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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 08 JULY 2019


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 08 JULY 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

1) The Nagaland government has recently initiated an exercise to prepare a master list of all indigenous inhabitants of the State. Critically analyse in what way the positives of such a move outweigh the negatives? (250 words)

Hindustantimes

The hindu

 

Why this question:

The Nagaland government is initiating an exercise to prepare a master list of all indigenous inhabitants of the State. This list, called the Register of Indigenous Inhabitants of Nagaland (RIIN), is seen as a localised version of the National Register of Citizens (NRC) that Assam began updating four years ago and is scheduled to complete by July 31.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must analyse the pros and cons of such an act taken by the government which is intended to prevent fake ‘indigenous inhabitants’ certificates.

Directive:

Critically analyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

State the facts related to the move taken by the government of Nagaland with respect to the indigenous inhabitants.

Body:

Discussion should have the following aspects covered:

What is Nagaland’s initiative? what is the intent?

What is the procedure of the survey – discuss the detailed technicalities.

What can be the possible challenges?

list the pros and cons and conclude in what way it can best benefit the people of Nagaland.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a balanced opinion that with proper measures and survey in place the positives of such a move are greater than the negatives.

Introduction:

The Government of Nagaland has decided to set up a Register of Indigenous Inhabitants of Nagaland (RIIN) with the aim of preventing fake indigenous inhabitants’ certificates. All indigenous inhabitants of the state would be issued a barcoded and numbered Indigenous Inhabitant Certificate. The process will be conducted across Nagaland and will be done as part of the online system of Inner Line Permit (ILP), which is already in force in Nagaland.

Body:

Key features:

  • The RIIN will be the master list of all indigenous inhabitants of the state.
  • The RIIN list will be based on “an extensive survey”.
  • It will involve official records of indigenous residents from rural and (urban) wards and would be prepared under the supervision of the district administration.
  • This provisional list will then be published in all villages, wards and on government websites by September 11, 2019.

Positives of the move:

  • Identification of indigenous people will be easier. Illegal Bangladeshi and Rohingya migrants can be stopped and burden on the socio-economic resources can be curbed.
  • Better targeting of beneficiaries for government services like PDS.
  • Helps in preservation of Naga culture tribes from encroachment.
  • It would help in better internal security of the already disturbed North-East India.
  • It could also led to decrease in tribal clashes, Greater Nagaland demand
  • It would promote harmony and development of region which is gateway to ASEAN

Challenges/Negatives of the move:

  • The Assam experience shows that in the complex demographies of the North-eastern States, the registration process may not be that easy.
  • As many as 40 lakh people were left out of the NRC listing in Assam, in the alleged process to filter out ‘illegal immigrants’.
  • Indeed, in Nagaland, various local attempts have been made to determine non-locals, non-tribals and non-Nagas.
  • Efforts have been taken to identify what some people refer to as the ‘Illegal Bangladeshi Immigrant’, but not full-fledged.
  • The situation on the ground is already volatile and the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act is routinely extended there too.
  • All these pose significant challenges to the citizenship registration process.

Conclusion:

In the complex demographies of North-Eastern States, it may prove to be difficult. In Nagaland, various local attempts have been made previously to determine non-locals, non-tribals and non-Nagas. RIIN should not become a vehicle to determine outsiders / insiders. It is expected to deepen the existing fault-lines. Emotive political issues cannot be allowed to drive the compiling of a registry of citizens. Given this, the Nagaland government should facilitate the right to appeal and a humane hearing for those who are left out.


Topic: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests

2) At a time when the geopolitical contestation between China and the United States is escalating, do you think it has become imperative for the ASEAN to reclaim the strategic narrative in its favour in order to underscore its centrality in the emerging regional order? Examine.(250 words)

The hindu

 

Why this question: 

At the 34th summit of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in Bangkok in June, its member states finally managed to articulate a collective vision for the Indo-Pacific region in a document titled “The ASEAN Outlook on the Indo-Pacific”.

Demand of the question:

The answer must capture a detailed analysis of the role of ASEAN and its emerging role in the Indo-Pacific region.

Directive word: 

ExamineWhen asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

In brief explain the context of the question.

Body

First explain that the for a long time, the ASEAN has been reluctant to frontally engage with the Indo-Pacific discourse as the perception was that it may antagonize China. But there was soon a realization that such an approach might allow others to shape the regional architecture and marginalize the ASEAN itself. And so, the final outlook that the ASEAN has come up with effectively seeks to take its own position rather than following any one power’s lead.

