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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 09 JULY 2019


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 09 JULY 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic:  Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health.

1) The move of the government to ensure registered medical practitioners dispense only generic medicine will make them easily accessible but the lack of regulation may play killjoy. Critically analyse.(250 words)

The hindu

 

Why this question: 

The Central Government is considering amendments to the Drugs and Cosmetic Rules, 1945 to ensure that registered medical practitioners dispense only generic medicines.

Demand of the question:

One has to explain what are Generic drugs, their significance, concerns, usage and efforts made by the government to promote them.

Directive word: 

Critically analyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

State the recent step taken by the govt. to amend the Act – It is now proposed that registered medical practitioners shall supply generic medicines only and physicians samples shall be supplied free of cost.

Body

  • Start by explaining What is a Generic Medicine? – Generic medicines are unbranded medicines which are equally safe and having the same efficacy as that of branded medicines in terms of their therapeutic value. The prices of generic medicines are much cheaper than their branded equivalent.
  • The answer must focus on the challenge front in terms of lack of regulatory framework as to what factors despite making it compulsory can still make the usage of generic drugs less affordable/accessible.
  • Discuss the fundamental areas of concern, then move on to explain the efforts made by govt. in this direction.

Conclusion 

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

A generic drug is a pharmaceutical drug that is equivalent to a brand-name product in dosage, strength, route of administration, quality, performance, and intended use. In most cases, generic products become available after the patent protections afforded to a drug’s original developer expire. The Central Government is considering amendments to the Drugs and Cosmetic Rules, 1945 to ensure that registered medical practitioners dispense only generic medicines.

Body:

Benefits of mandatory prescription of Generic drug:

  • This is expected to bring down drug prices and expand access to affordable health solutions. As per the latest National Sample Survey Office survey on healthcare, in 2014, medicines emerged as a principal component of total health expenses—72% in rural areas and 68% in urban areas.
  • For a country with one of the highest per capita out-of-pocket expenditures on health, even a modest drop in drug prices will free hundreds of households from the widespread phenomenon of a medical poverty trap.
  • In addition to the social benefits, the generics-only policy also makes economic sense. By promoting generic drug consumption, the government safeguards the health of its generic drug manufacturing industry—one of the largest suppliers of low-cost medicines in the world.
  • Low-cost medicines, apart from their attribute as a commercial commodity, have far-reaching implications on public health and international human rights. India has unambiguously subscribed to the pro-public health argument, and has articulated its position several times at home and in international forums
  • It will free hundreds of households from the phenomena of medical poverty trap.
  • The nexus between doctors and pharma companies will be disincentivized.
  • With the promotion of generic drug consumption, the growth engine of Indian economy in general and of generic industry in particular will keep rolling at high pace.

However, the compulsory prescription has certain demerits as well.

  • Generics are found to be of substandard quality in many cases. And hence there are concerns of efficacy of such drugs.
  • No more than 1% of generic drugs sold in India undergo quality tests. There is also a lack of data integrity in generic firms which makes inspection and verification of drug quality extremely difficult.
  • Poor hygiene standards of the manufacturing plant of generics also restricts them from being a good substitute for branded medicines.
  • The process gives a lot of power into the hands of medicine shops and thus compromises patient’s safety.
  • Lower awareness and corruption have given rise nexus between Doctors chemists & pharma sector. So, public awareness via digital media along surveillance mechanism to curb nexus
  • Government has comparatively less control over the distribution of drugs and the type of drugs getting prescribed. The cooperation and efforts by doctors, retail drug sellers and pharmaceutical industry is very crucial in order to make this happen in efficient manner
  • India is import driven country for active pharmaceutical ingredient and already facing challenge of substandard quality of generic drugs. Along with this current move may reduce FDI inflow in pharma sector and slowdown research & development in domestic pharma companies

Conclusion:

Though the policy perspective should be welcomed, the loopholes need to be plugged as soon as possible. Ensuring the correctness of pharmacist, making the patients literate, increasing the number of drug inspectors and ensuring the efficacy of Medical Council of India could be few supplementary steps.


Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment. Moral suasion.

