recruitment and promotion and controlling for gender bias is one of the most effective ways of ensuring that men and women are placed on an equal footing in their career paths.
  • The goal of working towards a gender diverse and inclusive business needs to be a strategic one for the entire company and not limited to human resources management alone.

Conclusion:

Gender balance at all levels of an organization, especially at the top decision-making level, leads to improved business outcomes. More women in the workplace can directly boost profitability, but increasing the representation of women can also contribute to the bottom line indirectly by enhancing the image and reputation of the enterprise. It also boosts other aspects of business such as employee loyalty and commitment.


Topic:Disaster and disaster management.

2) Discuss the role of Information Technology in disaster prevention. (250 words)

NIOS notes on disaster management

Why this question:

The question expects us to bring out the role of various facets of Information and technology in prevention of disasters as well as in managing the aftermath of disaster. 

Key demand of the question:

The answer must talk about role played by technology in effectively managing and preventing disasters.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin with brief introduction on what are disasters.

Body:

Discussion should include the following: 

Define disaster management- e.g Disaster management is a systematic process with primary aim to reduce the negative consequences and effect of disasters, hence safeguarding people and social infrastructure.

Discuss in points, how big data can play a role in disaster management. E.g Big data generated from geo-informatics and remote sensing platforms can contribute to early warning systems for disasters. Geographical Information Systems (GIS), Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and environmental monitoring sensors with cloud services have a potential to predict disasters; Geoinformatics information along with transportation network data can benefit to understand human mobility patterns during disasters; social data sets; financial data sets etc.

Also discuss the role of internet etc. in disaster handling.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

India  is  a  large  country  and  prone  to  a  number  of  natural  hazards. Among all the natural disasters that country   faces,   river   floods   are   the   most   frequent and often devastating. The shortfall in the rainfall causes droughts or drought like stimuli in various parts of the country. The country has faced some    severe    earthquakes    causing    widespread    damage   to   the   life   and   property.   India   has   a   coastline of about 8000 km which is prone to very severe  cyclonic  formations  in  the  Arabian  Sea  and  Bay  of  Bengal.  Another major problem faced by the   country   is   in   the   form   of   landslides   and   avalanches.

Body:

The role of Information Technology in disaster prevention:

GIS AND REMOTE SENSING:

  • GIS provides  a  tool  for  effective  and  efficient  storage  and  manipulation  of  remotely  sensed  data  and  other  spatial  and  non-spatial  data  types  for  both  scientific  management  and  policy  oriented     
  • This can    be    used    to    facilitate    measurement, mapping, monitoring and modelling of    variety    of    data    types    related    to    natural    phenomenon
  • The specific  GIS  application  in  the  field  of  Risk  Assessment  are Hazard  Mapping  to  show earthquake, landslides, floods or fire hazards.
  • Theses map  could  be  created  for  cities,  districts  or  even  for  the  entire  country  and  tropical  cyclone  Threat     Maps     are     used     by     meteorological     departments  to  improve  the  quality  of  the  tropical  storm  warning  services  and  quickly  communicate  the  risk  to  the  people  likely  to  get  affected  by  the  
  • g.: GIS and Remote Sensing can be used for preparing seismic hazards  maps  in  order  to  assess  the  exact  nature of risks.
  • GIS can  be  used  in  carrying  out  search  and  rescue  operations    in    a    more    effective    manner    by    identifying   areas   that   are   disasters   prone   and   zoning them accordingly to risk magnitudes

INTERNET

  • In the present era of electronic communication, the internet provides a useful platform for disaster mitigation communications.
  • Launching of  a  well  defined  web  site  is  a  very  cost-effective  means  of  making an intra-national and international presence felt.
  • It provides a new and potentially revolutionary option for    the    rapid,    automatic,    and    global    dissemination of disaster information. A number of individuals  and  groups,  including  several  national  meteorological  services,  are  experimenting  with  the  Internet  for  real-time  dissemination  of  weather  observation,  forecasts,  satellite  and  other   
  • In the    most    critical    phase    of    natural    disasters    electronic  communication  have  provided  the  most  effective  and  in  some  instances  perhaps  the  only  means of communication with the outside world.