Explain then in what way ASEAN is redefining the Indo-pacific narrative.

Explain the stakes of US and china in the regions, discuss the effects of the turf between the two.

Conclusion 

Conclude with significance of ASEAN in the Indo-pacific narrative.

Introduction:

The geography of the Indo-Pacific stretches from the eastern coast of Africa to Oceania (from the shores of Africa to that of the Americas) which also includes in its fold the Pacific Island countries. At a time when the geopolitical disputes between China and the United States are escalating, it has become imperative for the ASEAN to reclaim the strategic narrative in its favour in order to highlight its centrality in the emerging regional order.

Body:

At the 34th summit of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in Bangkok in June, its member states finally managed to articulate a collective vision for the Indo-Pacific region in a document titled “The ASEAN Outlook on the Indo-Pacific”.

Highlights of document and its significance:

  • It underlines the need for an inclusive and rules-based framework to generate momentum for building strategic trust and win-win cooperation in the region.
  • It says that the rise of material powers (economic and military) requires avoiding the deepening of mistrust, miscalculation and patterns of behaviour based on a zero-sum game.
  • It could complement existing frameworks of cooperation at the regional and sub-regional levels.
  • It could generate tangible and concrete deliverables for the benefit of the region’s peoples.
  • Despite individual differences and bilateral engagements ASEAN states have with the U.S. and China, the regional grouping can now claim to have a common approach as far as the Indo-Pacific region is concerned.
  • Though there were divisions among ASEAN member states in the run-up to the summit, they still managed to come up with this document.

Previous stance of ASEAN about Indo-Pacific:

  • ASEAN had the perception that it may antagonise China if it engages with the Indo-Pacific discourse.
  • But there was soon a realisation that such an approach might allow others to shape the regional architecture and marginalise the ASEAN.

ASEAN and Indo-Pacific:

  • The ASEAN outlook does not see the Indo-Pacific as one continuous territorial space, it emphasises development and connectivity, underlining the need for maritime cooperation, infrastructure connectivity and broader economic cooperation.
  • The ASEAN is signalling that it would seek to avoid making the region a platform for major power competition.
  • Instead its frame of reference is economic cooperation and dialogue.
  • The fact that the ASEAN has gone ahead and articulated an Indo-Pacific outlook is in itself a seeming challenge to China which refuses to validate the concept.
  • But the ASEAN’s approach is aimed at placating China by not allowing itself to align with the U.S.’s vision for the region completely.

Way forward for India:

  • India has welcomed the ASEAN’s outlook on the Indo-Pacific as it sees important elements of convergence with its own approach towards the region.
  • India must continue to focus on further strengthening collaboration with ASEAN nations and others.
  • India’s bureaucratic shift is an important move to articulate its regional policy more cogently, coherently and with a renewed sense of purpose.
  • Partners must work to promote economic revival, seek strategic cooperation to fight terrorism, and enhance maritime security and defence cooperation.
  • Soft power such as Buddhism, tourism, people-to-people contacts, and cultural ties with the region must continue to be harnessed.
  • Beyond, but linked to ASEAN, India must further strengthen strategic and economic ties with the U.S., Japan, Korea, Australia, and also with China.
  • Important sectors like technology transfer, civilian nuclear cooperation, defence, and innovation should be given priority
  • Continuous engagement with China too is necessary to expand cooperation, particularly on the economic front.

Conclusion:

With the ASEAN finally coming to terms with its own role in the Indo-Pacific, the ball is now in the court of other regional stakeholders to work with the regional grouping to shape a balance of power in the region which favours inclusivity, stability and economic prosperity.


Topic:  population and associated issues, Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

3) According to the Economic Survey 2018-19, India’s population growth rate will decline faster than assumed as the fertility rate in many states has reached the replacement rate, while India is already struggling with high unemployment, don’t you think the changing demography will add to the challenge of fulfilling aspirations of New India? Critically analyse.(250 words)

Hindustantimes

Why this question:

 Economic Survey 2018-19 has noted that “India is set to witness a sharp slowdown in population growth in the next two decades”.

Key demand of the question:

Th answer needs to analyse the effect of such a finding on fulfilling aspirations of New India. One has to critically analyse in what way the changing trends in demography can lead to challenges in jobs, employment and overall increased dependent ratio.