2) Given the importance of religion in Indian culture, do you think the suggestion given in the Economic Survey on the use of moral suasion drawn from religious beliefs can modify the behaviour of Indians? Critically analyse. (250 words)

Economictimes

Why this question:

The recently released economic survey has proposed the use of culture and tradition on several fronts such as gender equity campaign etc. Survey emphasizes on the religious basis to back the righteousness; moral suasion.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must bring out the significance of moral suasion and the context of it in Indian scenario as to what extent can we use it as a weapon to address various issues.

Directive:

Critically analyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Briefly highlight the findings of economic survey in this regard.

Body:

  • First explain the religious base present in the country.
  • How can moral suasion guide one’s ethical and moral, economic behaviour?
  • The answer should explain the various fronts that the survey takes to bring out the importance of moral suasion such as – It elaborates by referencing various religions: In Hinduism, non-payment of debts is a sin and also a crime. The duty or obligation of a child to repay the debts of the deceased parent is rested upon a special doctrine, known as ‘The Doctrine of Pious Obligation’. 
    Islam says a person cannot enter paradise until his debt is paid. All of his wealth could be used to pay the debt and if it is insufficient, then one or more heirs could voluntarily pay for him. 
    The survey also quotes the Bible: “Let no debt remain outstanding except the continuing debt to love one another’’ and “The wicked borrows and does not repay, but the righteous shows mercy and gives”. 

Conclusion:

Conclude by highlighting the importance of such moves.

Introduction:

The economic survey 2019 emphasised the importance of social, cultural and religious norms in producing “desirable” behavioural changes and therefore “desirable” macro outcomes. It has proposed the use of culture and tradition on several fronts such as gender equity campaign etc. Survey emphasizes on the religious basis to back the righteousness; moral suasion.

Body:

Indian culture is complex mixture of several religions (Hindus-79%, Muslims-14.2%, Christians-2.3%, Sikhs-1.7%). Every religion has its own set of teachings and values which guide the beliefs and attitude and influence their behavior of the followers.

The survey points to a number of mythological and traditional motifs, discusses in detail Mahatma Gandhi’s concept of “seven social sins”, and gives examples of “moral” behaviour from Hindu, Islamic and Christian traditions.

Behavioural Economics: The Economic Survey 2019 has drawn on Nobel Laureate Richard Thaler’s Behavioural Economics Theory to lay out what it describes as an “ambitious agenda” for behaviour change that will bring in social change, which in turn, will help India transit to a $5 trillion economy by 2024-25. Given our rich cultural and spiritual heritage, social norms play a very important role in shaping the behaviour of each one of us.

Moral suasion is the act of persuading a person or group to act in a certain way through rhetorical appeals, persuasion or implicit threats, as opposed to the use of outright coercion or force.

Use of Moral Suasion in Economic Survey:

  • In the Hindu tradition, the Survey says, the non-payment of debts is a sin. If a person dies indebted, his soul may have to face adverse consequences. In such an event, it is the duty of the errant debtor’s children to save his or her soul.
  • This duty or obligation of a child to repay the debts of the deceased parent is rested upon a special doctrine, known as The Doctrine of Pious Obligation.
  • The Survey also cites an Islamic injunction on paradise being barred to those who haven’t cleared their debts, with the addendum that heirs could pay on their behalf if the money left behind by the deceased proves insufficient.
  • Christian tenets have also been quoted. The Bible, the Survey notes, says, “Let no debt remain outstanding except the continuing debt to love one another,” and “the wicked borrows and does not repay, but the righteous shows mercy and gives.” Even if it’s part of a broader thrust aimed at framing policies that seek to modify the behaviour of people, such a discourse in an official document is rather unusual, to say the least.
  • The survey talks of using religious custom, social norms and cultural traditions to make people pay taxes, keep young people away from alcohol and drugs and engineer gender equality.
  • The concept of Ardhanareshwar – half male, half female representation of Lord Shiva – examples of super-achieving women such as the prophetess Gargi, who questioned the origin of all existence in her Vedic hymns, and Maitreyi, who rejected half her husband’s wealth for spiritual knowledge, could be used to reinforce the message of gender equality.

