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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 11 JULY 2019


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 11 JULY 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic: Salient features of Indian Society. Social empowerment,

1) Criminalising Marital Rape may destabilise the institution of marriage apart from being an easy tool for harassing the husbands. Critically analyse the statement with a special focus on status of women in the Indian society. (250 words)

The hindu

Why this question:

Recently the Delhi High Court declined a plea seeking direction to the Centre to frame guidelines for registration of FIR for marital rape and laws to make it a ground for divorce.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the effect of criminalization of marital rape on the institution of marriage.

Directive:

Critically analyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

State few facts related to the criminalization of marital rape.

Body:

Explain the following aspects – 

First discuss what you understand by marital rape – Marital rape is the act of sexual intercourse with one’s spouse without the spouse’s consent. The lack of consent is the essential element and need not involve physical violence.

Then move on to explain the concerns associated with it, explain how it is often being misused against men by the women.

Ensure the answer also reflects on the status of women in the society. 

Conclusion:

Conclude by emphasizing on the need for proper policies and legislations in place to deal with marital rape.

Introduction:

Marital rape is the act of sexual intercourse with one’s spouse without the consent of the other spouse. Although it was once widely unrecognized by law and society as wrong or as a crime, it is now recognized as rape by many societies around the world. The Delhi High Court recently declined a plea seeking direction to the Centre to frame guidelines for registration of FIR for marital rape and laws to make it a ground for divorce. It said the issue of marital rape has to be dealt by the legislature and not the judiciary.

Body:

Legal provisions:

  • Currently marital rape is not a ground for a divorce in Hindu Marriage Act, 1955, Muslim Personal Law [Shariat] Application Act, 1937 and Special Marriage Act, 1954, it cannot be used as a ground for divorce and cruelty against husband.
  • Section 375 of the IPC holds that “sexual intercourse by a man with his own wife, the wife not being under 15 years of age, is not rape”
  • No other statute or law recognises marital rape
  • Victims only have recourse to civil remedies provided under the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005

Criminalisation of Marital Rape is necessary because:

  • There are several studies to show the prevalence of non-consensual sex with their wives, and physically forcing their wives to have sex.
  • Marriage is an equal-relationship contract and not a one-time consent to everything.
  • The legal exception to the rape laws gives men unequal privilege.
  • Marital rape victims suffer from long-lasting psychological scars.
  • Exception under Section 375, violates Articles 14, 15, 19 and 21 of a woman.
  • The patriarchal nature of Indian society, ingrains it in the minds of men that women are expected to comply when their husbands demand sex.
  • The victim suffers physical abuse, and she also has to undergo mental trauma of her dignity being violated
  • In the last 70 years, the exemption in Section 375 has remained untouched.
  • The prevalence of Child marriages and in many cases women are forcefully married off
  • The Justice Verma committee had recommended removing the exception made for marital rape in the law.
  • The report ‘Status of Women in India’, by the high-level Pam Rajput committee of the Ministry of Woman and Child Development, criticised the legislature for its failure to criminalise marital rape
  • Till date, 51 countries have criminalised marital rape, beginning with Poland in 1932.
  • United Kingdom, whose common law was followed by India, made marital rape a criminal offence in 1991.

However, there are cons of criminalizing marital rape:

  • It “may destabilise the institution of marriage apart from being an easy tool for harassing the husbands”.
  • “Rising misuse of Section 498A of IPC”, known as the dowry law, “for harassing the husbands”.
  • Other countries, mostly western, have criminalised marital rape does not necessarily mean India should also follow them blindly.
  • Law Commission on Review of Rape Laws has examined the issue but not recommended the criminalisation of marital rape.
  • What may appear to be marital rape to an individual wife, it may not appear so to others.
  • There can be no lasting evidence in case of sexual acts between a man and his own wife
  • Data from the National Crime Records Bureau and the National Family Health Surveys show that only about 0.6%, or one in 167 incidents of sexual violence by husbands, are reported.

