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[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 26 July 2019

[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 26  July 2019

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INSIGHTS NEW SECURE – 2019: YEARLONG TIMETABLE

 

Tomorrow’s Static Topic: Disaster and disaster management


General Studies – 1


Topic:  women, Social empowerment

1) “Gender based segregation in the job market may be limiting women’s economic empowerment in India”. Critically analyse.(250 words)

Economic times

Why this question:

The question aims to examine the correlation between Job prospects available for women and vis-à-vis economic empowerment.

Key demand of the question:

The answer should examine in what way segregated jobs in the market based on gender factor can hinder the economic development of women in India.

Directive:

Critically analyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief explain what you understand by gender-based segregation of jobs.

Body:

One can start by quoting facts showing decline in the proportion of working women that has witnessed a sharp decline.

Explain that the key factors that have limited the role of women in the Indian economy: the role of entrenched gender norms in our society, the rising incomes of men (which raises family income and makes it easier for women to quit working), and the lack of quality jobs for women.

Quote more such factors that directly or indirectly impact the empowerment factor of women in India.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.


General Studies – 3


Topic:Disaster and disaster management.

2) Discuss the role of Information Technology in disaster prevention. (250 words)

NIOS notes on disaster management

Why this question:

The question expects us to bring out the role of various facets of Information and technology in prevention of disasters as well as in managing the aftermath of disaster. 

Key demand of the question:

The answer must talk about role played by technology in effectively managing and preventing disasters.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin with brief introduction on what are disasters.

Body:

Discussion should include the following: 

Define disaster management- e.g Disaster management is a systematic process with primary aim to reduce the negative consequences and effect of disasters, hence safeguarding people and social infrastructure.

Discuss in points, how big data can play a role in disaster management. E.g Big data generated from geo-informatics and remote sensing platforms can contribute to early warning systems for disasters. Geographical Information Systems (GIS), Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and environmental monitoring sensors with cloud services have a potential to predict disasters; Geoinformatics information along with transportation network data can benefit to understand human mobility patterns during disasters; social data sets; financial data sets etc.

Also discuss the role of internet etc. in disaster handling.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.


Topic:  Disaster and disaster management.

3) The ingenuity of the Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI) clearly reflects India’s commitment in promoting disaster resilient infrastructure and next major foreign policy innovation. Elucidate.(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question:

This article covers “Will India’s idea on disaster management gain global support”. It talks about the prospects of Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure. Indian Prime Minister, at the Hamburg G20 meet in 2017, proposed Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI). It may be taken up at the G7 meet next month in Biarritz, where India has been invited by hosts France, along with Australia, Chile and South Africa.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the concept in detail and the significance of it in managing disasters.

Directive:

ElucidateGive a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Describe what is ‘ Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure’.  

Body:

Each time a natural disaster occurs anywhere in the world, countries try to provide immediate relief, but there is no focus on building disaster-resilient Infrastructure.

In this context, Indian PM proposed CDRI which will act as a convening body that will pool best practices and resources from around the world for reshaping construction, transportation, energy, telecommunication and water, so that building in these core infrastructure sectors factors in natural catastrophes.

CDRI could fill this gap of funds and technology and help developing countries to build disaster-resilient Infrastructure.

For instance, India is a world leader in preventing human deaths due to disasters. The United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR) has praised India’s zero casualty approach and playing a pioneering role model for global community for drawing up a national and local strategy to reduce disaster losses and risks.

Conclusion:

Conclude that India’s initiative for Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure will help in the development of appropriate infrastructure to face the least developed and developing countries with natural calamities.


Topic:  Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

4) Discuss the concept of carbon tax, also analyse to what extent it can prove to be an effective policy instrument in achieving INDC targets for India.(250 words)

Financialexpress

Why this question:

 The question is based on the concept of carbon tax and the utility of the same as an effective policy instrument.

Key demand of the question:

One must detail on the concept of carbon tax and list down its advantages and potential.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Define what is carbon tax.

Body:

Carbon tax is a form of pollution tax. It levies a fee on the production, distribution or use of fossil fuels based on how much carbon their combustion emits. The government sets a price per ton on carbon, and then translates it into a tax on electricity, natural gas or oil. Because the tax makes using dirty fuels more­ expensive, it encourages utilities, businesses and individuals to reduce consumption and increase energy efficiency. 

