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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 18 JULY 2019


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 18 JULY 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic: Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary; Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.

1) The recent decision of SC in case of Karnataka to Members of the Assembly of non-compelling participation in the proceedings of the ongoing session of the House, holds utmost constitutional relevance and importance, but it may also open a Pandora box for wider concerns. Comment(250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question:

The question is in the backdrop of recent political crisis surrounding the State of Karnataka.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must analyse the SC order and the possible repercussions it may have in future in such situations.

Directive:

Commenthere we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Describe briefly the verdict of the SC in this context.

Body:

The answer should start with appreciation of the judgement of the apex court.

The order noted that the hearing of the plea had raised the issue of whether resignations submitted by MLAs at a point of time earlier than petitions for their disqualification under the Tenth Schedule (anti-defection law) of the Constitution should be decided first or whether both should be taken up simultaneously or the disqualification proceedings should have precedence over the requests for resignation.

Discuss the possible nuances of the order and analyse the role of speaker and functioning of the constitutional mechanism.

Explain what can be the possible issues or challenges.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance of the order.

Introduction:

In the wake of political crisis in Karnataka, the SC bench of CJI Ranjan Gogoi, Justices Deepak Gupta and Aniruddha Bose passed an interim order giving Speaker as much time as he required to decide on resignations, and permitting the MLAs to stay out of the House proceedings, if they choose to do so, until further orders. In the name of maintaining ‘ constitutional balance’, the Court passed an order nullifying the effect of Clause 2(b) of Schedule 10 of the Constitution.

Body:

The Bench described its order as a “prudent” interim exercise and a deft balancing act in the face of “conflicting and competing” rights of the Speaker and the dissident MLAs. The court said the interim order is only meant to maintain the constitutional balance between the authority of the Speaker and the rights of the rebel MLAs.

Pros of the order:

  • Supreme Court said it should not shackle the Speaker’s authority. He should be allowed to arrive at a decision on the resignations at an “appropriate time”.
  • Upholding the right of speaker to decide on the matter of defecting MLA’s and right of legislators to whether sit or abstain from trust vote has once again reflected on judicial pragmatism and maturity.
  • Supreme Court order reinforces the positional strength of the speaker of the house , however, now it is up to the speaker to ensure the trust of the democracy is not jeopardised and must therefore act in good faith.
  • The order ensures to uphold the sanctity of the legislative institution and maintain the doctrine of separation of powers, as upheld in the basic structure.
  • SC has ensured to protect itself from judicial overreach and thereby not undermining the role of speaker and the decision of the house
  • It gives primacy to fundamental right of freedom (article 19) of the legislatures. Hence, it gives respect to independent choice of the legislatures.
  • Article 190-3(B) gives choice of the resignation to the legislatures by writing to the speaker.
  • The order restricts the practice of treating individual legislatures as dummy by their respective political parties

The order opens a Pandora’s Box:

  • The liberty given by the apex court to dissident legislators will in effect enable them to defy any party whip issued to them to attend the trust vote, and thereby to ward off any consequences of disqualification.
  • Clause 2 (b) of the Tenth Schedule mandates that a legislator is liable for defection if he or she “votes or abstains from voting in such House contrary to any direction issued by the political party to which he belongs or by any person or authority authorised by it in this behalf…”
  • Supreme Court’s order has empowered the legislators to act against Clause 2(b) of Schedule 10. In other words, the order has extinguished the impact of Clause 2(b) of Schedule 10 of the Constitution.
  • The SC order deprives the political parties of the power to issue party whips to their members to attend the trust vote session. It has curtailed the party’s right under the 10th Schedule.
  • The court said the Speaker, once he had taken a call on the resignations, should place his decision before the court.
  • This shows that the decision of the Speaker and any legal issues sprouting from it would certainly be open for adjudication before the Supreme Court in future.
  • The court’s order may act as an impetus for the Speaker to take a quick call on the pending disqualification as well as resignation of the MLAs.
  • It doesn’t address politically motivated defections.