Way forward:

  • What constitutes marital rape and marital non-rape needs to be defined precisely before a view on its criminalisation is taken.
  • Defining marital rape would call for a broad based consensus of the society.
  • States should intervene in the matter, since criminal law is on the concurrent list and implemented by states —and given the vast diversity in cultures across states.
  • Factors like literacy, lack of financial empowerment of the majority of females, mindset of the society, vast diversity, poverty, etc., should be considered carefully before taking any decision.
  • The need for “moral and social awareness” to stop such an act.
  • The recent privacy judgment by the Supreme Court is also set to play an important role. The right to bodily integrity is a crucial facet of Article 21.
  • Timely medical care and rehabilitation, skill development and employment for facilitating economic independence of victims.
  • Need for undertaking both legal and social reforms to deal with the menace of marital rape

Conclusion:        

A woman has a right to bodily integrity, sexual autonomy and reproductive choice. Only when individual rights are not sacrificed and two partners are treated equally shall marriage as an institution continue to survive.

Extra information: The 172nd Law Commission report had made the following recommendations for substantial change in the law with regard to rape:

  • ‘Rape’ should be replaced by the term ‘sexual assault’.
  • In the light of Sakshi v. Union of India and Others [2004 (5) SCC 518], ‘sexual assault on any part of the body should be construed as rape.
  • Rape laws should be made gender neutral as custodial rape of young boys has been neglected by law.
  • Marital rape: explanation (2) of section 375 of IPC should be deleted. Forced sexual intercourse by a husband with his wife should be treated equally as an offence just as any physical violence by a husband against the wife is treated as an offence. On the same reasoning, section 376 A was to be deleted.

Topic:  Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health

2) Where does India stand in battle against Measles? Do you think India can achieve its 2020 target? Discuss the status of MR in India and the challenges it has been facing in eliminating the same.(250 words)

Indianexpress

 

Why this question: 

The article explains in detail how Sri Lanka has made health history after spending three years free of any new measles and the World Health Organisation (WHO) has declared that the deadly childhood infection has been eliminated in the island nation. In contrast, India has a long road ahead, particularly because vaccine-resistant voices are sometimes being heard.

Demand of the question:

One has to discuss the challenges India is facing in eliminating the Measles. What are the challenges it is facing and how can we address them and achieve the target of measle free India?

Directive word: 

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

Quote the recent achievement made by the island country of Sri-Lanka. The World Health Organization (WHO), has declared Sri Lanka, a measles-free country.

Body

Discuss the following points – 

What is measles? – Measles is a highly contagious viral disease and is a cause of death among young children globally.

Explain what does the elimination disease mean – The elimination of a disease means that there have been zero new cases of the disease in the last three years. The country reported its last case of measles in May 2016.

The other countries in the region which have eliminated measles in their geographical area are Bhutan, Maldives, DPR Korea and Timor-Leste.

Explain the status of India with respect to Measles, what are the concerns, challenges etc and suggest a way forward.

Conclusion 

Conclude that the target of achieving a measles free India isn’t an impossible thing and that with suitable and targeted approach it can definitely be achieved.

Introduction:

Measles is a highly contagious viral disease, which is transmitted via droplets from the nose, mouth or throat of infected persons. It remains an important cause of death among young children globally, despite the availability of a safe and effective vaccine. India has one of the highest incidences of Measles in the world.

Body:

Status of India in battle against Measles and Rubella:

  • The latest Global Measles and Rubella Update, which lists provisional data received in June and covering the period between May 2018 and April 2019, says India reported 47,056 measles cases and 1,263 rubella cases during these 12 months.
  • India, as part of the global initiative, has targeted elimination of measles and control of rubella by 2020.
  • Rubella control is achieved when a country reduces the number of rubella cases by 95% as compared to cases in 2008.
  • India has initiated the world’s largest Measles-Rubella (MR) Campaign targeting vaccination of 410 million children and adolescents aged between 9 months and 15 years.
  • The MR campaign began in February 2017, and as of November 2018, 135 million children have been vaccinated in 28 states/UTs.
  • Under the programme, two doses of measles and rubella vaccines are to be given at ages 9-12 months and 16-24 months.
  • However, India has made important gains in recent years. Measles deaths have declined by 51% from an estimated 100,000 in the year 2000 to 49,000 in 2015.

