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Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 22 JULY 2019


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 22 JULY 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic: Parliament and State Legislatures – structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.

1) What is a whip? Discuss the roles and functions that a chief whip would play when a government faces no-confidence motion in the lower house? (250 words)

Timesnownews

Why this question:

The question is in the backdrop of the recent doubts raised on the authority of the office of whip in the ongoing Karnataka political crisis.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss in detail the key features of the office of whip, the roles and functions performed by them.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Define that Whip is an official appointed to maintain discipline among, secure attendance of, and give necessary information to, members of his party.

Body:

Explain that In India, the party whip directs the party members to stick to the party’s stand on certain issues and directs them to vote as per the direction of senior party members. Whip cannot be used in all cases.

Then discuss the chief functions of the whip.

Explain the types of whip and implications of whip in Indian polity.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance of whip.

Introduction:

A whip in parliamentary parlance is a written order that party members be present for an important vote, or that they vote only in a particular way. The term is derived from the old British practice of “whipping in” lawmakers to follow the party line. The concept of the whip was inherited from colonial British rule. It is used in parliamentary parlance often for floor management by political parties in the legislature.

Body:

Role of Whip:

  • In India, all parties can issue a whip to their members.
  • Parties appoint a senior member from among their House contingents to issue whips.
  • This member is called a Chief Whip, and he/she is assisted by additional Whips.
  • They are vital in maintaining the links between the internal organisation of the party inside the Parliament.
  • A whip is also an important office-bearer of the party in the Parliament.

Functions of Whip:

  • The whip plays a crucial role in ensuring the smooth and efficient conduct of business on the floor of the House.
  • He is charged with the responsibility of ensuring the attendance of his party members in large numbers and securing their support in favour of or against a particular issue.
  • He ensures discipline among party members in the House.
  • He identifies the signs of discontent among MPs and informs the respective leaders of their party.
  • He or she acts as a binding force in the party and responsible for maintaining the internal party organisation in the Parliament.

Kinds of Whips:

  • A one-line whip, underlined once, is usually issued to inform party members of a vote, and allows them to abstain in case they decide not to follow the party line.
  • A two-line whip directs them to be present during the vote.
  • A three-line whip is the strongest, employed on important occasions such as the second reading of a Bill or a no-confidence motion, and places an obligation on members to toe the party line.

Defiance of Whip:

In India, rebelling against a three-line whip can put a lawmaker’s membership of the House at risk. The anti-defection law allows the Speaker/Chairperson to disqualify such a member; the only exception is when more than a third of legislators vote against a directive, effectively splitting the party.

Conclusion:

In the parliamentary form of Government, Whips of various political parties are the vital links of the internal organization of parties, inside the legislatures. The efficient and smooth functioning of Parliament and State Legislatures depends, to a considerable extent, upon the office of the Whip. The Whips can be rightly said to be the managers of the parties within the legislatures.


Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

2) “The essence of the Juvenile Justice Act of 2000 is to ensure that the trial in the regular court is offence-oriented and in the juvenile court it is offender-oriented.” How far do you think the Juvenile Justice Act of 2000 has been successful in the above aspect? Discuss.(250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question: 

The article discusses in detail the nuances of Juvenile Justice Act of 2000, the amendments to which have given scope to try a juvenile as an adult too in specific cases.

Demand of the question:

The answer must discuss in detail and provide for an analysis as to how far the act successfully achieves juvenile’s justice.

Directive word: 

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

Define what you understand by a juvenile, the definition given by the Juvenile Justice Act of 2000.

Body

First explain the basic features of the act.

Then move on to explain the circumstances when a juvenile is tried as an adult, when not. The Juvenile Justice Act of 2000 was amended in 2015 with a provision allowing for Children in Conflict with Law (CCL) to be tried as adults under certain circumstances.

The amended Act distinguishes children in the age group 16-18 as a category which can be tried as adults if they are alleged to have committed a heinous offence — one that attracts a minimum punishment of seven years. The Act does not, however, make it mandatory for all children in this age group to be tried as adults. With above points form a fair and balanced opinion.