Way forward:

  • The dissident MLAs risk nothing other than their seats, certainly not the opportunity to join the Cabinet of a successor government.
  • When the court takes up the substantive questions of law for adjudication, it should squarely address the new-found interplay between issues of resignation and disqualification, lest it become a perennial source of political controversy.

Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation. 

2)  “The idea of lateral entry into the administrative Services would energies Indian administration.” What are its possible advantages and limitations? Elucidate.(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question:

 The government wants to parachute private sector experts into India’s bureaucracy, the question intends to inquire into the workableness of the idea of lateral entry.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must evaluate the pros and cons of lateral entry into Indian administrative services.

Directive:

ElucidateGive a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start with your understanding on what is lateral entry.

Body:

Explain that the issue of lateral entry into civil services at mid-level positions of the Union government has received much attention recently.

Then discuss the need for lateral entry of outside specialists into the middle rung of Indian bureaucracy.

Provide for some Argument Against or Disadvantages of Lateral Entry into Civil Services.

Suggest How to Make Lateral Entry into Civil Services a Success Story.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

The lateral entry mode, which pertains to the appointment of specialists from private sector in government organisations, is an attempt by the government to bring in fresh talent into the bureaucracy. While the nine lateral entrants, all set to join government soon, the latest attempt to reform the bureaucracy has raised more questions than answers

Body:

Possible advantages:

  • Civil servants enter public service as generalists and have grassroots realities. Building specific domain expertise starts quite late for career bureaucrats.
  • To bring in fresh ideas and new approaches to governance. Expert advice and opinion for efficient administration and fulfilling the aspirations of people
  • The present system of frequent and arbitrary transfers hinders gaining of the relevant experience by incumbent officers. They spend less than 16 months, on average, in any post; and studies shows only 24% of postings are viewed as “merit-based” by bureaucrats themselves.
  • Former instances :
    • Lateral entry into finance ministry produced illustrious public servants like Manmohan Singh, Montek Singh Ahluwalia and Vijay Kelkar etc.
  • Outside talent from the private sector is more likely to be target-oriented, which will improve the performance of the government.
  • Lateral entry scheme, if implemented properly, may foster more competitive spirit, break the complacency of the higher civil servants and eventually prove to be a pioneering initiative in public interest.
  • Question often raised in this context is whether the higher bureaucracy is equipped to comprehend complex economic and technical issues in order to properly aid and advise the Minister. Doubts are raised whether civil servants can handle diverse portfolios from civil aviation to power to defence.
  • The three-year action agenda released by NITI Aayog in August 2017 said “policymaking is a specialized activity” and “lateral entry will have the beneficial side effect of bringing competition to the established career bureaucracy”.
  • Lateral entry at the level of Secretary has met with some success earlier:
    • Besides, Secretaries to the Departments of Atomic Energy, Science & Technology, Scientific and Industrial Research, Health Research, and Agricultural Research have always been scientists of eminence.
    • Similarly, in departments like the Railways, Posts, etc., all senior positions are manned by Indian Railway or Postal Service officers. Therefore, there is nothing very original in the new initiative to allow entry at the level of Joint Secretary.

However, it has challenges too:

  • Many serving Indian Administrative Service (IAS) officers see this move as threatening their hegemony.
  • Experts criticize this move as the beginning of the end of a neutral and impartial civil service with the likely induction of loyalists to the current dispensation.
  • Doubts have been expressed if private business houses would plant their people in order to influence government policies.
  • Differences in work culture may often come in the way.
  • The width and depth of field experience which the civil services provide is not available with outside talent.
  • Interests and motivation vary from person to person. Therefore, short term entry of officers through lateral entry might lead to corrupt practices.
  • The private sector who ran Air India, Indian Airlines and Vayudoot proved to be failures.
  • Lateral entry into civil services undermines reservation policy.
  • If a person from a private infrastructure company is appointed in an infra ministry it will lead to questions of morality, ethics and conflict of interest.”
  • Lack of transparency, honesty and political interference in the selection process.
  • Nobody knows why a particular individual was selected and why others more qualified were left out.
  • It is difficult to assess the performance of a secretary to the government due to complex nature of the job. So it would be difficult to measure the performance of lateral entrants.
  • If the selection is politically motivated, it may degrade the system.