Directive:

Critically analyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Highlight the findings of the economic survey.

Body:

The survey had a close look at the impact of population arrest on India’s working-age population. It said as this population would rise by 96.5 million between 2021-31 and by 41.5 million between 2031-41, it would have implications for the required rate of job creation in the economy. It said “additional jobs will need to be created to keep pace with the projected annual increase in working-age population.”

One must explain in detail the possible challenges that the conditions can pose on the growth and development aspects of the country.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

India’s booming population is set to coming to a grinding halt over the next two decades, as the country witnesses a sharp slowdown in population growth, the Economic Survey 2018-2019 revealed. Demographic projections show that India’s population growth will continue to slow rapidly over the next two decades, growing less than 1% during 2021-31 and under 0.5% during 2031-41

Body:

Highlights of Population growth:

  • Population experts have said that while India’s large population presents challenges in providing food, housing, jobs and other essentials, the country has entered a demographic stage when a plateauing of population and a subsequent decline in numbers is just decades away.
  • 13 of the 22 major states TFR is below 2.1, meaning that these states, including those in the south, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, West Bengal and Maharashtra are already quite advanced in their demographic transition, mirroring trends in countries with much higher levels of income.
  • The TFR is expected to reach 1.8 in 2021 – similar to the current rate in France – and stabilise at 1.7, the stage where China, which is heading for a population decline, is now.
  • States already below replacement level fertility will see a further decline to decline to 1.5-1.6. The survey estimates that the large poorer states of central India, like Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Jharkhand and Madhya Pradesh are likely to reach TFR levels below 1.8 between 2021 and 2031.
  • Some states like Tamil Nadu could witness population declines after 2031 unless there is migration from other states.
  • India currently adds around 10 million people annually to the working age population; this increase is likely to decline to 4.2 million in 2031-41.

Positives of declining population growth:

  • An increase in the share of a country’s working-age (15–64 years) can generate faster economic growth. The working-age population is generally more productive and saves more increasing domestic resources for
  • Increased fiscal space created by the demographic dividend to divert resources from spending on children to investing in physical and human infrastructure
  • Rise in women’s workforce that naturally accompanies a decline in fertility, and which can be a new source of growth
  • Additional boost to savings that occurs as the incentive to save for longer periods of retirement increases with greater longevity
  • Higher savings:
    • The younger population will have both more savings and higher spending due to the raising higher disposable income.
    • Higher savings along with better and more investment opportunities nowadays leads to higher household savings which increases the overall capital formation in the economy. This provides for future industrial investments and propels the economy into higher growth path in the long run.
  • Higher income increases the effective demand in the market there by increasing the overall consumption and the market growth of business in the current period of time
  • Outsourcing of jobs:
    • With the declining working age population in the other countries particularly developed countries, more jobs emanating from the developed countries will be outsourced and India can gain from it due to demographic dividend.
  • Massive shift towards a middle-class society that is already in the making

Decreasing fertility rate and its challenges:

  • The decrease in fertility and the associated decrease in the dependency ratio, in turn lead to an increase in the share of the population concentrated in the working ages and hence in the ratio of the working age to the non-working age population.
  • Dependency ratio:
    • The proportion of workers rises sharply, even as the proportion of dependants falls. In many countries, the ratio of workers to dependents goes up, giving a huge boost to per capita income.
    • India will see a significant rise in working age adults India’s dependency ratio that is the number of dependents to working people is low at 0.6, compared with the developed countries. That ratio is going to decline further with fertility rates continuing to fall.
  • For the next few decades India will have a youthful, dynamic and productive workforce than the rest of the world.
  • A demographic trend where the proportion of persons aged 15-24 in the population increases significantly compared to other age groups which paired with limited employment opportunities may contribute to increased poverty, hunger, malnutrition, poorer health, lower educational outcomes, child labour, unsupervised and abandoned children, and rising rates of domestic violence.
  • Education constraints:
    • There are serious problems with Indian higher education. These include a shortage of high quality faculty, poor incentive structures, lack of good regulation
    • India is home to the world’s largest concentration of illiterate people in the world
  • Health:
    • At the primary level, there are also serious problems with health and nutrition that impact the effectiveness of education and the capacity for learning.
    • In future large proportion of older working aged people who face longer periods of retirement, accumulate assets to support themselves.