Conclusion 

Conclude with way forward and significance of such landmark acts.

Introduction:

The Juvenile Justice Act of 2000 was amended in 2015 with a provision allowing for Children in Conflict with Law (CCL) to be tried as adults under certain circumstances. In 2016, a 17-year-old was booked for the murder of his three-year-old neighbour in Mumbai. The Mumbai city Juvenile Justice Board as well as a children’s court directed that he be tried as an adult under the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection) Act, 2015. Last week, the Bombay High Court set aside these orders and directed that the accused be tried as a minor, saying the Act is reformative and not retributive.

Body:

Provision of JJ Act:

  • The Act defines a child as someone who is under age 18. For a CCL, age on the date of the offence is the basis for determining whether he or she was a child or an adult.
  • The amended Act distinguishes children in the age group 16-18 as a category which can be tried as adults if they are alleged to have committed a heinous offence — one that attracts a minimum punishment of seven years.
  • The Act does not, however, make it mandatory for all children in this age group to be tried as adults.

Criteria for trying a child as an adult:

As per Section 15 of the JJ Act, there are three criteria that the Juvenile Justice Board in the concerned district should consider while conducting a preliminary assessment to determine whether the child should be tried as an adult or under the juvenile justice system, which prescribes a maximum term of three years in a special home. The criteria are:

  • Whether the child has the mental and physical capacity to commit such an offence.
  • Whether the child has the ability to understand its consequences.
  • The circumstances in which the offence was committed.

If the Board finds that the child can be tried as an adult, the case is transferred to a designated children’s court, which again decides whether the Board’s decision is correct.

Evaluation of JJ Act:

  • The statute permits a child of 16 years and above to stand trial as an adult in case of heinous offence, it did not mean that all those children should be subjected to adult punishment.
  • Essentially, the trial in the regular court is offence-oriented; in the juvenile court, it is offender-oriented.
  • In other words, in the children’s court, societal safety and the child’s future are balanced.
  • For an adult offender, prison is the default opinion; for a juvenile it is the last resort.

Conclusion:

The improvement of the juvenile justice system is a gradual process, which requires intensive and continual follow-up as well as long-term commitment rather than a series of ‘ad hoc’ exercises and ‘knee-jerk’ responses. The decision of the Bombay high court is of great significance as children in conflict with law need to be reformed than be given retributive justice. This would help them become better citizens of India.


Topic:Awareness in the fields of IT, Space

3) Do you agree that the country must deregulate the space sector to encourage private enterprise so as to compete in the new space economy? Analyse.(250 words) 

Livemint

Why this question:

The article throws light upon space as an emerging economy and the rising strides of competition.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must focus on importance of deregulating the space sector and allowing the private sector to play key role in contributing to the space economy.

Directive:

Critically analyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Discuss the background of the question.

Body:

Explain how private sector carries with it huge potential to propel the space economy, How has the role of the private sector evolved over the years? Quote the example of SpaceX and with these changing trends how have the regulatory framework shaping up etc.

Take cues from the article and form a structured answer.

Conclusion:

Conclude by reasserting importance of the space economy and role of deregulation of the sector.

Introduction:

India has been achieving great feats in the space arena ranging from Mangalyaan to launching 104 satellites at one go to the recent Chandrayaan 2 mission. However, it is ironic that India—whose space-faring tradition is decidedly in the service of human development—is lagging in harnessing the power of private innovation in the space domain. This not only limits the exploitation of space for economic development, but has serious national security implications.

Body:

India’s space program

Potential advantages of rising Space industry:

  • Adding an edge to India’s foreign policy as our space capabilities can be a part of our initiatives to foster new relationships,
  • Avoiding the outflow of tax-payer’s money to foreign hands from where we procure turnkey products and services,
  • Creating more opportunities for foreign direct investments (FDI), as well as new jobs for highly-skilled labour market,
  • Empowering India’s defence system by equipping it with space technology, and allowing armed forces to procure defence products and services indigenously, and
  • Reversing the brain-drain from India.