Yes, Moral Suasion works:

  • Religion is deeply ingrained in Indian society, be it in people’s personal lives or the nation’s polity.
  • Images of deities are often put up on walls and other objects in public places to deter vandals.
  • They can have a powerful impact on our biggest societal challenges.
  • Across all religions, positive mythological insights about gender and caste equality as well as universal brotherhood have been available and deeply understood in Indian society since the ages.
  • So, repeatedly reinforcing examples of people following these positive sentiments as truly spiritual people can help establish the correct social norm that serving man is serving God.
  • The Good Samaritan guidelines of the Central Government and the policy adopted by several State governments, where people who help road accident victims receive a monetary incentive and an appreciation certificate, leverage behavioural insights to reinforce the correct social norm of selfless service of mankind.

No, Moral Suasion could fail because:

  • In a country of India’s diversity, debt itself has varied views. Usury, for instance, is a sin in the Christian and Islamic traditions, and this is sometimes interpreted as a ban on interest charges per se. The diversity of the country means that what works in one state may not work in another
  • Modern liability limitations have been found to help encourage the risks that businesses must take to generate returns.
  • Stirring up thoughts of divine retribution on matters of money could have unforeseen results.
  • It relies on individual choice instead of overt state intervention.
  • Discoveries about the past from behavioural experiments do not easily generalise to the future -the social context for one generation is often different from another.
  • Behavioural economics is, however, not a panacea to policymaking; its potential needs to be understood and put in perspective.
  • Nudge policies cannot and should not supplant every incentive-based and mandate-based policy. For example, a policy that merely nudges people to refrain from assaulting others will fail as such situations warrant strict decree or, at least, a stronger push than a mere nudge.
  • nudge units may fall prey to a paternalistic view that planners know better than citizens despite the fact that public policy designers have the same behavioural quirks that other human beings have.

Way forward:

  • Behavioural economists should take on economic problems that have begged solutions for long. Any success on this front will establish the applicability of behavioural economics to tough challenges.
  • Behavioural economics should be taught in many more educational institutions.
  • Behavioural economists have shown that people prefer avoiding losses compared with making gains.

Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

3) With warnings from India’s policy-makers and reports of major cities in India struggling to cope with water crisis, exploring technologies to harness fresh water seems to be a ray of hope. Critically examine these technologies. How far would they be effective in preventing a water crisis in the future?(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question:

 The article discusses the major challenge of water crisis the country is facing and highlights the need of emerging technologies in addressing the issue.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must bring out the role that technology can play in harnessing effective ways of preventing water crisis in the coming future.

Directive:

Critically ExamineWhen asked to examine, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start with facts justifying the current water crisis conditions facing the country.

Body:

The question is straightforward and there isn’t much to deliberate, students must first bring out the current conditions of water crisis in the country – state reasons, concerns posed etc. and then move on to explain in what way newer technologies can address the situation in an effective and sustainable manner.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance of technology and put a word of caution that technology alone can not be a solution for the crisis but also awareness, sustainable use of water is the need of the hour.

Introduction:

India is on the threshold of a very serious groundwater crisis, which needs mitigation both in the fields and at the policy corridors of the country. A World Bank study puts the plight of the country in perspective: 163 million Indians lack access to safe drinking water; 210 million Indians lack access to improved sanitation; 21% of communicable diseases are linked to unsafe water. Many Indian cities, including Delhi and Bangalore, face a water crisis, especially that of freshwater.

Body:

Technologies to harness fresh water:

  • Rainwater Harvesting: It is a process involving collection and storage of rain water (with the help of artificially designed system) that runs off natural or man-made catchment areas e.g. roof top, compounds, rock surface or hill slopes or artificially repaired impervious/semi-pervious land surface.
    • Pros: It reduces Runoff loss, helps meet rising demand of water by recharging the water table, No land is wasted for storage purpose and no population displacement is involved, increases the productivity of aquifer and reduces urban flooding.
    • Cons: High installation charges, lack of awareness and education,
  • Desalination: It is a technology that converts salt water into freshwater using reverse osmosis (RO). Osmosis involves ‘a solvent naturally moving from an area of low concentration, through a membrane, to an area of high concentration
    • Pros: Abundance of Seawater around India. RO is commercially proven and the dominant technology. It is easier for attracting the private players.
    • Cons: RO plants convert seawater to fresh water, the major environmental challenge they pose is the deposition of brine (highly concentrated salt water) along the shores. This reduces the availability of prawn, sardine and mackerel. Environmentalists second this saying that hyper salinity along the shore affects plankton, which is the main food for several of these fish species. The construction of the RO plants required troves of groundwater. Desalinated water can also be acidic to both pipes and digestive systems.
  • Low Temperature Thermal Desalination (LTTD) is one process that uses the availability of a temperature gradient between two water bodies or flows to evaporate the warmer water at low pressure and condense the resultant vapour with the colder water to obtain freshwater.
    • Pros: Better than the Desalination technique; simplicity of the LTTD process also enables to control the quality of product water in order to provide either good quality drinking water or boiler grade water as the situation warrants.
    • Cons: the LTTD technique draws power from diesel sets

The water crisis of India cannot be solved by just one type of solution. Thus, technology alone cannot be a panacea. There is a need for multi-pronged solution to tackle the crisis of water.

Other measures needed:

  • India’s priority must be:
    • To make our irrigation and water systems amenable to modern concepts.
    • To complete irrigation and water sector reforms.
    • To implement improved water management, governance and regulation practices.
    • Pricing system for water: For making people use water efficiently
  • Deepen our understanding of our water resources and usage and put in place interventions that make our water use efficient and sustainable.
  • Augmentation of watersheds that can store more good water, for use in agriculture and to serve habitations.
  • Strict pollution control enforcement.
  • Decentralisation of irrigation commands, offering higher financial flows to well-performing States through a National Irrigation Management Fund.
  • Groundwater extraction patterns need to be better understood through robust data collection.
  • Pollution can be curbed by levying suitable costs.
  • Poor maintenance of pipelines, consistent leakage and illegal tapping of water are some of the issues that need to be addressed on a war-footing.
  • Adopting rainwater harvesting techniques is the need of the hour.
  • A legal mandate will work better than just competition and cooperation; it would make governments accountable.
  • These forward-looking changes would need revamped national and State institutions, and updated laws.
  • Urban India needs to focus on recycling and harvesting water, having better testing and purification facilities and increase public awareness on the need to conserve water.
  • Large catchment areas need to be developed around water bodies so that natural recharge of groundwater takes place. A good example is the Seog catchment area which has been denoted as a wildlife sanctuary and where no construction is allowed.
  • Greywater recycling, a method of recycling wastewater from kitchen sinks, showers and laundry fixtures.
  • Greywater recycling helps reduce household water usage by about 50% .
  • This year’s World Water Development Report makes it clear that nature-based solutions which are also aligned with the principles and aims of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development can offer answers to our most pressing water-related challenges.

Conclusion:

There is a need for credible environmental and cumulative impact assessments, genuine public consultation process at multiple stages of planning and project implementation, confidence-inspiring appraisal, which includes the appointment of independent experts, and most crucially, achieving some real monitoring and compliance. The water governance ought to be made transparent, accountable and participatory in every sub-sector, including management of rivers, groundwater, floods, and biodiversity, among others.

Extra information: Ancient Indians understood the art of water governance. Most of India’s traditional water management has been at the community level; relying upon diverse, imaginative and effective methods for harvesting, storing, and managing rainfall, runoff and stream flow. Some of the traditional water conservation structures:

  • Phad – It is a community-managed irrigation system in the tapi river basin in Maharashtra. It starts with check dam built across a river and canals to carry water to agricultural blocks with outlets to ensure excess water is removed from the canals.
  • Zing – It is found in Ladakh, are small tanks that collect melting glacier water. A network of guiding channels brings water from the glacier to the tank.
  • Kuhls – They are surface water channels found in the mountainous regions of Himachal Pradesh. The channels carry glacial waters from rivers and streams into the fields.
  • Zabo or Ruza System– It is practised in Nagaland. Rainwater that falls on forested hilltops is collected by channels that deposit the run-off water in pond-like structures created on the terraced hillsides.
  • Jackwells – The Shompen tribe of the Great Nicobar Islands uses this system, in which bamboos are placed under trees to collect runoff water from leaves and carries it to jackwells which are pits encircled by bunds made from logs of hard wood.
  • Pat system – It is developed in Madhya Pradesh, in which the water is diverted from hill streams into irrigation channels by diversion bunds. They are made across the stream by piling up stones and teak leaves and mud.
  • Eri – It is tank system, widely used in Tamil Nadu which acts as flood-control systems, prevent soil erosion and wastage of runoff during periods of heavy rainfall, and also recharge the groundwater.
  • Johads – They are small earthen check dams used to conserve and recharge ground water, mainly constructed in an area with naturally high elevation.
  • Panam keni – The Kurumba tribe (a native tribe of Wayanad) uses wooden cylinders as a special type of well, which are made by soaking the stems of toddy palms and immersed in groundwater springs.
  • Ahar Pynes – They are traditional floodwater harvesting systems indigenous to South Bihar. Ahars are reservoirs with embankments on three sides and Pynes are artificial rivulets led off from rivers to collect water in the ahars for irrigation in the dry months.
  • Jhalara – Jhalaras are typically rectangular-shaped stepwells that have tiered steps on three or four sides in the city of Jodhpur.
  • Bawari – Bawaris are unique stepwells that were once a part of the ancient networks of water storage in the cities of Rajasthan.
  • Taanka – It is a cylindrical paved underground pit into which rainwater from rooftops, courtyards or artificially prepared catchments flows. It is indigenous to the Thar Desert region of Rajasthan.
  • Khadin – Also called dhora, is a long earthen embankment that is built across the hill slopes of gravelly uplands. It is indigenous to Jaisalmer region and similar to the irrigation methods of Ur region (Present Iraq).
  • Kund – It is a saucer-shaped catchment area that gently slopes towards the central circular underground well. It is found in the sandier tracts of western Rajasthan and Gujarat.

Topic:  Land reforms in India.

4) What are the major land reforms of India? Why are land reforms needed in Indian economy? Discuss.(250 words)

Indian economy by Dutta and Sundaram

Why this question:

The question seeks to examine the major land reforms in India and their need for the economy.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the major land reforms in India and their what are their contributions to the Indian economy.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Describe briefly the beginning of land reforms in India. 

Body:

  • First explain what you understand by land reforms – Land reforms in India usually refer to redistribution of land from the rich to the poor. Land reforms are often connected with re-distribution of agricultural land and hence it is related to agrarian reforms too.
  • Start with a narration of Background and History of Land Reforms in India.
  • Explain the major land reforms that took place in India.
  • Its role in Indian economy – Equity – now the majority of land in India is enjoyed by a minority of landlords. The inverse relationship between land size and efficiency – the smaller the land, better will be the productivity and efficiency. Owner-cultivation is more efficient than share-cropping etc.
  • Then discuss the relevant challenges that need focus.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

Land Reforms usually refers to redistribution of Land from rich to poor. Land reforms include Regulation of Ownership, Operation, Leasing, sale and Inheritance of Land. In an agrarian economy like India with massive inequalities of wealth and income, great scarcity and an unequal distribution of land, coupled with a large mass of people living below the poverty line, there are strong economic and political arguments for land reforms.

Body:

The major land reforms in India:

The process of land reform after independence basically occurred in two broad phases.

First phase:

  • The first phase also called the phase of institutional reforms started soon after independence and continued till the early 1960s focussed on the following features:
  • Abolition of intermediaries like zamindars, jagirdars, etc.
  • Tenancy reforms involving providing security of tenure to the tenants, decrease in rents and conferment of ownership rights to tenants
  • Ceilings on size of landholdings
  • Co-operativization and community development programmes.

Second phase:

  • The second phase beginning around the mid- or late 1960s saw the gradual ushering in of the so-called Green Revolution and has been seen as the phase of technological reforms.
  • Digitisation of land records:
    • Making land records available to all, to contain/check property frauds, became one of the objectives of the government of India in the late 1980s.
    • To address the same, the Digital India Land Records Modernisation Programme (DILRMP) was launched by the government of India in August 2008.
    • The main aim of the programme, was to computerise all land records, including mutations, improve transparency in the land record maintenance system, digitise maps and surveys, update all settlement records and minimise the scope of land disputes.
    • Digitisation would provide clear titles of land ownership that could be monitored easily by government officials, to facilitate quicker transactions. This will also reduce construction timelines and the overall cost for the developer, the benefits of which can be transferred to the consumer, making property prices more attractive.