WARNING AND FORECASTING SYSTEM

  • An advance  system  of  forecasting,  monitoring  and  issuing  early  warnings  plays  the  most  significant  role  in  determining  whether  a  natural  hazard  will  assume  disastrous  proportions  or 
  • Indian Metrological Department (IMD) provides  cyclone  warnings  from  the  Area Cyclone    Warning    Centres    (ACWCs)    It    has    developed  the  necessary  infrastructure  to  originate  and     disseminate     the     cyclone     warnings     at     appropriate  
  • Seismological observations in the country are made through national  network  of  36  seismic  stations  operated  by  the  IMD,  which  is  the  nodal 
  • Long term  drought  proofing  programmes  on  the  natural  resources  of  the  district  have  been  greatly  helped  by  the  use  of  satellite  data  obtained  by  National Remote Sensing Agency.
  • The drought  assessment  is  based  on  a  comparative  evaluation  of  satellite  observed  green  vegetation  cover  (both  area  and  greenness) of a district in any specific time period by the National Agricultural Drought Assessment and Management    System    (NADAMS).
  • Flood forecasts  and  warnings  are  issued  by  the  Central  Water  Commission  (CWC)  ,  Ministry  of  Water  Resources.  These are used for alerting the public and   for   taking   appropriate   measures   by   concerned   administrative   and   state   engineering   agencies     in     the     flood     hazard    

Conclusion:

Advancement    in    Information Technology in the form of Internet, GIS,   Remote   Sensing,   Satellite   communication,   etc.   can   help   a   great   deal   in   planning   and   implementation     of     hazards     reduction.     For     maximum   benefit,   new   technologies   for   public   communication  should  be  made  use  and  natural  disaster  mitigation  messages  should  be  conveyed  through   these   measures.


Topic:  Disaster and disaster management.

3) The ingenuity of the Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI) clearly reflects India’s commitment in promoting disaster resilient infrastructure and next major foreign policy innovation. Elucidate.(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question:

This article covers “Will India’s idea on disaster management gain global support”. It talks about the prospects of Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure. Indian Prime Minister, at the Hamburg G20 meet in 2017, proposed Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI). It may be taken up at the G7 meet next month in Biarritz, where India has been invited by hosts France, along with Australia, Chile and South Africa.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the concept in detail and the significance of it in managing disasters.

Directive:

ElucidateGive a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Describe what is ‘ Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure’.  

Body:

Each time a natural disaster occurs anywhere in the world, countries try to provide immediate relief, but there is no focus on building disaster-resilient Infrastructure.

In this context, Indian PM proposed CDRI which will act as a convening body that will pool best practices and resources from around the world for reshaping construction, transportation, energy, telecommunication and water, so that building in these core infrastructure sectors factors in natural catastrophes.

CDRI could fill this gap of funds and technology and help developing countries to build disaster-resilient Infrastructure.

For instance, India is a world leader in preventing human deaths due to disasters. The United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR) has praised India’s zero casualty approach and playing a pioneering role model for global community for drawing up a national and local strategy to reduce disaster losses and risks.

Conclusion:

Conclude that India’s initiative for Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure will help in the development of appropriate infrastructure to face the least developed and developing countries with natural calamities.

Introduction:

The Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI), as proposed by Indian Prime Minister, will act as a convening body that will pool best practices and resources from around the world for reshaping construction, transportation, energy, telecommunication and water, so that building in these core infrastructure sectors factors in natural catastrophes.

Body:

Need for CDRI:

  • According to Sendai framework, every $1 spent in disaster risk reduction leads to gain of $7. But developing countries face the dilemma of balancing economic investment for development vs disaster resilient infrastructure.
  • CDRI could fill this gap of funds and technology and help developing countries to build disaster-resilient Infrastructure.
  • Suppose a disaster strikes a country, the affected nation could approach CDRI for technical and financial help, thus shielding it from excessive damage and devastation.
  • Post-calamity resuscitation and reconstruction to strengthen local infrastructure and soften the blow of the next disaster, is a farsighted approach.
  • It can only work if there is domestic political will, which is reinforced at the multilateral level through CDRI.