Challenges for private space entities in India:

  • Monopoly: In India ‘Space’ means Indian Space Research Organisation. Globally the technology is highly protected because of its dual use capability. Even if it was not, it would be prohibitively expensive.
  • Funding: A major challenge in setting up a space business in India is funding. Space industry is capital intensive and upstream activities come with a long gestation period.
  • Investor’s Dilemma: The lack of clarity among the investors and lack of the ecosystem required for significant contribution is a challenge for the investors.
  • Lack of Regulation: India is a party to the Outer Space Treaty, where one of the fundamental requirements laid upon states is the supervision of space activities within its borders, the country did not have any formally legislated laws. This is a potential roadblock for commercialization.
  • Growth Challenges: Scaling up, international marketing and funding are challenges.
  • Lack of Support: the Indian ecosystem has neither incubation support nor pointers to seek support of leaders such as ISRO for space start-ups.
  • Political and bureaucratic hurdles limit private space operations in India.
  • Low in-house capacity of ISRO restricts them to very few launches in a year. Privatization can offload 30-40% of the work and help them work more efficiently.

Way forward:

  • India should have national space activities legislation which takes on board all stakeholders.
  • A public-private partnership (PPP) model can be looked into to realise ISRO’s workhorse Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV), with a joint venture between ISRO and the private sector.
  • In the UK, space ventures are treated as a complement to big organizations and not a competitor. This should be encouraged in India too.
  • A supportive international partner and likeminded local partners helps to set up a space business.
  • The idea should be to let the private industry build their own facilities after gaining enough expertise.
  • ISRO has built a space technology park spread over 25 acres in Bengaluru where the entire range of facilities have been set up for use by the industry.

Conclusion:

The private sector already supplies majority of the sub-systems in satellite manufacturing. This can be further scaled up into other activities with proper regulation and partnership of the ISRO and private sector. The country must deregulate the space sector to encourage private enterprise if we are to compete in the new space economy


Topic:Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

4) Discuss the key features of Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI) also bring out the key findings’ of 2019 edition. (250 words)

Reference

Why this question:

The question is based on the theme of CCPI and the key findings of 2019 edition.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss in detail the relevance of the report, features and its major highlights.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

The Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI) is an instrument covering 58 countries and supposed to enhance transparency in international climate politics.

Body:

The 2019 edition of the Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI)has been released which illustrates regional differences in climate protection and performance within the 56 evaluated countries and the EU.

No country performed well enough to reach the ranking ‘very good’ in this year’s index.

Explain that Its aim is to encourage political and social pressure on those countries which have, up to now, failed to take ambitious actions on climate protection as well as to highlight countries with best-practice climate policies.

Discuss the highlights and bring out the performance reported for India.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance of the findings.

Introduction:

The Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI) is an instrument covering 58 countries and supposed to enhance transparency in international climate politics. It is an annual publication by Germanwatch, NewClimate Institute and Climate Action Network Europe. Its aim is to encourage political and social pressure on those countries which have, up to now, failed to take ambitious actions on climate protection as well as to highlight countries with best-practice climate policies.

Body:

Key features:

  • The top three positions of the CCPI 2019 are still unoccupied, because none of the 56 countries or the EU are clearly on a well below 2°C pathway in their overall performance.
  • The four categories examined are: GHG emissions (40%), renewable energy (20%), energy use (20%) and climate policy (20%).
  • The latter is based on expert assessments by NGOs and think tanks from the respective countries.
  • The CCPI also evaluates to what extent the respective countries are taking adequate action within the categories emissions, renewables and energy use to being on track towards the global Paris-goal of limiting global warming to well below 2°C.
  • Therefore, the CCPI is an important tool in contributing to a clearer understanding of national and international climate policy.