Challenges in fight against MR:

  • Anti-Vaccination Movement:
    • Such movements are driven by fraudulent claims linking the vaccine against measles to risk of autism in children. However, repeated studies have shown that there is no such link.
  • Poverty:
    • In poorer countries, fewer people are vaccinated and a larger portion of the population is left vulnerable to the virus.
  • Vaccination Hesitancy:
    • Compulsory nature of vaccines is seen as forcing by state
    • Temporal adverse health outcomes due to vaccination,
  • Lack of Education and awareness:
    • Unfamiliarity with vaccine-preventable diseases,
    • Lack of trust in corporations and public health agencies.

Government Initiatives:

  • Measles-Rubella (MR) vaccination
    • The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare launched MR Vaccination program in 2017.
    • The MR campaign targets around 41 crore children across the country, the largest ever in any campaign.
    • All children aged between 9 months and less than 15 years will be given a single shot of Measles-Rubella (MR) vaccination irrespective of their previous measles/rubella vaccination status or measles/rubella disease status.
    • MR vaccine will be provided free- of- cost across the states.
  • Other Initiatives include Universal Immunization Programme (UIP), Mission Indradhanush and Intensified Mission Indradhanush.

Way forward:

  • A strong surveillance system and all vaccine-preventable diseases should be an integral part of the Health policy.
  • Strengthening the government initiatives by intensifying vaccination.
  • Mass vaccination campaigns with a measles-rubella vaccine should be held periodically to plug immunisation gaps
  • Using the help of NGOs, Anganwadi workers, ANMs to reach out to the last possible child.
  • Detecting and addressing vaccine-hesitant subgroups
  • Educating all health care providers involved with immunization on best practices
  • Educating children, youth and adults on the importance of immunization for health

Conclusion:        

India has a long road ahead, particularly because vaccine-resistant voices are sometimes being heard. The World Health Organization (WHO), has declared Sri Lanka, a measles-free country. India can learn the best practices adopted to emulate the same.


Topic: population and associated issues.

3)  “The refugee crisis that the world is currently facing is a long-term effect of colonialism.” Critically analyse.(250 words)

Epw

Why this question:

The article discusses in detail the difficulties that refugees from various places face when seeking asylum. It analyses the causes of such a crisis and in what way it is the long-term effect of colonialism.

Key demand of the question:

One must discuss the underlying causes of the world refugee crisis and the connection with colonialism.

Directive:

Critically analyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Quote few facts from various reports highlighting the refugee crisis.

For e.g. – The United Nations Human Rights Commission records a total of 68.5 million “forcibly displaced people” worldwide. Syria accounts for 6.3 million refugees alone, closely followed by South Sudan and Afghanistan.

Body:

The answer must explain how the crisis might be a consequence of imperfect decolonization. How new ways of continuing unfair trade practices have led to the enduring exploitation of formerly colonized nations, the populations of which have been subjected to disastrous wars and unstable governments.

 In addition to economic exploitation, students must examine the oppressive Eurocentric ideologies of the state that are now being used to demonize refugees for political gains.

Suggest what are the major concerns posed by the challenge and what needs to be done to overcome the challenge. 

Conclusion:

Conclude with way ahead by suggesting suitable solutions to address the problem. 

Introduction:

A refugee is defined as a person who owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality and is unable or is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country. In the seven decades since it became an independent country, India has seen and largely welcomed waves of migrants fleeing conflict in neighbouring nations.

Body:

Current state of Refugee crisis across world:

  • The United Nations Human Rights Commission records a total of 68.5 million “forcibly displaced people” worldwide.
  • Syria accounts for 6.3 million refugees alone, closely followed by South Sudan and Afghanistan.
  • The number of internally displaced people rose from 2 million to 34 million
  • 1 in every 122 people has been forced to flee their home
  • 4,600 people are forced to flee their countries every day

Refugee crisis is an effect of colonialism:

Colonial hangover: The divide and rule policy at times of colonialism era created separation of ethnic communities which in itself left the weaker section of the community to find asylum and lastly making them prone to refugee crisis. E.g.: Rohingyas being targeted by the Buddhists.