Way forward:

  • Health and education parameters need to be improved substantially to make the Indian workforce efficient and skilled.
  • Enhance, support and coordinate private sector initiatives for skill development through appropriate Public-Private Partnership (PPP) models; strive for significant operational and financial involvement from the private sector
  • Focus on underprivileged sections of society and backward regions of the country thereby enabling a move out of poverty; similarly, focus significantly on the unorganized or informal sector workforce.
  • Measures should have pan Indian presence and not just concentrated in metropolitan cities as most of the workforce is likely to come from the rural hinterland.
  • Investing in people through healthcare, quality education, jobs and skills helps build human capital, which is key to supporting economic growth, ending extreme poverty, and creating more inclusive societies
  • New technology could be exploited to accelerate the pace of building human capital, including massive open online courses and virtual classrooms
  • Policymakers should have a greater incentive to redouble their efforts to promote human capital so that it can contribute to economic growth and job creation

Topic: poverty and developmental issues, climate change

4) How can the challenges of poverty and climate change be balanced together? Discuss.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question:

The question hints at How climate change affects people living in poverty and in what way the interlinked two can be addressed together.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must analyse that the impacts of climate change affect every country on every continent. The increased frequency and intensity of extreme weather events like hurricanes, wildfires and droughts threaten food supplies, drive people from their homes, separate families and jeopardize livelihoods. And all of these effects increase the risk of conflict, hunger and poverty. Thus, one has to address in what way the two can be addressed together.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Describe the context of the question. 

Body:

The answer must first analyse how poverty and climate change are interlinked to each other. In what way the challenges of the two can be addressed together.

Students must discuss in detail the possible challenges and then suggest solutions to the issue.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

Around the world, people are experiencing both the delicate and harsh effects of climate change. Gradually rising sea levels and more extreme weather events are all clear and devastating evidence of a rapidly changing climate. The impacts of climate change can be seen in every country on every continent. The increased frequency and intensity of extreme weather events like hurricanes, wildfires, and droughts threaten food supplies, drive people from their homes, separate families and jeopardize livelihoods. And all of these effects increase the risk of conflict, hunger, and poverty.

Body:

Climate change and poverty:

  • 2018 report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change of the United Nations estimates that “even a 1.5-degree increase in global temperature could push tens of millions of people into poverty.”
  • According to the World Food Programme’s 2018 Global Report on Food Crises, “climate disasters triggered food crises across 23 countries, mostly in Africa, with shocks such as drought leaving more than 39 million people in need of urgent assistance.”
  • According to the 2018 Global Report on Internal Displacement, “30.6 million new internal displacements associated with conflict and natural disasters were recorded in 2017 across 143 countries and territories.”
  • Climate change hits the poorest people the hardest, those living in vulnerable areas with the fewest resources to help them adapt or recover quickly from shocks.
  • Up to 122 million more people worldwide could be living in extreme poverty by 2030 as a result of climate change and its impacts on small-scale farmers’ incomes, a major UN report warned.

Measures needed:

  • Climate-proofing’ sustainable development efforts are important. Current efforts should remain relevant in the face of future climate impacts.
  • Adaptation programmes ought to be designed so that challenges faced by people living in poverty are recognised and reduced.
  • Ex: A district with severe nutritional deficiency along with drought from climate change, then the focus ought to be on improving local food access and managing water efficiently to prepare for future water shortages.
  • Similarly, sanitation and housing ought to be improved in future flooding areas and use appropriate design strategies that are resilient to water-logging.
  • Improved governance, including an active civil society and open, transparent, and accountable policy and decision making processes.
  • Mainstreaming climate issues into all national, sub-national, and sectoral planning processes.
  • Empowerment of communities so that they can participate in assessments and feed in their knowledge to provide useful climate-poverty information.
  • Vulnerability assessments that fully address the different shades and causes of poverty.
  • Access to good quality information about the impacts of climate change. This is key for effective poverty reduction strategies.
  • Increasing the resilience of livelihoods and infrastructure as a key component of an effective poverty reduction strategy.
  • State of Food and Agriculture report states that without “widespread adoption of sustainable land, water, fisheries and forestry practices, global poverty cannot be eradicated”.
  • Carbon pricing, for example, help lower emissions and can create a revenue stream from that can be used to help the poor offset any rise in fuel or energy prices.
  • Phasing out fossil fuel subsidies can also help lower emissions and free up government spending for more targeted support for the poor.
  • Redistribution of wealth from Richer to poorer nations:
    • Richer countries in the world have responsibility in changing the current approach to disaster aid.
    • In major donor countries such as the US and UK, the guiding modus operandi of disaster relief has been reactive as opposed to proactive measures.
    • Earmarking more resources for disaster prevention and preparedness than on emergency responses such as humanitarian interventions in post disaster situations.
    • Donor countries need to prioritise identifying the most vulnerable people both before and after a disaster, and ensure they receive the required support and are granted the agency to be actively involved in the process.