India’s commitment in promoting disaster resilient infrastructure

  • The Prime Minister pledged a funding of ₹480 crore ($70 million) for CDRI in G20 summit in Osaka to promote the idea and invite greater international participation.
  • India’s initiative for Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure will help in the development of appropriate infrastructure to face the least developed and developing countries with natural calamities.
  • CDRI could fill a real gap at a time when climate change-induced floods, cyclones and fires have multiplied in destructive force.
  • For instance, India is a world leader in preventing human deaths due to disasters. The United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR) has praised India’s zero casualty approach and playing a pioneering role model for global community for drawing up a national and local strategy to reduce disaster losses and risks.

Foreign policy innovation:

  • CDRI will boost India’s soft power, but more importantly it has wider connotation than just economics, as synergy between disaster risk reduction, SDG and Climate Accord provides for sustainable and inclusive growth
  • The United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR) has praised India as a pioneering role model for drawing up a national and local strategy to reduce disaster losses and risks.
  • If India is a world leader in preventing human deaths in disasters, it is not so adept in protecting property and infrastructure from extreme weather havoc. This is where CDRI is looking to tap into the expertise of Japan.
  • CDRI will also complement India’s efforts to bring together a coalition of countries harnessing solar power under the International Solar Alliance framework

Case Studies:

  • Japan is prone to recurrent killer earthquakes, tsunamis and typhoons, but it has overcome these liabilities through improved building rules, stricter zoning laws and regulations since the 1980s, making it the world’s safest and most disaster-resilient country.
  • In Latin America, Chile has similarly learnt lessons from past catastrophes and drastically cut down casualties and losses from disasters through well-regulated building standards.

Conclusion:

Each time a natural disaster occurs anywhere in the world, countries try to provide immediate relief, but there is no focus on building disaster-resilient Infrastructure. CDRI would help fill this gap and India can play a crucial role in setting a global example.


Topic:  Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

4) Discuss the concept of carbon tax, also analyse to what extent it can prove to be an effective policy instrument in achieving INDC targets for India.(250 words)

Financialexpress

Why this question:

 The question is based on the concept of carbon tax and the utility of the same as an effective policy instrument.

Key demand of the question:

One must detail on the concept of carbon tax and list down its advantages and potential.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Define what is carbon tax.

Body:

Carbon tax is a form of pollution tax. It levies a fee on the production, distribution or use of fossil fuels based on how much carbon their combustion emits. The government sets a price per ton on carbon, and then translates it into a tax on electricity, natural gas or oil. Because the tax makes using dirty fuels more­ expensive, it encourages utilities, businesses and individuals to reduce consumption and increase energy efficiency. 

List merits – 

Carbon tax also makes alternative energy more cost-competitive with cheaper, polluting fuels like coal, natural gas and oil. 

Carbon tax offers social and economic benefits.

 It is a tax that increases revenue without significantly altering the economy while simultaneously promoting objectives of climate change policy. 

The carbon tax is the most practical method to reduce the fossil fuel consumption. It checks the use of fossil fuel. 

It helps India to reach the committed INDC of 33% by 2030.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

A carbon tax aims to internalise the externality of climate change by setting a price on the carbon content of energy consumed or greenhouse gas emitted in the production or consumption of goods. India is taking varied efforts to curb pollution and achieve the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC) targets under the Paris climate deal. In this regard, it is essential to understand the instrumental role that carbon tax could play.

Body:

Carbon tax as a potent mitigation policy:

  • Carbon tax avoids the problems related to choosing a baseline. In a price approach, the natural baseline is a zero carbon tax.
  • A carbon tax policy will be better able to adapt to the element of uncertainty which pervades the science of climate change. Quantity limits on emissions are related to the stocks of greenhouse gas emissions, while the price limits are related to the flow of emissions.
  • From this uncertainty arises another complication of price volatility which is the reason why a carbon tax policy is likely to cause less volatility in the prices of carbon emissions
  • Carbon tax primarily discourages environment unfriendly production and consumer practices by making the ‘polluting sources’ costlier.
  • This works without any negative effect on overall employment and output levels.
  • Putting a price on carbon and taxing it directly is far better than the ‘cap and trade’ system.
  • This is because the carbon tax system has advantages due to its simplicity, affordability, transparency, revenue recycling and predictability of carbon prices.
  • It works on the principle of ‘the polluter pays’.
  • The carbon tax will essentially be a Pigovian Tax which balances the marginal social costs and benefits of additional emissions, thereby internalising the costs of environmental damage. It can act as an incentive for consumers and producers to shift to more energy-efficient sources and products.