Imperfect decolonization: The poor decolonization strategy leads to authoritarian and despotic governments.  Over period of time, the rights of the people were curbed leading to civil wars, Naxalism etc.

Neo-colonialism and trade exploitation: The unfair trade practices which lead to holding huge resources by foreign countries resulted in poverty of people. Some of the instances are below.

  • Cotton and gold are primarily responsible for the refugee crisis in West Africa.
  • The subsidies provided by the United States government to its own cotton farmers have destroyed the livelihood of the cotton farmers in West Africa who are now unable to compete in global markets.
  • Meanwhile, countries like Mali that are rich in gold are exploited by Western multinationals.

However, there are many other causes for refugee crisis apart from Colonialism and its effects:

  • Political Instability: There is great instability in the west Asia. War between the ISIS and Kurdish rebels in Iraq and Syria, attacks by Saudi Arabia on Houthi rebels in Yemen, the civil War in Syria. All of them combined to displace a large number of people from these countries.
  • Dictatorship regimes and Islamic fundamentalism: Continuous dictatorship type regimes and Islamic fundamentalism made Middle East most volatile n disturbed place on the planet. Western powers in order to make their oil supply smooth and to be part of Gulf Boom started in early 80’s always took a partial stand on these issues
  • Economic Reasons: A large number of refugees from Africa have been forced to leave their countries in search of opportunities abroad, primarily in Europe.
  • State Persecution: Rohingyas are a sect of Muslims who claim they are original inhibitors of the Rakhine, a state in Myanmar. However, Myanmar considers them illegal immigrants from Bangladesh and has withdrawn citizenship rights from the Rohingyas. This has forced Rohingyas to flee to other countries.
  • Democracy movements and civil war: Present refugees crisis didn’t started yesterday but it has been seen a huge surge from Libya conflict. If we go again back refugee problem as a crisis started from US, UK joint war to liberate Iraq.
  • Climate Change: Low lying island nations are threatened by rising sea levels and forced to leave their countries. Such refugees are known as Environmental refugee.

Way forward:   

  • The UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) must be empowered with budgetary resources to tackle the problem at a war footing.
  • All states should put in place comprehensive refugee policy to avoid ad-hoc measures in line with the UN convention.
  • Moral and diplomatic persuasion to stop persecution and promote reconciliation among stakeholder in various countries such as Myanmar, Pakistan and Bangladesh to avoid migration of people.
  • Diplomatic pressure from powerful nations and organisation such as UNHCR as seen in recent cases where Indonesia and Malaysia have accommodated refugees on temporary basis.

Conclusion:

Ultimately, refugee crises end when their root causes are addressed. Ending conflicts and widespread human rights abuses are objectives that states should pursue, but they are difficult to achieve. However, individual states  and  the  international  community  as  a  whole  must  recognize  that  they  can  lessen  the  devastating consequences of the refugee crisis on people. For this, a global approach to the problem is needed


Topic:  Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.

4) Examine the impact of liberalisation on Indian companies, to what extent are they competing successfully with the MNCs? Discuss.(250 words) 

 Indian economy by Dutta and Sundaram

Why this question:

Key demand of the question:

The question is about analysing the impact of liberalisation specifically on the Indian companies and in what way they are competing the MNCs satisfactorily.

Directive:

ExamineWhen asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin with brief introduction on what you understand by liberalization.

Body:

Discussion should include the following: 

First explain the effects of liberalization in general and then explain how it impacted the Indian companies and in what way is the impact different from that on the MNCs

Explain that Foreign direct investment (FDI) in India is a major monetary source for economic development in India. Foreign companies invest directly in fast growing private Indian businesses to take benefits of cheaper wages and changing business environment of India.