Need for the land reforms in India:

  • To make redistribution of Land to make a socialistic pattern of society. Such an effort will reduce the inequalities in ownership of land.
  • To ensure land ceiling and take away the surplus land to be distributed among the small and marginal farmers.
  • To legitimize tenancy with the ceiling limit.
  • To register all the tenancy with the village Panchayats.
  • To establish relation between tenancy and ceiling.
  • To remove rural poverty.
  • Proliferating socialist development to lessen social inequality
  • Empowerment of women in the traditionally male driven society.
  • To increase productivity of agriculture.
  • To see that everyone can have a right on a piece of land.
  • Protection of tribal by not allowing outsiders to take their land.

Conclusion:

Land reform is the major step of government to assist people living under adverse conditions. It is basically redistribution of land from those who have excess of land to those who do not possess with the objective of increasing the income and bargaining power of the rural poor. The purpose of land reform is to help weaker section of society and do justice in land distribution. Government land policies are implemented to make more rational use of the scarce land resources by affecting conditions of holdings, imposing ceilings and grounds on holdings so that cultivation can be done in the most economical manner.


Topic:  Land reforms in India.

5) India is facing a problem of fragmented landholdings at present, with nearly 67% of Indian farmers possessing land holdings below 1 hectare. Under such conditions discuss the need for appropriate land reforms.(250 words)

 Indian economy by Dutta and Sundaram

Why this question:

The question is based on the theme of land reforms and in what way they are the need of the hour.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the burning issue of declining land area and the issue of fragmentation.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin with facts substantiating prevalent conditions of land fragmentation.

Body:

Discussion should include the following: 

  • Start by bringing out the challenge of land fragmentation, discuss the reasons, concerns associated with it.
  • Explain that the main objective of the land reforms programme is to do away with the existing inequalities in the system of landholding and to increase the agriculture. Thus, explain how land reforms can address the issue of fragmentation.
  • Quote examples/case studies to justify better. Suggest cases where land reforms have addressed successfully such situations.

Conclusion:

Conclude that Changing the man-land relations and the man-man relations on land has been a concern for decision-makers and people of a country. Whenever there has been exploitation of landlords or the government’s failure to frame the policies, peasants and people’s movements targeted the oppressors and policy makers.

Introduction:

The shrinking size of farms is a major factor responsible for low incomes and farmers distress. The average size of farm holdings declined from 2.3 hectares in 1970-71 to 1.08 hectares in 2015-16. The share of small and marginal farmers increased from 70% in 1980-81 to 86% in 2015-16. The average size of marginal holdings is only 0.38 hectares (less than one acre) in 2015-16. The monthly income of small and marginal farmers from all sources is only around ₹4,000 and ₹5,000 as compared to ₹41,000 for large farmers. The viability of marginal and small farmers is a major challenge for Indian agriculture.

Body:

Need for the land reforms in India:

  • To make redistribution of Land to make a socialistic pattern of society. Such an effort will reduce the inequalities in ownership of land.
  • To ensure land ceiling and take away the surplus land to be distributed among the small and marginal farmers.
  • To legitimize tenancy with the ceiling limit.
  • To register all the tenancy with the village Panchayats.
  • To establish relation between tenancy and ceiling.
  • To remove rural poverty.
  • Proliferating socialist development to lessen social inequality
  • Empowerment of women in the traditionally male driven society.
  • To increase productivity of agriculture.
  • To see that everyone can have a right on a piece of land.
  • Protection of tribal by not allowing outsiders to take their land.