Key findings of CCPI 2019:

Global Performance:

  • Morocco has been named the second best performing country after Sweden in the Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI).
  • With the connection of the world’s largest solar plant to the grid, Morocco is on track for achieving its target of 42% installed renewable energy capacities by 2020.
  • Sweden is in top position, followed by Morocco and Lithuania in the CCPI 2019.
  • The bottoms five in the list are Saudi Arabia, U.S., Iran, South Korea and Taiwan.

India’s Performance:

  • India ranks 11th in this year’s CCPI, improving its standing by three places compared to the previous edition.
  • Most notably India improved its performance in the Renewable Energy category, joining the group of medium
  • However, national experts argue that plans to build new coal-fired power plants may pose a risk of offsetting positive developments in the renewable energy sector.
  • Comparatively low levels of per capita GHG emissions and a relatively ambitious mitigation target for 2030 give India an overall high rating in the emissions category.

Conclusion:

While there is a continued growth and competitiveness of renewable energy, especially in countries that had low shares before, the CCPI shows a lack of political will of most governments to phase out fossil fuels with the necessary speed. Because of that, in most countries the climate policy evaluation by national experts is significantly lower than in the last years.


Topic Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

5) Analyse the reasons behind India’s problem of e-waste and provide an account for the ineffectiveness of the rules.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question:

The article provides a closer look at the menace of e-waste that India is facing.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must look into the reasons leading to the problems of e-waste with special emphasis on the ineffectiveness of rules and regulations dealing with it.

Directive:

analyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Discuss in brief what you understand by e-wastes, how are they generated etc.

Body:

Introduce briefly e-waste problem through relevant facts.

Enumerate causes of e-waste.

Describe the reasons for the failures of e-waste guidelines to control the problem.

Explain that when E-waste are dismantled and disposed unscientifically, they release extremely harmful gases or large particulates into environment causing hazardous air pollution causing severe health hazards.

Thus, there is need to implement the E-waste management rules 2016 effectively and deal with the problem of e-waste more holistically with proper monitoring mechanisms in place.

Conclusion:

Conclude by suggesting way ahead, suggest solutions at policy level, technology level etc.

Introduction:

A recent UN report titled ‘A new circular vision for electronics’ warned that ‘Tsunami of e-waste’ was to hit the world soon. The report notes that the waste stream has already reached 48.5 million tonnes (MT) in 2018 and the figure is expected to double if nothing changes. In India, e-Waste accounts for 70% of the landfills. (2011 Rajya Sabha Secretariat Study). By 2050, India will likely stare at a pile of a new category of electronic waste, namely solar e-waste.  India’s PV (photovoltaic) waste volume is estimated to grow to 200,000 tonnes by 2030 and around 1.8 million tonnes by 2050.

Body:

The root causes of India’s e-Waste problem are:

  • e- Waste is technically all waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) discarded without the intent of use.
  • It comprises not just electronic items, but also all electrical equipment that involves anything with a plug, electric cord or battery.
  • In recent years, e-waste has grown faster than earlier anticipated. By 2021, the annual total volume is expected to surpass 52 MT, considering the fact that the number of devices connected to the internet is going to be between 25-50 billion by 2020. By 2050, the volume of e-waste in the worst-case scenario, could top 120 MT annually.
  • In India, e waste accounts for 4% of global e-waste and 2.5% of global GDP (2014 figures) – so it has a higher share of e-waste than its share of gross domestic product (GDP).
  • The informal sector manages about 95% of the e-Waste in India. Due to the informal and crude processing techniques, the soil, water and air are polluted to a beyond-repairable level. Example: Moradabad and Seelampur.
  • The hard-to-recover substances from e-waste like mercury, arsenic make their home in landfills and keep leaching into ground water.
  • Incineration is one of the most practiced methods of recycling leading to high carbon emissions and poisoning of air with toxic gases.
  • The poor implementation of Extended Producer Responsibility as mandated under e-Waste Management Rules, 2016 is another challenge.
  • The export of e-Waste from developed countries is another growing problem despite regulations under Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal.