Then discuss in what way it is helping the Indian companies to compete with other MNC’s successfully, what are the challenges associated etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

Liberalization is defined as laws or rules being liberalized, or relaxed, by a government. Economic liberalization is generally described as the relaxing of government regulations in a country to allow for private sector companies to operate business transactions with fewer restrictions. It is usually promoted by advocates of free markets and free trade, whose ideology is also called economic liberalism. Economic liberalization also often involves reductions of taxes, social security, and unemployment benefits.

Body:

Impact of Liberalization on Indian companies:

Impact on Small Scale companies:

After independence, government attempted to revive small scale sector by reserving items exclusively for it to manufacture. With liberalization list of reserved items was substantially curtailed and many new sectors were thrown open to big players.

Small scale industry however exists and still remains backbone of Indian Economy. It contributes to major portion of exports and private sector employment. Results are mixed, many erstwhile Small scale industries got bigger and better. But overall value addition, product innovation and technology adoption remains dismal and they exist only on back of government support.

Impact on Services Sector

In this case globalization has been boon for developing countries and bane for developed ones. Due to historic economic disparity between two groups, human resources have been much cheaper in developing economies.

This was further facilitated by IT revolution and this all culminated in exodus of numerous jobs from developed countries to developing countries. Here US have to jealously guard its jobs as we guard our agriculture.

Information Technology industry

Software, BPO, KPO, LPO industry boom in India has helped India to absorb a big chunk of demographic dividend, which otherwise would have wasted. Best part is that export of services result in export of high value. There is almost no material exported which consume some natural resource. Only thing exported is labor of Professionals, which doesn’t deplete, instead grows with time. Now India is better placed to become a truly Knowledge Economy.

Exports of these services constitute big part of India’s foreign Exchange earnings. In fact, the only three years India had Current Account surplus, I.e. 2000-2002, was on back of this export only.

Telecom Sector

Conventionally, Telecom sector was a government owned monopoly and consequently service was quite substandard. After reforms, private telecom sector reached pinnacle of success. And Indian telecom companies went global. However, corruption and rent seeking marred growth and outlook of this sector.

Entry of modern Direct to Home services saw improvements in quality of Television services on one hand and loss of livelihood for numerous local cable operators.

Education and Health Sector

It should be noted that food (Agriculture), Health and education (and to lesser extent banking) are among basic necessities, which every human being deserves and can’t do without. Unfortunately, in developing countries there is market failure in all these sectors and majority of people can’t afford beyond a certain limit (or can’t afford at all). Concept of free markets, globalization, liberalization etc. fails here miserably. Free markets provide goods and services to people who can afford paying for them, not to those who deserve and need these.

Now if we consider these sectors from angle of our inclination towards free markets, certainly there has been lot of progress. There has been world class education available in India and Deregulation has resulted in Mushrooming of private engineering and Medical Colleges. But in reality, this had far reaching devastating effect on society.

On Social front India’s performance is deplored all over the world and it is probably behind all important developing economies. This lacuna has been recognized and government has taken the charge. In case of education almost universal enrolments has been achieved upto primary level and now impetus should be on improving quality, so that student of public schools comes at par with at least average private ones.

Conclusion:        

In the Indian case the term liberalisation is used to show the direction of the economic reforms-with decreasing influence of the state or the planned or the command economy and increasing influence of free market or the capitalistic economy. It is a move towards capitalism. India is attempting to strike its own balance of the ‘state-market mix’. It means even if the economic reforms have the direction towards market economy it can never be branded a blind-run to capitalism. Since the economy was more like the state economy in the former years, it has to go for a greater degree of mix of the market.


Topic: Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.

5) Trace the evolution of FDI in defence sector of India and also analyse the Implications of FDI in Defence on Self-Reliance and Indigenisation.(250 words)

Financialexpress

Why this question:

The question is based on the policy perspective with respect to the investments in the defense sector and in what way FDI brings in self- reliance and Indigenization.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the importance of FDI in defense, trace its evolution 

And analyse in detail its implications.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. 

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Discuss first the importance of  investments in defense sector in general.