List merits – 

Carbon tax also makes alternative energy more cost-competitive with cheaper, polluting fuels like coal, natural gas and oil. 

Carbon tax offers social and economic benefits.

 It is a tax that increases revenue without significantly altering the economy while simultaneously promoting objectives of climate change policy. 

The carbon tax is the most practical method to reduce the fossil fuel consumption. It checks the use of fossil fuel. 

It helps India to reach the committed INDC of 33% by 2030.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.


Topic Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation.

5) What is wetland? Explain the Ramsar concept of ‘wise use’ in the context of wetland conservation. Cite two examples of Ramsar sites from India. (250 words)

previous year question, Indian geography by Majid Hussain, Environment by Shankar IAS Academy.

 

Why this question: 

The question is straightforward and is based on the concept of wetland.

Demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the concept of wetland in detail and discuss the Ramsar concept of wise use.

Directive word: 

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

Define Wetland. 

Body

Wetlands are ecotones between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. They get periodically get inundated with water. They support a flourishing community of aquatic organisms including frogs and other amphibians. Swamps, marshes and mangroves are examples of wetlands.

Then discuss that the Ramsar “Wise use concept” requires that wetlands’ ecological character should be maintained within the framework of sustainable development.

Detail on the components of the concept. And conclude with examples.

Conclusion 

Conclude with way forward and importance of such sites and conventions.


General Studies – 4


Topic: Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.

6) Transparency in government is desired, but absolute transparency harms the efficiency of the administration. In this context bring out the ethical aspects involved in use or misuse of RTI.(250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon publications

Reference

Reference

Why this question:

After an aborted attempt in 2018, the central government proposes to amend the Right to Information Act of 2005 (RTI Act) to change the term of office and service conditions the Chief Information Commissioner (CIC) and Information Commissioner (IC) at the central as well as state levels. These aspects are now proposed to be determined by the central government.

Key demand of the question:

Explain in detail the aspects of transparency that can go compromised when such severe steps would be taken, discuss from the ethical perspective the associated rights and wrongs.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief explain the background of the question.

Body:

Explain what are the ethical perspectives involved in RTI.

The Right to Information (Amendment) Act, 2019 proposes two fundamental changes.

One, it proposes to change the tenure of the CIC and IC at the centre and state levels from five years or until the age of 65 years at present to “for such term as may be prescribed by the Central Government”. Two, it proposes change in their salaries and allowances “as may be prescribed by the Central Government”.

Explain how these changes can effect the aspects of transparency, in what way over transparency can become harmful.

Conclusion:

Conclude by suggesting way forward.


Topic:  Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.

7) Can an ethical act be determined by its ‘intent’? or it should be determined by the ‘consequences’ it produces? What is more desirable for ethics applied to public administration? Discuss.(250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon publications

Why this question:

The question seeks to analyse ethics based on means and ethics based on ends as applied to public administration.

Key demand of the question:

Explain in detail the two aspects and how they can be applied to public administration.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief discuss importance of ethics in public administration.

Body:

There are two major schools in ethical theory. Deontological school: This school states that all knowledge about the world is limited and uncertain – therefore ethics cannot be grounded on the basis of knowledge about the world, but must be motivated by the will to act ethically, and therefore the intent of the action is superior to the consequences of the action. Immanuel Kant used this theory to conceptualise the categorical imperative. 

Teleological theory: This school agrees that all knowledge is uncertain and limited; but states that we should make goals that are based upon the existing knowledge and all acts which are done in pursuit of those goals qualify as ethical.

 Therefore, acts are adjudged as ethical based upon the consequences they produce. JS Mill and Utilitarian principles are prime examples of this school.

 For an ethics of public administration neither of the two extremes can be adopted – neither can an administrator overestimate his certainty on the matter and act without any skepticism, nor can she reject all factual certainties and act only on principles. She has to train her moral and cognitive faculties to use both these methods, and exercise the good judgment of which one to use when.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

We suggest you to Compliment Secure with Insights Daily Current Affairs to comprehensively cover Mains GS Syllabus

 

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