Conclusion:

Climate change and the resultant disasters are a reality. Nations should prepare to mitigate and deflect the destruction caused by disasters. We need to employ technology, strict following of command structure and most importantly the participation and cooperation of local communities in the affected area.


Topic:  Land reforms in India.

5) What do you understand by Cooperative farming? How does it contribute to Land reforms? Discuss its limitations and analyse why cooperative farming model has not been very successful in the country.(250 words)

epw

Why this question:

The question intends to analyse the practice of co-operative farming and its contributions to land reforms.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must first discuss the concept of co-operative farming and then discuss its contributions to land reforms and analyse the limitations and challenges associated.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin with brief introduction on what you understand by co-operative farming.

Body:

Discussion should include the following: 

Explain that co-operative farming is the practice of pooling of land and practicing joint agriculture.

Discuss its contribution to land reforms, quote examples, success stories where co-operative farming has acted as a game changer.

Explain the limitations/challenges encountered in inculcating the features of the co-operative farming.

Then discuss in what way it can be addressed to make it a success story.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

Co-operative farming is a voluntary organization in which the farmers pool their resources. The object of this organization is to help each other in agriculture for their common interests. In other word it is a co-operative among the farmers of limited means.

Body:

Co-operative farming and land reforms:

  • In India, majority of the holdings are too small. About 76.4 per cent of the total holdings in India are below the size of 2 hectares and on these again 28.8 per cent of total operated area is engaged into these marginal and small holdings.
  • Cultivation in such a small holding is uneconomic and unprofitable.
  • Farmers retain their right to land.
  • Cooperative farming enables them to consolidate their small units of land for better utilization.
  • Solves the problem of sub-division and fragmentation of holdings.

Other benefits:

  • Use of Machinery: A poor farmer cannot purchase the machinery but a cooperative society can easily purchase the various machines. The use of machines will not only reduce the cost of production but will increase the per acre yield.
  • Supply of Inputs: A cooperative farming is in a better position to get the adequate and timely supply of essential agriculture inputs like fertilizer and seeds.
  • Creates Love and Brotherhood: A cooperative farming society creates the brotherhood and love for the members because they work for their common interest.
  • Fair Price of the Product: A co-operative farming society will bargain in the market and will sell the product at maximum price. The income of the individual farmer will increase.
  • Guidance and Training: A co-operative society guides the farmer to increase their efficiency and production.

Causes of failure of cooperative farming:

  • Attachment with Land: The farmers are not willing to surrender the rights of land in favour of the society because they have too much attachment with it.
  • Lack of Cooperative Spirit: The spirit of cooperation and love is lacking among farmers. They are divided in various sections on cast basis. There is no unity among them, so they are not ready to become the member of the society.
  • Illiteracy: In poor countries farmers are mostly illiterate and they are not ready accept any change in the cultivation process. Still some of them are using the old methods of cultivation.
  • Lack of Capital: The co-operative farming societies are also facing the capital shortage problem and these are unable to meet the growing needs of agriculture. Credit facilities to these societies are also not sufficient.
  • Dishonesty: The management of cooperative often turns out to be dishonest. The selfishness of the members make the cooperative farming society ineffective.
  • Loss of Independence: Under co-operative farming, farmers face loss of independence in their farming operation which the farmers find it difficult to accept.
  • Re-Payment of Debt: Sometimes debt is not repaid in time which creates many problems for the financial institutions. Some members do not realize their responsibility and it becomes the cause of failure.

Measures needed:

  • The government must invest capital so that the cooperatives become capable to shoulder the responsibility of guaranteeing purchase of crops at remunerative prices, it’s storage at Gram Sabha level, ensuring cheaper loans for rural families, providing food grains to poor families under PDS .
  • Kudumbashree of Kerala and AMUL model are successful models of cooperatisation and there is need to learn from it.
  • One must keep in mind the class character of cooperatives and they must be formed on class basis. Cooperative agrarian movement will resolve the questions of caste inequality, sex-based discrimination and environmental conservation.
  • Agro-processing units may be installed so that their labour power may be deployed in productive activities other than agriculture.