Causes for failure of rules and regulations for e-Waste:

  • India has 19 PROs (producer responsibility organisations), which are hired for collection as of today but there is no level playing field.
  • There is no independent mechanism to verify if EPR is being implemented. The law mandates random inspections by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) and state PCBs, but there’s no record of them.
  • The issues of how to address the ones using the products: how do you get people to hand back their products in a reasonable way.
  • The lack of companies’ initiative to build an image of a responsible actor, of someone consumers can believe in.
  • Customer care representatives do not have inkling about any take back or recycling programme and even if they have set up collection centres, they are simply not enough for a geographically vast country like India.
  • India being a vast country, setting up collection mechanism is a big challenge. If any of the brands try individually to reach out to all corners of the country, it will economically not be sustainable or feasible.

Measures to control the e-Waste growth:

  • Unified effort: The report calls for systematic collaboration with major brands, small and medium-sized enterprises, academia, trade unions, civil society and associations in a deliberative process to reorient the system and reduce the waste of resources each year with a value greater than the GDP of most countries.
  • Holistic management: To capture the global value of materials in e-waste and create global circular value chains, use new technology to create service business models, better product tracking and manufacturer or retailer take-back programmes.
  • Scaling up recycling: The report notes that material efficiency, recycling infrastructure and scaling up the volume and quality of recycled materials to meet the needs of electronics supply chains will all be essential for future production.
  • Incentivization: The producers should also have buy-back or return offers for old equipment, and plans to incentivise the consumer financially. The report also advocates a system of ‘urban mining’ by strengthening the extended producer responsibility provision.
  • Job potential: If the electronics sector is supported with the right policy mix and managed in the right way, it could lead to the creation of millions of decent jobs worldwide.
  • Awareness & Education: there is an acute lack of awareness among people as they simply don’t know that there exist collection centres that collect items for recycling. The law will fail to serve the purpose unless these changes are made on the ground.

Conclusion:

A strong political will is required to come out with strict regulations to manage e waste in India. Increased public awareness is the need of hour. It is now to be seen how the stakeholders who turned a blind eye to the rules so far, proceed ahead.


Topic: Morality

6) What is international morality? Discuss its relevance in international politics. (250 words)

Why this question:

The question is based on the theme of international morality.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the concept of international morality in detail and its relevance in international politics.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin with definition of international morality.

Body:

International Morality consists of moral principles which are endorsed by a number of nations. The rules of customary International Law reflect International Morality. One of the major sources and sanctions of International Law has been International Morality. 

Explain that the behaviour of states is regulated by International Law and International Morality, the former as the legal code and the latter as the moral code. Both these codes constitute important and valuable limitations on the national power of each state and, as such, perform the essential function of maintaining order in international relations.

Discuss its relevance in international politics.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

International Morality consists of moral principles which are endorsed by a number of nations. The rules of customary International Law reflect International Morality. One of the major sources and sanctions of International Law has been International Morality.

Body:

The Charter of the United Nations reflects International Morality in many of its provisions, for example, in calling for respect of human rights and fundamental freedoms without discrimination as to race, sex, language or religion. The moral desirability of peace is formally affirmed almost universally, though with provisions and conditions attached. War is now recognized as immoral and even when it has to be resorted to, the nations accept and follow limits on methods of waging it.” Thus there exists an international code of moral values which is popularly called International Morality.

Relevance in International politics:

International Morality is a factor which influences the role of international decision makers and acts as a limiting factor of national power. Three Dimensions of Role of International Morality:

  • Protection of Human Life in Peace: Previously, nations could adopt any method for securing this objective. They could use mass or selected killings as a means. But today, under the pressure of International Morality, no nation can resort to such means. Gone are the days when men like Hitler and Mussolini could use immoral methods for achieving political ends. Now moral limitations act as strong barriers against immoral means. Respect for human life is now a sacred principle of international living.
  • Protection of Human Life in War: Even during a war, nations continue to respect the right to life of the civilians and non-combatants. Gone are the days when belligerents were considered to be free to kill all enemies, whether or not they were members of the armed forces, or else to treat them in any way they deemed fit. Now moral restraints prevent them from undertaking senseless and brutal killings.
  • Moral Condemnation of War: Finally, since 1945, the attitude towards war itself has reflected an ever increasing awareness on the part of most statesmen that certain moral limitations definitely restrict the use of war as an instrument of foreign policy. The avoidance of war itself, became an aim of statecraft in late 19th century. The two Hague Peace Conferences of 1899 and 1907, the League of Nations of 1914, the Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928 and the United Nations, all have accepted the avoidance of war as an objective.