Way forward:

  • Government must ensure that only candidates, the likes of whom are not available in the existing system, are appointed. If they turn out to be truly outstanding, there should be provisions to induct them permanently in the government, with approval of the UPSC, and consider them for higher postings.
  • Government must also allow deputation of its officers to private sector as well so that they get

exposure to market practices and fresh ideas.

  • The remedy lies not through lateral induction but through more rigorous performance appraisal

and improved personnel management.

  • The government can consider lateral entry to head certain mission-mode projects and public-sector entities where private-sector expertise actually matters.
  • The process of selection needs to be transparent.
  • A credible statutory agency like UPSC should be entrusted with the responsibility of recruitment.

Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.  Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

3) Do you think Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code can emerge as the lynchpin for resolving stressed assets in a time-bound manner? Critically analyse. (250 words)

Livemint

Why this question: 

The Central government introduced the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC) in 2016 to resolve claims involving insolvent companies. This was intended to tackle the bad loan problems that were affecting the banking system. Two years on the IBC has succeeded in a large measure in preventing corporates from defaulting on their loans. The IBC process has changed the debtor-creditor relationship.

Demand of the question:

The answer must analyse in detail the merits and demerits of Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC).

Directive word: 

Critically analyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

Define the basic features of Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC).

Body

Explain that Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016 is considered as one of the biggest insolvency reforms in the economic history of India.

  This was enacted for reorganization and insolvency resolution of corporate persons, partnership firms and individuals in a time bound manner for maximization of the value of assets of such persons.

Then discuss the objectives of the IBC, explain the key aspects, the successes, challenges in implementation etc.

Conclusion 

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

The Government of India implemented the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC) to consolidate all laws related to insolvency and bankruptcy and to tackle Non-Performing Assets (NPA), a problem that has been pulling the Indian economy down for years. The Union cabinet’s approval of amendments to the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC) to enhance its efficacy could bring relief to banks, foreign investors and others worried about the impact that quasi-judicial interpretations of the code’s grey areas might have on the country’s credit systems.

Body:

Yes, IBC is the lynchpin:

  • Unified law: The interest of all parties i.e. lenders, borrowers and even operational creditors is now addressed under a unified law under the IBC.
  • Changed behavior of defaulters: The IBC has given more teeth to lenders and has changed the credit behavior of borrowers. Now, there is a heartening trend of defaulters paying up dues before the case is admitted for insolvency under IBC.
  • Shift of control from debtor to creditor: IBC proposes a paradigm shift from the existing ‘Debtor in possession’ to a ‘Creditor In Control’ regime, as now the Board of Directors is suspended in case of default and and the IP manages the enterprise in the best interest of all its stakeholders.
  • Resolving the ‘chakravyuh challenge’: IBC has made possible for struggling companies to ‘exit’ easily y allowing creditors to take the company to the NCLT for winding up.
  • Spurs professionalism in financing sector: IBC has reduced crony capitalism, under and over invoicing, serial defaulters and lead to better allocation of capital by limiting the escape routes for defaulters and water tight frame for disposal of cases

Success of IBC so far:

  • Due to the institution of IBC, we have seen that many business entities are paying up front before being declared insolvent. The success of the act lies in the fact that many cases have been resolved even before it was referred to NCLT.
  • 4452 cases were dismissed at the pre-admission stage. Hence, it shows the effectiveness of IBC.
  • Presently, there are 1332 cases before NCLT.
  • Realization by creditors around Rs 80,000cr in resolution cases.
  • Banks recovered Rs 5.28 lakh crore in 2017-18, compared to just Rs 38500 cr in 2016-17.
  • The maximum amount recovered was Rs 4, 92,500 cr from 21 companies.
  • 12 big cases are likely to be resolved this year, and the realization in these cases is expected to be around Rs 70000 Cr.