Body:

The body of the answer to have the following aspects covered in detail : 

Explain the evolution of FDI in Defence Sector.

Then discuss the associated advantages (Transparency, Quality Products, Reduction of Reserves, Positive Performance Pressure on Public Sector Enterprises, Employment Opportunities etc.) and disadvantages (Security Concerns, Competition for Domestic Private Industry, Overbearing Presence of Foreign Companies etc.)

Then focus on to explaining the Implications of FDI in Defense on Self-Reliance and Indigenization. 

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

India’s defence industry received foreign direct investment (FDI) of a meagre USD 2.18 million during 2018-19. In 2014-15, 2015-16, and 2017-18, the sector attracted FDI worth USD 0.08 million, USD 0.10 million and USD 0.01 million, respectively, according to data given by Commerce and Industry Minister in a written reply in the Lok Sabha.

Body:

Importance of FDI in defence sector lies in Quality Products, Boost to Economy, Employment Opportunities, Increase in International Trade, Positive Performance Pressure on Public Sector Enterprises, Transparency and reduced corruption and Reduction of Reserves.

Evolution of FDI in defence sector of India:

  • The Defence Sector in India, being a strategic sector, was traditionally reserved for the Public Sector till 1991.
  • Defence Public Sector Undertakings (Defence PSUs) and Ordnance Factory Board (OFB) monopolised defence products manufacturing while R&D was the exclusive turf of DRDO.
  • The concept of FDI in general was introduced in India in 1991 with the opening of the Indian economy.
  • However, the Defence Sector was opened up 100% in May 2001 for Indian Private Sector participation with FDI permissible up to 26%, both subject to licensing.
  • In August 2014, the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP) raised the limit up to 49% through Government route and above 49% through Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS), on case-to-case basis.
  • The Government formulated a revised “Consolidated FDI Policy” in 2016, where the policy permitted FDI cap in defence, through automatic route up to 49% and above 49% under Government route on case to case basis, wherever it is likely to result in access to modern and “state-of-the-art” technology in the country.
  • The Government further raised FDI cap to 100% on again in 2016. The phrase state-of-the-art was dropped for FDI above 49%. The CCS approval was no more required.
  • However, the process of approval itself will include the Ministry of Defence (MoD) and the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) which will consider issues related to defence of the nation, internal security and every other matter which relates to the national security.
  • The requirement of single largest Indian ownership of 51% of equity has also been removed. A lock-in period of three years on equity transfer has been done away with in FDI for defence.

Implications of FDI in Defence on Self-Reliance and Indigenisation:

  • Build industrial capability and ecosystem: Utilise FDI as a route to attract much needed foreign capital to boost building of the indigenous defence industrial manufacturing capability.
  • Induction of modern technology: Enhanced FDI, that enables majority stake holding by foreign company, represents not merely acquisition of funds but also realistic possibilities of access to coveted modern technologies for weapons and equipment. The weapons and equipment so manufactured, on becoming globally competitive, in turn, would attract more FDI and better technology and the progressive cycle goes on.
  • Reduction in imports: FDI in defence is likely to substantially improve the country’s capacity to manufacture defence weapons and equipment locally and meet both qualitative and quantitative requirements of the Armed Forces.
  • Greater reliability of supplies in war.
  • Better spares support
  • Insulation from Embargoes: Currently, India procures most of the critical weapons systems and equipment that are either manufactured or both manufactured and integrated abroad. When the same weapons systems and equipment are manufactured in the country, indigenous production will tend to insulate the country from unilateral imposition of embargoes by whimsical foreign suppliers.