Conclusion:

Thus, International Morality plays an important role in international relations of our times. It has been acting as a limiting factor of national power. The realization towards the need for preserving international peace and for directing efforts towards the promotion of universal human welfare has increased the importance of morality in international relations.


Topic:  Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

7) A nuclear war cannot be won and must never be fought. The only value in possessing nuclear weapons is to make sure they will never be used. But then would it not be better to do away with them entirely? Critically analyse the statement from ethical perspective.(250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon publications

Why this question:

The question is based on the war ethics and principles and is about nuclear deterrence.

Key demand of the question:

Explain the ethical perspectives involved in the question statement and in what way doing away with nuclear weapon is the ultimate end and road to peace of the world.

Directive:

Critically analyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Discuss the essence of the question statement.

Body:

The statement was given by Ronald Reagan. He saw that nuclear deterrence was flawed in its very essence and that this error had led to a whole edifice of reasoning about deterrence that also was flawed.

Nuclear weapons were, and are, the gravest threat to humanity’s survival. Their effect in preventing wars has been overrated and reports of the damage they cause tend to be brushed aside. 

New studies show the major impact of their use on the climate and agriculture beyond all the other effects that we knew about previously.

Thus, conclude that nothing can make such wars ethical or moral.

Conclusion:

Conclude that “a nuclear war cannot be won and must never be fought.” The statement holds true even today and as well in future.

Introduction:

Ronald Reagan coined the phrase and Gorbachev endorsed it at their Geneva Summit.  Yet, at that time, and to this day, both powers retain the option of initiating nuclear war.  Not all nuclear powers retain that option; India and China have both renounced it from the moment each acquired nuclear weapons. However, today all the P5 nations and others like India, Pakistan, Israel, Iran possess the nuclear weapons which if triggered could obliterate the human existence on world.

Body:

Countries must do away with nuclear weapons completely:

  • Nuclear weapons were, and are, the gravest threat to humanity’s survival.
  • The horrors of nuclear war still ring in the minds of people as seen during the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings during the 2nd world war.
  • Their effect in preventing wars has been overrated and reports of the damage they cause tend to be brushed aside.
  • New studies show the major impact of their use on the climate and agriculture beyond all the other effects that we knew about previously.
  • To depend on nuclear deterrence indefinitely into the future, especially when other means of deterrence are available, is foolhardy.
  • Possessing nuclear weapons by a country will propel the neighbours also to possess the nuclear weapons, in turn leading to proliferation.
  • If the nuclear weapons come under the control of non-state and anti-state actors, it could pose grave threats given the instability and enmity in the world.

However, countries still possess nuclear weapons:

  • The possession of nuclear weapon is considered as national security measure.
  • Utilitarianism claims that, “the aim of action should be the largest possible balance of pleasure over pain or the greatest happiness of the greatest number.”
  • Therefore, the fundamental basis of this principle is that agents, in this case military strategists, should strive to produce the greatest amount of long-term satisfaction or pleasure for people as possible.
  • It is nearly impossible to calculate a quantitative outcome by comparing deterrence with disarmament. This is because it is hard to calculate the probability of what action the opponent is going to choose.
  • Even if a country possesses nuclear weapons, but is against using them, there is nothing preventing aggressor nations with the same technological capabilities from using them.

Conclusion:

Nuclear deterrence in itself can be viewed as an immoral act on the grounds that it is putting the lives of innocent civilians at stake. Further, disarmament can be seen as the moral alternative to deterrence because the worst possible outcome is less catastrophic than if deterrence proved unsuccessful and the retaliating country is forced to attack.