Challenges posing the IBC:

  • Tribunal issues:
    • The NCLT started off well but they are clogging up now, they’re taking much longer than they did earlier.
    • More than 9,000 cases are before the 11 NCLT tribunals that have been set up around the country.
    • National Company Law Appellate Tribunal (NCLAT) and that includes more than 2,500 insolvency cases.
    • In the absence of jurisprudence and precedents, different NCLTs are giving different rulings.
  • Concerns with time stipulation:
    • Regarding the time stipulation, in few cases the tribunal laid down that the 14-day period is only directive and not mandatory.
    • Also, the NCLAT has held that the provisions of the Limitation Act, which sets out the time-limits under which a complainant can approach the courts for redress, do not apply to proceedings under the Insolvency Code.
  • Administrative issues:
    • IBC has failed to secure the due share of banks as the amount realized by banks in cases is falling too low, in some cases amount realized is less than even one-third of bank’s claim value.
    • There have been loopholes in the functioning of Committee of Creditors. Nominated members of Financial creditors does not have any authority to take decisions upfront. It leads to a conflict of interest in reaching a revival plan.
    • There is no proper infrastructure of the Information Utilities (IU) that provide access to credible and transparent evidence of default.
    • There is a multiplicity of regulators to Insolvency Professionals i.e. presence of numbers of insolvency professional agencies (IPAs) to regulate professionals.
  • Authoritative Insolvency Resolution Professionals:
    • The IBC’s provision to throw the management out and replacing them with IRPs is consider to be draconian.
    • IRPs are a mix of chartered accountants, cost accountants, MBAs and retired public sector executives but there are many concerns has raised over the quality of the IRPs.
  • Drafting loopholes:
    • Inevitably, there are loopholes in the Insolvency Act and some lawyers complain of poor drafting too.
    • For instance, the act has no provision for an amicable settlement once a case has been admitted.

Way forward:

  • There is need for setting up more tribunals in different parts of the country to handle the greater-than-expected volume of cases.
  • IBC must consider that there are distinct advantages if the existing management is allowed to keep running the company such as knowledge, information and expertise.
  • India is more concerned with the recovery of NPA, not with the running of units, thus the first priority is to save the banking system.
  • Thus the banks also must push policy makers towards this move because they’re unlikely to get more if the case comes before the NCLT.
  • Proactive training/onboarding of judges, lawyers, and other intermediaries will be necessary for effective implementation of the code.
  • Technological infrastructure needs to be strengthened to avoid any kind of data loss and to maintain confidentiality. There is a requirement of enhanced IU infrastructure.

Conclusion:

IBC as a structural reform has demonstrable impact, which is reflected in behavioural change among debtors, creditors and other stakeholders, it is the IBC or the insolvency law which has trumped even the GST.


Topic: Role of women, Agriculture

4) Recent studies have established that women undertook 80 per cent of farm work in India though only 13 per cent of the land was owned by them, in the backdrop of the statement discuss the causes for policy paralysis in granting entitlements to women in agriculture and farm widows and how can it be addressed? (250 words) 

Indianexpress

Why this question:

Raising the issue during Zero Hour, BJD’s Cuttack MP Bhartruhari Mahtab cited an Oxfam report — published a decade ago — which stated that women undertook 80 per cent of farm work in India though only 13 per cent of the land was owned by them.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must analyse the policy paralysis that has led to failure in addressing the entitlement rights to women in agriculture. One has to analyse in detail the issues on ground and suggest how to tackle the issue.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Quote facts showing the scenario of agriculture in India and the gender aspect.

Body:

One has to explain what are the problems with respect to women in Indian farm sector, why is there a policy paralysis in granting entitlements to women in agriculture and farm widows needs to be addressed.

Discuss issues related to tenure security, and most importantly, the chasm between land ‘ownership, accessibility to entitlements, and control,’ are important challenges affecting the economic empowerment of women in agriculture. One example here is that of proxy sarpanches or ‘sarpanchpatis,’ where the control is often vested with the husband of the elected woman representative under the aegis of Panchayati Raj Act (1993).

Suggest what needs to be done.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

The Economic survey 2017-18 recognised and spoke of the need for women farmers to get access to land, water, credit, technology and training. According to Food and Agriculture Organization, if women farmers had the same access to resources as men, they would increase output by 20-30% which would mean a dramatic reduction in hunger. This could raise total the agricultural output in developing countries by up to 4%.