Conclusion:

The cooperative farming has been tried successfully in various countries like United Kingdom, Germany, France and Sweden. The agricultural cooperative movement would play a huge role in safeguarding democracy and it may play an inspirational role in mobilising the people in unorganized sector and the youth.


Topic:Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System- objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing.

6) “Apart from enhancing and improving agricultural productivity, land reforms are key drivers of social equity”. comment.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question:

The question is straightforward and must discuss the role of land reforms in bringing social equity.

Key demand of the question:

Explain in detail the role of land reforms in enhancing Agri productivity of the country and also in what way they ensure social equity.

Directive:

Commenthere we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Discuss in brief the importance of land reforms.

Body:

Explain what are the effects of land reforms.

How does it bring increased Agri productivity?

What role do land reforms play in bringing social equity? – explain with example. Explain the following aspects – 

  1. Land equity: Marginalized farmers got ownership over more land area and thus increase in social status.
  2. Credit access and increased food production > increase in income > filed the gap of income inequality.
  3. Abolition of zamindari curtailed exploitative practices such as beggar, bonded labour.

Though land reforms had limited success due to loopholes in law, corruption, these reforms changed the shape of Indian agrarian system. Land reforms are still going on e.g. Benami Act, Computerizations etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by suggesting importance of land reforms in social equity.

Introduction:

Land reforms in India usually refer to redistribution of land from the rich to the poor. Land reforms are often connected with re-distribution of agricultural land and hence it is related to agrarian reforms too. Land  reform  legislation  in  India  consisted  of  four  main  categories — tenancy  reform, abolition of intermediaries, land ceiling, and land consolidation.

Body:

Objectives of land reforms:

  • To enhance the productivity of land by improving the economic conditions of farmers and tenants so that they may have the interest to invest in and improve agriculture
  • To ensure distributive justice and to create an egalitarian society by eliminating all forms of exploitation
  • To create a system of peasant proprietorship with the motto of land to the tiller
  • To transfer the incomes of the few too many so that the demand for consumer goods would be created.

Land Reforms and Agricultural Productivity:

  • Earlier large tracts of wasteland belonging to zamindars/ big farmers remained uncultivated. These lands were given to landless labourers as a result of which there is increase in area under cultivation leading to food security.
  • Equal distribution of land will encourage intensive cultivation resulting in increased agricultural production leading to higher production levels.
  • Some farm management studies conducted in India testified that small farms yielded more production per hectare. It is so because family members themselves cultivate small farms.
  • Even one hectare of land is also an economic holding these days on account of improvement in agricultural technique. Hence, small size of holding due to ceiling will not have any adverse effect on agricultural production.
  • Atleast some of the Land owners shifted to direct ‘efficient’ farming in order to get ‘exemption’ from land ceiling.
  • Consolidation of landholdings ensures that small bits of land belonging to the same small landowner but situated at some distance from one another could be consolidated into a single holding to boost viability and productivity.

Land reforms and Social Equity:

  • In a land-scarce country with a significant section of the rural population below the poverty line, the case for ensuring that everyone has access to some minimum amount of land seems compelling from  the  point  of 
  • In a rural economy, whoever controls land, controls the power.
  • The tenancy laws have given the tillers protection from exploitation by providing them security of tenure and fixing maximum chargeable rents.
  • Land ceiling reduced this power inequality among villagers.
  • The intermediary rights have been abolished. India no longer presents a picture of feudalism at the top and serfdom at the bottom.
  • Promoted spirit of cooperation among villagers.
  • It will help develop cooperative farming

Way forward:

  • Adoption of model land leasing law as suggested by Niti Ayog to aid in drawing private investment to agriculture.
  • Promoting cooperative farming by establishing cooperatives at village level.
  • Governments providing the farm equipment’s and machineries on lease to small and marginal farmers to increase the productivity
  • Achieving the convergence of MNREGA with farming to address the issue of farm labour crisis haunting agricultural sector.

Conclusion:

Land reforms have upheld the socialistic directive principles of state policy which aims at equitable distribution of wealth. However, there have been challenges which need to be overcome to attain the true objectives of Land reforms. The manifold problems of our land are to be solved through the introduction of a suitable land policy.