Measures needed to achieve the land reforms:

  • Land records modernization/computerization- Digital India Land Records Modernisation Programme (DILRMP) has been launched.
  • Appropriate land compensation- The Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act, 2013 is meant to provide owners with rightful compensation.
  • Land leasing- Model Agricultural Land Leasing Act, 2016 can help in this regard.
  • Contract farming- Draft Model Contract Farming Act, 2018 has been released to strengthen rules and regulations regarding this.
  • Consolidation of land holdings so that huge machineries can be utilized
  • FDI in agricultural sector
  • Co-operative farming
  • Use of land banks and land pooling

Conclusion:

Farmer’s distress is due to low prices and low productivity. The suggestions, such as limited procurement, measures to improve low productivity, and consolidation of land holdings to gain the benefits of size, can help in reducing agrarian distress. The time has come to bring requisite changes in the relevant laws governing the cooperative sector with a view to encourage farmers in the context of changed techno-economic and business scenario to make the farming viable and vibrant enterprises. We need a long-term policy to tackle the situation.


Topic:  Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.

6) What do you understand by 5G technology? What are its benefits? Explain the various challenges involved in adopting the same.(250 words)

Reference

Economictimes

Why this question:

The question is in the backdrop of recent debates over the Huawei’s role in the 5G network rollout in India continues. This comes at a time when the government has made its intentions clear to start with the 5G trials soon.

Key demand of the question:

Explain in detail the 5G technology, its benefits and applications and what are the challenges currently India is facing in implementing it.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Explain in brief what you understand by 5G technology.

Body:

Explain the following points – 

  • 5G – It is the next generation cellular technology that will provide faster and more reliable communication with ultra-low latency.
  • Its benefits – It will revolutionize the mobile experience; consumers will be able to download data heavy content such as 8K movies and games with better graphics in just a few seconds. But once 5G becomes commercial, users will be required to change their current devices in favor of 5G-enabled ones. 
  • However, it is likely that the primary use of the technology will go beyond delivery of services on personal mobiles devices.
  • Discuss the various fields of applications for such technology.
  • Discuss the various challenges being faced in incorporating the technology in India.

Conclusion:

Conclude by reasserting the significance of such a technology.

Introduction:

5G is the fifth generation mobile network. It’s a unified platform which is much more capable than previous mobile services with more capacity, lower latency, faster data delivery rate and better utilisation of spectrum. The standards for the usage of 5G are defined and driven by 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP).

Body:

Characteristics of 5G technology:

The potential advantages it offers:

  • Industry 4.0:
  • The manufacturing industry is going through a digital revolution.
  • Within the context of Industry 4.0, manufacturers are becoming more efficient through the application of automation and data exchange to their existing factory processes to enable better integrated workflows and smarter manufacturing.
  • Industrial IoT technologies are streamlining and simplifying many manufacturing processes in revolutionary ways.
  • Mixed reality (MR) applications:
    • The MR Apps comprise augmented reality (AR) plus virtual reality (VR) apps.
    • Beyond the consumer market (think Pokémon Go), interesting applications are also likely to be found in industrial and medical contexts.
    • Remote medical procedures, engineering, public safety and field-service applications are all strong use case opportunities for the application of low latency 5G services.
  • Sports and entertainment:
    • A combination of VR and AR with ultra high-fidelity enabled by 5G could transform the way fans interact in these events.
    • Motorsports is ideal for VR in particular: equipped with their mobile device or headset, fans could be served information like lap or technical information about cars as they race on the track in a sport like Formula 1
  • Fixed wireless access:
    • Fixed wireless access could also be used to bring high bandwidth digital services to under-served rural areas.
    • Mobile operators will then be able to compete with wireline, satellite and cable companies, offering new revenue streams and faster RoI.
  • Autonomous vehicles:
  • The idea that much of the car, if not all of it, is controlled not by the driver but by technology.
  • 5G is critical to realize this as it will offer the connectivity and speed needed to deliver vast amounts of data to one another as well as other objects simultaneously.
  • 5G can provide a completely seamless mobile experience is a must so that cars can stay constantly connected.