Way Forward:

  • National Defence Industrial Policy: There is a genuine requirement to articulate National Defence Industrial Policy which should deal with all relevant issues pertaining to defence design, development and production.
  • Enhance FDI Cap: It is strongly recommended to permit enhanced FDI, above 49 percent through Government route, in deserving cases without being overly protective about the Defence Public Sector Enterprises. Further liberalised FDI Policy in the Defence Sector is the need of the hour.
  • Minimise Procedural Delays: Government should ensure that there is transparency, evident decisiveness and no room for bureaucratic/procedural delays and corruption.
  • Enhance interaction between Armed Forces and Industry: The Armed Forces need to actively interact with the industry to enable focus on the technology desired in the future weapons systems and equipment.
  • Promote Export of Defence Products: Exports should be encouraged to ensure economic viability of an enterprise as also to earn foreign exchange to offset the initial foreign exchange outflow.
  • Explore Strategic Partnership Model: The partnership would essentially provide for long-terms needs of the Armed Forces. This route encourages the Industry to invest in Research and Development.
  • Build Military-Industrial Complex: Suitable incentives, in terms of provision of funds for research, tax relief based on the investment made in research projects, provision of land on concessional rates to defence vendors, are required to be extended to encourage investment by Private Industry in R&D.
  • Extend Assistance to Domestic Private Sector: India’s Private Sector needs hand holding, in terms of technology to be able to graduate to manufacturing of complex modern weapons systems and military equipment by collaboration with foreign technology majors.
  • Encourage Multi-Nation Consortiums: India should exploit its favourable geopolitical location and aspire to be a regional hub for global outsourcing of weapons and equipment. BrahMos Cruise Missile is an excellent example of high-grade output of consortium approach.

Conclusion:

But at the same time we should realize that FDI is not a magic wand which can solve all the problems of the defence sector. So Increase in the FDI Cap should be complemented by other defence sector reforms such as ensuring enabling environment for investment, solving land acquisition issues etc.


Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

6) Forest dwellers and farmers are the best hope to preserve biodiversity and ensure food security. Discuss the statement with suitable examples.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question:

 The article deals in what way forest dwellers and farmers are the best hope to preserve biodiversity and ensure food security.

Key demand of the question:

The answer is straight forward and must discuss the role of forest dwellers, tribal communities and the farmers in preserving biodiversity and ensuring food security.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Explain the context of the question.

Body:

Discussion should be followed by suitable examples to justify the role of forest dwellers, for e.g. the case study of Dongria Kondh tribe of Niyamgiri Hills – they are among the best conservationists in the world. Known for the spirited defense of their forested habitat against short-sighted industrialization, they have through millennia evolved a lifestyle that is in perfect harmony with nature.

Likewise explain the role played by farmers – in what way they help achieve food security.

Take cues from the article and discuss their significant role.

Conclusion:

Conclude by reasserting their significant role played in conserving and preserving the biodiversity and ensuring food security.

Introduction:

The UN-backed panel’s first global assessment of biodiversity held humans squarely responsible for the looming mass extinction of species. A loss in biodiversity simply means that plants and animals are more vulnerable to pests and diseases, and it puts food security and nutrition at risk. In this context, forest dwellers and farmers are the best hope to preserve biodiversity and ensure food security.

Body:

Challenges posed due to dwindling biodiversity:

  • The situation with India’s forests now is less encouraging.
  • Nature now faces the threat of another mass extinction of species.
  • Pressure from industrialisation does not care too much about conservation and biodiversity.
  • The same holds true for the overexploitation of our rivers and seas.
  • Without radical efforts towards conservation, the rate of species extinction will only gather momentum.
  • There is no single national-level answer to the problem of crop and biodiversity loss.
  • For instance, the natural farming movement in Andhra Pradesh may not be suitable for, say, Punjab.

Importance of indigenous people in biodiversity conservation:

  • Across India, there are many indigenous people who have managed to lead safe lives without any needless destruction of natural ecosystems.
  • These tribes, along with marginalised communities living on the fringes of forests and millions of smallholder farmers, have a crucial role now.
  • They offer the much-needed solutions to the bio-diversity challenges of the present era

Case study:

The Dongria Kondh tribe of Niyamgiri Hills are among the best conservationists in the world.

Known for the spirited defence of their forested habitat against short-sighted industrialization, they have through millennia evolved a lifestyle that is in perfect harmony with nature.

  Nothing can be achieved without the active participation of communities that live close to nature — farmers and forest dwellers.