Topic:Good governance

7) It is said that you have the government that you deserve. What does it mean for good governance? What changes would you suggest in the behavior and attitude of all the stakeholders in establishment of good governance?(250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon publications

Why this question:

The question is about explaining the role of government in exercising good governance.

Key demand of the question:

Explain in detail how good governance can be achieved, what is the role of government in achieving good governance. Role of different stakeholders.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Explain what you understand by good governance.

Body:

Explain the following aspects – 

What are characteristics of a good governance? – Good governance has 8 major characteristics. It is participatory, consensus oriented, accountable, transparent, responsive, effective and efficient, equitable and inclusive, and follows the rule of law.

What is good governance and bad governance? – Good governance means that processes and institutions produce results that meet the needs of society while making the best use of resources at their disposal. The concept of efficiency in the context of good governance also covers the sustainable use of natural resources and the protection of the environment.

Discuss who are the actors in the process of governance?

Role of government in achieving it.

Conclusion:

Conclude with essence of good governance.

Introduction:

Governance refers to exercise of power and authority by political leaders for the well being of their citizens and subjects. It also ensures a leader’s actions and policies to ensure development of both the society and nation as whole.

Body:

Good governance is understood through its eight indicators or characteristics:

  • Participatory:
    • Good governance essentially requires participation of different sectors of the society. The management of highly complex societies and of their ever growing needs requires a participatory form of governance by diffusing power.
    • The move for decentralization is a response to this as it widens the base of participation and allows local government units to exercise governmental powers directly within their respective districts.
    • This means freedom of association and expression and an organized civil society should go hand in hand.
  • Rule of Law: Democracy is essentially the rule of law. It is through the law that people express their will and exercise their sovereignty.
  • Effective and Efficient: Good governance requires that the institutions, processes, and actors could deliver and meet the necessities of the society in a way that available resources are utilized well. That the different actors meet the needs of the society means that there is effective
  • Transparent: Transparency, as an indicator of good governance, means that people are open to information regarding decision-making process and the implementation of the same.
  • Responsive: Responsiveness means that institutions and processes serve all stakeholders in a timely and appropriate
  • Equitable and Inclusive: Equity and inclusiveness means that all the members of the society, especially the most vulnerable ones or the grassroots level, must be taken into consideration in policy-making.
  • Consensus Oriented: Governance is consensus oriented when decisions are made after taking into consideration the different viewpoints of the actors of the society. Mechanisms for conflict resolution must be in place because inevitably conflict that will arise from competing interests of the actors.
  • Accountability: Accountability means answerability or responsibility for one’s action. It is based on the principle that every person or group is responsible for their actions most especially when their acts affect public interest.

“Good” governance promotes gender equality, sustains the environment, enables citizens to exercise personal freedoms, and provides tools to reduce poverty, deprivation, fear, and violence. The UN views good governance as participatory, transparent and accountable. It encompasses state institutions and their operations and includes private sector and civil society organizations.

Good governance is significant in public institutions to conduct and manage public affairs and resources to guarantee human rights in free of abuse and corruption, and with due regard for the rule of law.

Government is one of the actors in governance. Other actors involved in governance vary depending on the level of government that is under discussion. In rural areas, for example, other actors may include influential land lords, associations of peasant farmers, cooperatives, NGOs, research institutes, religious leaders, finance institutions political parties, the military etc.

Measures for good governance:

  • Citizen Centricity
  • Social Audit
  • Participation (suggestions and feedback)
  • Women’s participation
  • Decentralization (political, fiscal, administrative)
  • Effective delegation of duties (Principle of subsidiarity)
  • Inclusivity or accessibility to the differently abled
  • Grievance Redressal
    • CVC, National Commission for SC, NCST, Lokpal, National Commission for Protection of Child Rights, Consumer Courts
  • Use of technology
  • Simplifying processes
    • g. simplifying attestation processes, single window clearance)
    • g. Jaankari Project of Bihar govt. to make RTI queries through phone call
  • Periodic Monitoring and Evaluation
  • Robust enforcement institutions and mechanisms

Conclusion:

Good governance is an ideal which is difficult to achieve in its totality. Very few countries and societies have come close to achieving good governance in its totality. However, to ensure sustainable human development, actions must be taken to work towards this ideal with the aim of making it a reality.