Way forward:

  • Some countries and regions such as the U.S. and the European Union already have fairly successful carbon pricing regimes in place in the form of carbon taxes and emissions trading schemes.
  • Some other countries have introduced general taxes on energy consumption instead of direct taxes on carbon content. This can be a good starting point for a shift in policy by countries while they deliberate on a harmonised carbon tax regime.
  • India has to become a pioneer among emerging economies and impose an explicit carbon tax, and let the polluters pay.
  • Another near-term approach can be a ‘cap-and-tax’ which combines the strengths of both quantity and price approaches. Cap-and-tax might also address the concerns of environmentalists that a price-based approach does not impose hard constraints on emissions.

Conclusion:

Carbon tax is the most basic economic instrument which can be used to price carbon and combat CO2 emissions, and correct negative externalities. India should take up carbon tax as an effective policy instrument in reducing different local pollutants and achieving INDC targets.


Topic Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation.

5) What is wetland? Explain the Ramsar concept of ‘wise use’ in the context of wetland conservation. Cite two examples of Ramsar sites from India. (250 words)

previous year question, Indian geography by Majid Hussain, Environment by Shankar IAS Academy.

 

Why this question: 

The question is straightforward and is based on the concept of wetland.

Demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the concept of wetland in detail and discuss the Ramsar concept of wise use.

Directive word: 

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

Define Wetland. 

Body

Wetlands are ecotones between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. They get periodically get inundated with water. They support a flourishing community of aquatic organisms including frogs and other amphibians. Swamps, marshes and mangroves are examples of wetlands.

Then discuss that the Ramsar “Wise use concept” requires that wetlands’ ecological character should be maintained within the framework of sustainable development.

Detail on the components of the concept. And conclude with examples.

Conclusion 

Conclude with way forward and importance of such sites and conventions.

Introduction:

The Ramsar Convention on wetlands defines wetland as including a wide variety of habitats such as marshes, peatlands, floodplains, rivers and lakes, and coastal areas such as salt-marshes, mangroves, and seagrass beds, also coral reefs and other marine areas no deeper than six metres at low tide. Wetland also includes human-made wetlands such as waste-water treatment ponds and reservoirs.

Wetlands are ecotones between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. They get periodically get inundated with water. They support a flourishing community of aquatic organisms including frogs and other amphibians. Swamps, marshes and mangroves are examples of wetlands.

Body:

Ramsar “Wise use concept” requires that wetlands’ ecological character should be maintained within the framework of sustainable development. This concept recognizes that:

  • Developmental activities are inevitable in wetland areas such as construction of roads, electricity infrastructure, schools and hospitals for poor families.
  • Economic activities are also inevitable in wetland areas such as fisheries, farming and tourism.
  • Such activities aid in human development and economic development in a wetland area.
  • And for these activities, wetland’s land, water and bio-resources will have to be used.
  • However, these resources should not be used in a manner that wetland’s ecological character is harmed.

The practical applications of “Wise Use” concept are as following:

  • Use of Water: Farmers in wetland region require freshwater for cultivation of paddy, fruits and vegetables. But, it should not lead to overexploitation of freshwater else wetland’s regenerative capacity will suffer. Fish, reptiles and amphibians will die. Therefore, Government may impose legal ‘upper limits / ceiling’ on water use.
  • Use of Land: Wetlands purify air and water, they moderate adverse weather impacts and thus protect human health. However, mining, infrastructure and transportation services harm wetlands, and thereby indirectly harm human health. Hence, the ‘land’ of wetland should be generally not used for such activities.
  • Use of Biomass: Fishing is one of the primary occupations of people in Wetland area. But excessive fishing, especially during reproduction season will harm wetland’s foodweb. Hence, government may impose restriction and encourage aquaculture and ‘rice-fish’ management practices.