Body:

Role of women in farming on India

  • Swaminathan, the famous agricultural scientist describes that it was woman who first domesticated crop plants and thereby initiated the art and science of farming.
  • Over the years, there is a gradual realization of the key role of women in agricultural development and their vital contribution in the field of agriculture, food security, horticulture, processing, nutrition, sericulture, fisheries, and other allied sectors.
  • Agriculture in India is significantly dependent on women. Women make up about 33% of cultivators and about 47% of agricultural labourers in rural India. Overall, the percentage of rural women who depend on agriculture for their livelihood is as high as 84%.
  • Women have played and continue to play a key role in the conservation of basic life support systems such as land, water, flora and fauna. They have protected the health of the soil through organic recycling and promoted crop security through the maintenance of varietal diversity and genetic resistance.
  • The rate of women in poultry farming at household level is the central in poultry industry.
  • Women farmers in India perform most of the big farming jobs, from sowing to harvesting, yet their access to resources is less than their male counterparts. Closing this gender gap is essential in order to accelerate the pace of growth in the agriculture sector.
  • Maintaining the ancillary branches in this sector, like animal husbandry, fisheries and vegetable cultivation, depends almost solely on women.

Challenges faced:

  • Land ownership issues:
    • The biggest challenge is the powerlessness of women in terms of claiming ownership of the land they have been cultivating.
    • In Census 2015, almost 86% of women farmers are devoid of this property right in land perhaps on account of the patriarchal set up in our society.
    • Women have just a dismal 12.8% of holdings despite being crucial to the whole production chain from farm to market.
    • Despite a huge presence in farming, women in Uttar Pradesh own a little under 18% of the land, and in Kerala it is just 14%. In other words, women can labour on farms but cannot hope to own them. Since land is passed on through inheritance, it is usually handed down to male heirs.
    • Notably, a lack of ownership of land does not allow women farmers to approach banks for institutional loans as banks usually consider land as collateral.
    • As of now, women farmers have hardly any representation in society and are nowhere discernible in farmer’s organisations or in occasional protests. They are the invisible workers without which the agricultural economy is hard to grow.
    • A declining size of land holdings may act as a deterrent due to lower net returns earned and technology adoption.
  • No political will:
    • Unfortunately, the role of women in farming has got no mention at all among political parties and very little among policy-makers.
    • Not much focus on gender inclusiveness in agriculture.

Measures needed:

  • Research worldwide shows that women with access to secure land, formal credit and access to market have greater propensity in making investments in improving harvest, increasing productivity, and improving household food security and nutrition.
  • Provision of credit without collateral under the micro-finance initiative of the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development should be encouraged.
  • Better access to credit, technology, and provision of entrepreneurship abilities will further boost women’s confidence and help them gain recognition as farmers.
  • The possibility of collective farming can be encouraged to make women self-reliant. Training and skills imparted to women as has been done by some self-help groups and cooperative-based dairy activities (Saras in Rajasthan and Amul in Gujarat).
  • These can be explored further through farmer producer organisations. Moreover, government flagship schemes such as the National Food Security Mission, Sub-mission on Seed and Planting Material and the Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana must include women-centric strategies and dedicated expenditure.

Way forward:

  • Formal education, availability of economically viable agricultural machinery for women, training, extension services, social engineering, and gender budgeting is need of the hour.
  • Gender budgeting would assess the quantity and adequacy of allocation of resources for women and establish the extent to which gender commitments are translated into budgetary commitments.
  • Agricultural extension efforts should help women improve food production while allowing them to shift more of their labour to export production.
  • The government plans to launch an awareness campaign looking at how Agricultural Science Centres (Krishi Vigyan Kendra) can play a significant role in empowering women farmers and shifting existing, biased perceptions of women’s roles in agriculture.
  • An ‘inclusive transformative agricultural policy’ should aim at gender-specific intervention to raise productivity of small farm holdings, integrate women as active agents in rural transformation, and engage men and women in extension services with gender expertise.
  • Similarly, changes in legal, financial, and educational systems must be undertaken in order to enhance women’s social and economic contributions to rural development in the long term.
  • There is a need to examine carefully the implications of land tenure laws and regulations for women and educational policies and funding must be changed to reflect the very high social and economic returns to women’s primary education and literacy.
  • The differential access of women to resources like land, credit, water, seeds and markets needs to be addressed.