Challenges present to adapt to 5G are:

  • Frequency allocation: Indian operators have far less spectrum in comparison to international operators. The high investment cost which makes telecom companies unsure about Return on Investment.
  • Network investment: In India, the telecom sector is facing capital augmentation issues which need to be resolved.
  • Non-availability of funds for investment: Many of the Indian operators are also weighed down by debt.
  • Regulatory restrictions: Faster rounds of new technology introduction when prior technology investments have not been recouped add further complexity.
  • Technical Challenges: Designing IT architecture that can be deployed globally, while still allowing for localized technology to cater for different regions is a challenge.

Way forward for India:

  • Need to align Digital India with 5G technology.
  • Incentivize design and manufacture of 5G technologies, products and solutions in India.
  • Allocate funds and incentivise local technology and telecom firms to develop their internal capacities which would in turn help 5G technology succeed in the country
  • Promote 5G start-ups that enable this design and manufacturing capabilities.
  • Promote generation of IPR backing the above designs.
  • Manufacture of 5G chipsets, this may require massive investments.
  • Appropriate test-beds and technology platforms to enable and help Indian technical ecosystem to have an edge in 5G.
  • Accelerated deployment of next generation ubiquitous ultra-high broadband infrastructure with 100% coverage of 10 Gbps across urban India and 1 Gbps across Rural India.
  • Coverage, reliability, and scalability must be optimized and seamless mobile networks will require a unified management policy to ensure consistent standards

Conclusion:

The World Economic Forum predicts that by 2023 there will be a staggering 9.1 billion mobile subscriptions. 5G will act as the catalyst for Digital India—a watershed moment in digital transformation. India is at the cusp of a next generation of wireless technology 5G. It provides an opportunity for industry to reach out to global markets, and consumers to gain with the economies of scale. It can help in better service delivery, faster access to services and deeper penetration of digital services.


Topic:Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service – social intelligence

7) Explain what do you understand by social intelligence? discuss the significance of social intelligence in civil services with suitable examples.(250 words)

 Ethics by Lexicon publications

Why this question:

The question is based on the concept of social intelligence.

Key demand of the question:

Explain the concept of social intelligence, discuss the associated nuances, its significance and more so specifically its utility with respect to civil services.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Define what is social intelligence.

Body:

Discuss the following points: 

  • Social Intelligence (SI) is the ability to successfully build relationships and navigate social environments. Our society puts a huge emphasis on book smarts and IQ, but our relationships effect a much bigger part of our lives. 
  • Explain What are the components of social intelligence?
  • What are different types of social intelligence?
  • Is social intelligence the same as emotional intelligence?
  • How can one become socially intelligent?
  • What is the relevance of Social intelligence to civil services, what difference does it make?

Conclusion:

Conclude with its importance.

Introduction:

Social intelligence is the capacity to know oneself and to know others.  Social intelligence is an aggregated measure of self- and social-awareness, evolved social beliefs and attitudes, and a capacity and appetite to manage complex social change.

Body:

Social Intelligence is closely related and definitely linked to Emotional Intelligence. Work relationships — like all relationships — can be complicated. Being able to understand what’s going on — and respond skilfully — means you’ll be a better team player, a better negotiator and a better administrator.

Significance of social intelligence:

  • Verbal fluency and conversational skills: The highly socially intelligent person can carry on conversations with a wide variety of people, and is tactful and appropriate in what is said. Combined, these represent what are called “social expressiveness skills.”
  • Knowledge of Social Roles, Rules, and Scripts: Socially intelligent individuals learn how to play various social roles. They are also well versed in the informal rules, or “norms,” that govern social interaction.
  • Effective Listening Skills: Socially intelligent persons are great listeners. As a result, others come away from an interaction with an SI person feeling as if they had a good “connection” with him or her.
  • Understanding What Makes Other People Tick: Understanding emotions is part of Emotional Intelligence, and Social Intelligence and Emotional Intelligence are correlated – people who are especially skilled are high on both.
  • Role Playing and Social Self-Efficacy: The socially intelligent person knows how to play different social roles – allowing him or her to feel comfortable with all types of people. As a result, the SI individual feels socially self-confident and effective.
  • Impression Management Skills: Persons with SI are concerned with the impression they are making on others.

Conclusion:

In this era of information and close contact with the public, it is very vital for the civil servants to be socially intelligent to connect and work with them. Civil servants act as link between the public and the government and social intelligence acts as a bond between the two.