Way forward:

  • Although biodiversity loss is a global problem, it can be countered only with local solutions, as there is no one-size-fits-all approach in this.
  • India’s tropical homeland is rich in biodiversity.
  • But, the imperatives of relentless economic growth, urbanisation, deforestation and overpopulation place it at a higher risk.
  • Certainly, a solution that has succeeded in a temperate, wealthy nation may not be suitable for a country like India.
  • It is now obvious that intensive agriculture, exploitative forestry and overfishing are the main threats to biodiversity in India and the world.
  • Given these, the approach now should be to ensure the active participation of communities that live close to nature – farmers and forest dwellers.
  • Innovative policies should take lead like the –
    • growing movement of zero-budget natural farming in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana
    • the community-driven forest conservation initiatives in Odisha and the Northeast
  • The UN agencies too have emphasized on the significance of the accumulated wisdom of indigenous peoples, fishers and farmers.

Conclusion:       

Local people should be at the centre of all the actions taken at dealing with the challenges of nature. Instead of evicting forest dwellers from their homes, the country should be encouraging them to conserve and nurture their habitats. Their knowledge about the local geography, climate, and relief will help in better conservation of the biodiversity.


Topic:case study

7) Public utilities and spaces in India are in a bad shape. Roads, water supply, street lighting, market cleanliness, railway stations, parks, community centers, public toilets, rivers and ponds are considered sole responsibility of the government to maintain without charging anything. People consider that they have rights to better public utilities and public spaces solely on the basis of government’s ability to provide them.

 Explain what should be the ideal way to manage the quality of public utilities and public spaces in a populous country like India? Suggest appropriate solutions.(250 words)

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Why this question:

India’s emerging development moment is caught between two realities: inadequate systems in public transportation, housing, waste management, and access to sanitation and health; and a burgeoning ecosystem of enterprising individuals, communities and start-ups pushing innovative solutions to these very same civic issues. The question is about analyzing the deficit between the rights of people to access these features and the role of govt. in providing the same.

Key demand of the question:

Explain in detail the issue and suggest solutions to the case study.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Highlight the context and explain what the question is hinting at.

Body:

Discussion should include the following aspects – 

What is the issue facing our country with respect to public utilities and civic amenities?

Then outline the emerging challenges and opportunities in India, particularly climate change, sustainability, resilience, and the possibilities of digital technologies and how these have an impact on the problem in question.

Explain what needs to be done to address such an issue.

Press on the need for multi-stakeholder approach and that the responsibility doesn’t lie with government alone.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

Public utilities are those business undertakings which are engaged in the supply of some such services which are absolutely necessary for the community. There are certain services like water supply, gas, electricity, transportation, communication, etc., which cannot be dispensed with without a serious setback to the smooth and successful economic living of the community.

Body:

Reasons for bad shape of public utilities and spaces:

  • Increasing population pressure on limited resources.
  • Lack of knowledge or awareness about duties and responsibilities of people towards public utilities.
  • Insufficient funds.
  • Poor technological solutions.
  • Corruption leading to poor quality of public utilities.

Measures needed to manage the quality of public utilities and public spaces:

  • Legislations: Laws to safeguard the utilities and penalties for wilful damage to public utilities and space.
  • Decentralization of power: Devolution of true powers to local authorities like Municipalities, Gram Sabhas as most of public utilities are under their jurisdiction.
  • Citizen centric policies: this makes the public more involved in decision making and gives them a sense of responsibility to safeguard the public utilities
  • Transparency and accountability: There is a need to gain public trust and maintain the same.
  • Citizen groups: like Resident welfare associations, timely interactions with the MLA’s, MPs to hear out the grievances of citizens and safeguard public utilities.
  • Public Private Partnership: Collaborating with private players to help fund, manage the public utilities projects. The Corporate Social Responsibility funds also can be utilized.
  • Education/Awareness of people: By giving proper education, there is higher chance of better maintenance of the public utilities.

Conclusion:        

The need of the hour is sensitization of the officials and people about their duties and responsibilities towards public utilities and spaces.