Topic: Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.

5) Discuss the critical role that development of the Blue Economy can play in nation building. Explain the prospects with possible challenges in implementation of the same.(250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question:

The article talks about the mention of blue economy in the recent budget that was passed by the parliament.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must bring out the significance, prospects and potential the blue economy holds for India.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin with brief intro on what you understand by blue economy.

Body:

Discussion should include the following: 

The concept was introduced by Gunter Pauli in his 2010 book- “The Blue Economy: 10 years, 100 innovations, 100 million jobs”.

It is the sustainable use of ocean resources for economic growth, improved livelihoods and jobs, and ocean ecosystem health.

It advocates the greening of ocean development strategies for higher productivity and conservation of ocean’s health.

List down the possible merits of blue economy.

What are the policies and programmes that are required to be undertaken to make the blue economy contribute to the GDP (take hints from the article.)

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

“Blue Economy” refers to strategic and sustainable use of Marine Resources for the development of Economy and the well-being of human. Gunter Pauli’s book, “The Blue Economy: 10 years, 100 innovations, 100 million jobs” (2010) brought the Blue Economy concept into prominence. It offers “Green Approach” to meet the aspirations of mankind. India is endowed with a vast coastline of approximately 7500 Km and hence better placed to harness the “potential of oceans” – with an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of 2.02 mn. sq.km. It is an upcoming sunrise sector.

Body:

Potential of Blue economy in India:

  • Economy:
    • Blue economy, through sustainable use of oceans, has great potential for boosting the economic growth by providing opportunities for income generation and jobs etc.
    • It can support food security, and diversification to address new resources for energy, new drugs valuable chemicals, protein food, deep sea minerals, security etc.
    • At least 3-5% of global GDP is derived from oceans
  • Socio-Economic Development:
    • Blue economy presents India with an unprecedented opportunity to meet its national socio-economic objectives as well as strengthen connectivity with neighbours.
    • Blue Economy can help in focusing on livelihood generation, achieving energy security, building ecological resilience, and improving health and living standards of coastal communities.
    • Blue economy would reinforce and strengthen the efforts of the Indian government as it strives to achieve the SDGs of hunger and poverty eradication along with sustainable use of marine resources by 2030.
  • Environmental Benefits:
    • Mangroves and other vegetated ocean habitats sequester 25 percent of the extra CO2 from fossil fuels, i.e., Blue Carbon.
    • Protection of coastal communities from disasters like floods and storms.
    • A Sustainable Blue Economy can help to achieve commitments under UN’s Sustainable Development Goals 2030, Paris climate agreement 2015 and the UN Ocean Conference 2017
  • Renewable Energy:
    • Sustainable marine energy can play a vital role in social and economic development.
    • As energy sources on the surface are limited, in the near future the dependency on marine resources will increase, which will require more human resource to be deployed in the field of environment engineering and marine resource protection
  • Mineral Wealth:
    • According to ISA there are vast reserves of Poly-metallic Nodules, sulphides, cobalt rich ferro-mangenese crust( rich in cobalt, bismuth, iron, lead, platinum).
    • ISA has notified two major areas “clariton-clipperton fracture zone” and Central Indian Ocean Basin.
    • India has already signed a contract and entered in the league with Japan, USA, China
  • Fisheries:
    • Sustainable fisheries can generate more revenue, more fish and help restore fish stocks.
  • Maritime Transport:
    • Over 80% of international goods traded are transported by sea.
    • Marine services sector could serve as the backbone of its blue economy and help India become 10 trillion dollar economy by 2022.
    • Indian Ocean is a major conduit of trade with as much as 80% of global oil trade happening through it.
  • Tourism:
    • Ocean and coastal tourism can bring jobs and economic growth.
  • Climate Change and Bio-diversity:
    • Oceans are an important carbon sink (blue carbon) and help mitigate climate change.
    • Oceans protect biodiversity, keep the planet cool, and absorb about 30% of global CO2 emissions.
    • Oceans cover three-quarters of the Earth’s surface, contain 97% of the Earth’s water, and represent 99% of the living area on the planet.
  • Waste Management:
    • Better waste management on land can help oceans recover.