India currently has 27 sites designated as Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar Sites). Some of them are

  • Ashtamudi Wetland in Kerala
  • Bhitarkanika Mangroves in Odisha

Note: It is important to know all the site names from prelims and mains perspective

Conclusion:

Wetland conservation is crucial for protecting biodiversity and mitigating the adverse impacts of climate change. At the same time, due to high level of poverty & population, it’s not possible for developing countries & Least Developed Countries (LDCs) to keep wetlands in pristine conditions completely free from human activities. The “wise use” concept of Ramsar convention is a notable attempt made to strike balance between these two opposing aspects.


Topic: Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.

6) Transparency in government is desired, but absolute transparency harms the efficiency of the administration. In this context bring out the ethical aspects involved in use or misuse of RTI.(250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon publications

Reference

Reference

Why this question:

After an aborted attempt in 2018, the central government proposes to amend the Right to Information Act of 2005 (RTI Act) to change the term of office and service conditions the Chief Information Commissioner (CIC) and Information Commissioner (IC) at the central as well as state levels. These aspects are now proposed to be determined by the central government.

Key demand of the question:

Explain in detail the aspects of transparency that can go compromised when such severe steps would be taken, discuss from the ethical perspective the associated rights and wrongs.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief explain the background of the question.

Body:

Explain what are the ethical perspectives involved in RTI.

The Right to Information (Amendment) Act, 2019 proposes two fundamental changes.

One, it proposes to change the tenure of the CIC and IC at the centre and state levels from five years or until the age of 65 years at present to “for such term as may be prescribed by the Central Government”. Two, it proposes change in their salaries and allowances “as may be prescribed by the Central Government”.

Explain how these changes can effect the aspects of transparency, in what way over transparency can become harmful.

Conclusion:

Conclude by suggesting way forward.

Introduction:

Right to information has been seen as the key to strengthening participatory democracy and ushering in people centred governance. Access to information can empower the poor and the weaker sections of society to demand and get information about public policies and actions, thereby leading to their welfare. It showed an early promise by exposing wrongdoings at high places, such as in the organisation of the Commonwealth Games, and the allocation of 2G spectrum and coal blocks.

Body:

Right to information opens up government’s records to public scrutiny, thereby arming citizens with a vital tool to inform them about what the government does and how effectively, thus making the government more accountable.

The lack of transparency in Governance leads to:

  • Distorting and/or withholding public information is a blow to principles of good governance and democracy.
  • Transparency is required to make the system of public service delivery effective.
  • The public has a right to know how public institutions apply the power and resources entrusted to them.
  • It increases the gap between the information provider and the information seeker.
  • The efficiency in administration of public authorities is lowered and breeds corruption.
  • The lack of transparency in Governance has tendencies towards a despotic rule.
  • Affects Institutional Independence by asserting the views of Government on former.
  • History teaches us that more than countries being destroyed by external aggression, they have been ruined by internal decadence

Ethical aspects involved in RTI use:

  • Goes against right to privacy of people. E.g.: The medical details of AIDS patients would harm the latter’s privacy.
  • National Security issues. Certain information if exposed would breach national security and make the nation vulnerable.

The law that started with a very noble objective is gradually being subject to misuse:

  • Asking for desperate and voluminous information.
  • To attain publicity by filing RTI.
  • RTI filed as vindictive tool to harass or pressurize the public authority.
  • For one serious information seeker there are many non-serious ones. Some mischievous too. In fact, the RTI has thrown up a few new classes of people. The casual RTI seeker, the motivated, the affected and above all, the professional.
  • g.: There are cases where even PhD students are using RTI as a means to collect data for thesis. Rather than checking from the websites, they simply shoot an RTI with a Rs10 postal order and all the data is there, compiled and classified for them.

Conclusion:

Gandhi felt rights without duty will lead to confusion and chaos. RTI was enacted to ensure ethics and morality in public service. It should not become a means for unethical objectives.