Challenges associated:

  • Threat of sea borne terror:
    • Piracy and armed robbery, maritime terrorism, illicit trade in crude oil, arms, drug and human trafficking and smuggling of contraband etc.
  • Natural Disasters:
    • Every year tsunamis, cyclones, hurricanes typhoons etc leave thousands of people stranded and property worth millions destroyed.
  • Man-Made disasters:
    • Oil spills, climate change continue to risk the stability of the maritime domain.
  • Impact of climate change:
    • Threats of both slow-onset events like sea-level rise and more intense and frequent weather events like cyclones.
    • Long-term climate change impacts on ocean systems like changes in sea temperature, acidity, and major oceanic currents.
  • Marine pollution:
    • In form of excess nutrients from untreated sewerage, agricultural runoff, and marine debris such as plastics.
    • Deep sea mining can cause long term irreversible ecological damage to marine ecosystem.
  • Geopolitical issues:
    • Geopolitical tussle between in various regions like South China Sea, Indian Ocean Region etc. and undermining International Laws like UNCLOS limits the countries from achieving the full potential of Blue Economy.
  • Overexploitation of marine resources:
    • Illegal, unreported, and unregulated extraction of marine resources.
    • FAO estimates that approximately 57 percent of fish stocks are fully exploited and another 30 percent are over-exploited, depleted, or recovering.
  • Unsustainable development near marine areas:
    • Physical alterations and destruction of marine and coastal habitats & landscapes largely due to coastal development, deforestation, & mining

Way Forward:

  • India should look to adopt the sustainable approach of balancing economic benefits with sustainability for meeting the broader goals of growth, employment generation, equity and protection of environment.
  • We need to come up with technology to explore the minerals deep down at seabed.
  • India must focus on marine ICTs, and transport (shipping) and communication services, and the creation of a knowledge hub for marine research and development.
  • An effective response mechanism to address humanitarian crises and natural disasters should be made for the evolving Indian Ocean security strategy.
  • India should not look at its oceans as just water bodies, but as global stage for continued economic, social, and cultural dialogue.
  • Ever increasing marine pollution must be abated and India’s vow to curb plastic pollution must be pursued relentlessly.
  • Tackling the Global warming and submergence of low lying islands as part of Paris Climate deal agreement and initiatives like FIPIC.

Topic: Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service, integrity, impartiality and non-partisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker sections.

6) Honesty and truthfulness have to be practiced and balanced with delicate diplomacy on some occasions. Analyse. (250 words)

 Ethics by Lexicon publications

Why this question:

The question aims to analyse the art of diplomacy that is required by an individual to profess honesty and truthfulness. 

Key demand of the question:

Explain in detail the significance of honesty and truthfulness and in what way it becomes necessary that art of diplomacy is required to profess these virtues.

Directive:

analyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Define truthfulness and honesty.

Body:

Explain the significance of these virtues first and with a suitable example explain in what way some bit of diplomacy is required to profess these virtues in specific conditions.

One must quote occasions to bring out the need of diplomacy in such conditions.

Conclusion:

Conclude by suggesting way forward and importance of diplomancy.

Introduction:

Honesty is not just about telling the truth. It’s about being real with yourself and others about who you are, what you want and what you need to live your most authentic life. Honesty promotes openness, empowers us and enables us to develop consistency in how we present the facts. Honesty sharpens our perception and allows us to observe everything around us with clarity.

Body:

Both honesty and truthfulness are virtues of human beings. It defines their character and attitude. We have always been taught that honesty is the best policy, and that to lie is a bad thing to do. As we grow older, we realise that in many situations it is a good idea to keep quiet or, better still, be diplomatic and tactfully handle sensitive issues. The line dividing honesty and diplomacy is a thin one. We have to be careful in deciding when to be honest and when to be at our diplomatic best. We also have to decide whether we should be absolutely candid, or use the truth as a matter of convenience.

Here the recent case of captured soldier by an enemy force holds good. Although the soldier is forced to reveal the information, the soldier doesn’t reveal the truth to safeguard the national interest. The case of RAW and IB agents and IB officers also hold good.

Conclusion:

Diplomacy protects us in the short term, but it is honesty that brings long-term benefits and permanent gains. Honesty and diplomacy, however, are not mutually exclusive. It takes tact and courage to speak the truth at the right time in the right manner, without being abrasive.


Topic:  Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.

7) What is the role of perception in generating our views over complexities, conspiracies and obstacles around us while pursuing our objectives? How does attitude help us to conquer such difficulties in performing our duties?(250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon publications

Why this question:

The question is to evaluate the role of perception and in what way it affects once behaviour and attitude.

Key demand of the question:

Explain in detail the how perception decides on situations, generating our views over complexities, conspiracies and obstacles around us. Discuss then the role attitude of an individual has to play in deciding one’s perception.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Define what you understand by perception.

Body:

One needs to explain the inter relationship between perception and attitude, in what way one influences the other. One can explain it using simple examples from day to day life.

Discuss how right attitude can lead to right perception and help resolve problems and profess duties in right manner.

Conclusion:

Reassert the role of right attitude .

 

Introduction:

Perception is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment. It is a process by which people regard, analyze, retrieve and react to any kind of information from the environment. For example, some people feel happy about earning money while others feel happy about spending money.

Body:

Role of perception:

  • Perception is very important in understanding the human behaviour, because every person perceives the world and approaches the life problems differently- Whatever we see or feel is not necessarily the same as it really is.
  • If people behave on the basis of their perception, we can predict their behaviour in the changed circumstances by understanding their present perception of the environment.
  • With the help of perception, the needs of various people can be determined, because people’s perception is influenced by their needs. Like the mirrors at an amusement park, they distort the world in relation to their tensions.
  • Perception is very important for the manager who wants to avoid making errors when dealing with people and events in the work setting. This problem is made more complicated by the fact that different people perceive the same situation differently.
  • Perceptions help in shaping up a person’s goal and his/her outlook on life. It’s the thing that initiates anyone to find their purpose in life.

Attitude, on the other hand, is the person’s actual feeling or way of thinking about something or someone based on their perceptions. Attitude is reflected in one’s behaviour towards something or someone.

The cognitive component is what we perceive an objects, event, or situation-our thoughts, beliefs, and ideas about something. In its simplest form the cognitive element is a category that we employ in thinking.

Our attitude is a product of how we come to terms with our perception of reality. Your attitude, in its essence, is how you choose to deal with every situation thrown your way and the consequences of every choice you make.

When people have the right attitude they are both motivated and adaptable which makes them more open to learning new skills.

We’re always going to face challenges, difficult times, and it’s in these moments that things like determination, tenacity and resilience come to the fore. Having the right skills but lacking the will to use them isn’t going to help us overcome the challenges and achieve success.

Positive attitude creates positive environment. It’s only when we are positive we can give positive vibration to people we meet, work together and life together and when they receive positive vibration they respond you positive.

Example: Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam- When the whole world was critical of us and waiting for our downfall, it was this man who dreamt of India as a Nuclear power. That India which makes world turn its head towards us. It was that positive attitude in him,  that convinced the government of the day of Atal Bihari Vajpayee to approve a critical Nuclear test i.e. Pokhran-2.

Sourav Ganguly: When he took up the captaincy of Indian cricket team, it was engulfed in many controversies. But it was his attitude/belief that we can become number one side in world, that changed his behavior towards game on field and that transformed the team to where it is today in world arena.

Conclusion:

It is only the right attitude, which gets us good results. Attitude is the one which decides whether a person is successful or failure.  Positive attitude in life will change failure also to success but negative attitude will change even an opportunity into threat or trouble.