Print Friendly, PDF & Email

SECURE SYNOPSIS: 05 JULY 2019


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 05 JULY 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation. Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

1)  “Despite India’s outstanding growth in the last two decades, low pay and wage inequality remain serious obstacles towards achieving inclusive growth. An effective minimum wage policy that targets the vulnerable bottom rung of wage earners can help in driving up aggregate demand, and building and strengthening the middle class, and thus spur a phase of sustainable and inclusive growth”. Comment. (250 words)

Livemint

 

Why this question:

The article highlights how in recent years, minimum wage systems have been strengthened by many countries to lift workers out of poverty and to reduce levels of inequality.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must bring out the relevance of minimum wage policy to Indian scenario and in what way it can be a game changer in alleviating people out of poverty and spurring sustainable and inclusive growth.

Directive:

Commenthere we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief explain what you understand by minimum wage policy.

Body:

Start by discussing the on going debate of the concept of minimum wage policy in economic survey. The Survey advises that the proposed labour code should include a provision for a minimum wage for both informal and formal sector workers, as 93% of the labour force is engaged in unorganized work.

Discuss how and why India needs to have a mandatory national-level minimum wage to promote social justice and curb distress migration.

Discuss both the positives and negatives of such a policy.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a fair and balanced approach.

Introduction:

The International Labour Organization (ILO) defines minimum wages as the minimum amount of remuneration that an employer is required to pay wage earners for the work performed during a given period, which cannot be reduced by collective agreement or an individual contract. A well-designed and streamlined minimum wage system is required to reduce wage inequality in India, the Economic Survey 2019 says.

Body:

Need for a minimum wage policy in India:

  • Currently, the minimum wage system, under the Minimum Wages Act, 1948, in India is complex, with 1,915 different minimum wages defined for different job categories across States.
  • Despite the complex system, workers were still falling through the gaps.
  • About 93% of the labour force is engaged in unorganized sector.
  • Salaries have undergone big increases in India and corporate emoluments have are increasing rapidly too.
  • But wages (in real terms) remains where it was before the beginning of the ‘New Economic Policy’ of 1991.
  • Wages of the unskilled workers vary wildly from Rs 850 per day in Kerala to a third of it in most other parts of the country.
  • According to the ILO, One in every three wage workers in India is not protected by the minimum wage law.
  • There are huge disparities within the various jobs in unskilled category. For instance, the minimum wage rate for domestic workers within a State is consistently lower than that for the minimum wage rates for security guards.

Pros of National Minimum wage policy:

  • Workers who can cover the cost of living have better morale. They are more productive if they have a decent standard of living.
  • A mandatory minimum national wage will force states to pay more than the floor rate, but not less
  • It helps target the vulnerable bottom rung of wage earners can help in driving up aggregate demand and building and strengthening the middle class
  • The move, the Survey said, will improve help regions attract investment and reduce distress migration.
  • This would bring some uniformity in minimum wages across the country and make all states almost equally attractive from the point of view of labour cost for investment
  • minimum wages can promote social justice without any major negative implication for employment if wages are set at an adequate level
  • A minimum wage spurs economic growth. It gives workers more money to spend. This increases demand and business revenue.
  • Workers who have more time and money can then invest in their education. This further increases their productivity. It improves the attractiveness of the country’s labour pool. A more educated workforce increases innovation and the number of small businesses.

Cons:

  • The minimum wage laws raise business labour costs. That’s already the largest budget item for most of them. When the government forces them to pay more per worker, they hire fewer workers to keep the total labour costs the same. This increases the unemployment rate.
  • It hits low-wage workers the hardest since they must now compete for fewer jobs. Some smaller companies may not be able to operate with fewer workers. They may be forced to declare bankruptcy instead.
  • According to the Confederation of Indian Industries (CII), states should have the power to determine minimum wages as the concept of a national minimum wage will affect job creation.
  • A minimum wage penalizes companies that are labour-intensive. By default, this rewards those that are in capital-intensive industries. Over time, this can shift the very fabric of the country’s economic base.
  • Minimum wage laws may increase job outsourcing. Companies move their facilities to countries where labour costs are lower.
  • Minimum wage laws may not reduce the country’s poverty. It helps the workers who have jobs but increases unemployment. Research shows experienced workers received higher pay for less experienced workers lost their jobs.
  • It could raise the cost of living in some areas. A higher minimum wage allows workers to pay more for housing. As a result, landlords could raise rents, creating inflation.

Measures needed:

  • Increasing the ambit of the minimum wage system, it recommended deciding minimum wages on the basis of skills and split across geographical regions.
  • With the government in the process of bringing the Code on Wages Bill in Parliament, the survey said the rationalisation of minimum wages proposed by the Bill should be supported.
  • The code will bring together the Minimum Wages Act, 1948, the Payment of Wages Act, 1936, the Payment of Bonus Act, 1965 and the Equal Remuneration Act, 1976 into a single legislation.
  • The survey suggested the government should notify a “national floor minimum wage” across five regions, after which States can fix their own minimum wages, but not lower than the floor wage.
  • This would bring uniformity and make States “almost equally attractive from the point of view of labour cost for investment as well as reduce distress migration.”
  • The proposed Code on Wages Bill should extend applicability of minimum wages to all employments/workers in all sectors and should cover both the organized as well as the unorganized sector.
  • A mechanism for regular adjustment of minimum wages should be developed, with a national-level dashboard at the Centre that States can access and update.
  • An easy to recall toll-free number to lodge complaints about non-payment of minimum wages should be publicised.

Conclusion:

A simple, coherent and enforceable Minimum Wage System should be designed with the aid of technology as minimum wages push wages up and reduce wage inequality without significantly affecting employment. An effective minimum wage policy is a potential tool not only for the protection of low paid workers but is also an inclusive mechanism for more resilient and sustainable economic development


Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

2)  “The government’s flagship program of Swachh Bharat Mission has provided for a testimony to the potential for behavioural change in India”, analyse the statement in the light of Richard Thaler’s Behavioural Economics Theory.(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question: 

The article talks about relevance of behavioural change in the success of Swachh Bharat Mission.

Demand of the question:

The answer must talk about the Richard Thaler’s Behavioural Economics Theory and how and in what way one can correlate the success of SBM to it.

Directive word: 

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

One can start by stating few facts to justify the success of SBM.

Body

The economic Survey said the Swachh Bharat Mission had resulted in the improvement of key primary health indicators.

It has drawn on Nobel Laureate Richard Thaler’s Behavioral Economics Theory to lay out what it describes as an “ambitious agenda” for behaviour change that will bring in social change, which in turn, will help India transit to a $5 trillion economy by 2024-25.

The Survey, therefore, lays out an ambitious agenda for behavioral change by applying the principles of behavioral economics to several issues, including gender equality, a healthy and beautiful India, savings, tax compliance and credit quality.

Discuss the success of SBM with a case study to substantiate better.

Conclusion 

Conclude with significance of behavioral change in driving the policies to success.

Introduction:

Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) is perhaps the largest behaviour change campaign ever, aims to make India a clean nation. The mission will cover all rural and urban areas. The World Health Organization (WHO) believes that SBM could prevent about 300,000 deaths due to water borne diseases assuming we achieve 100 per cent coverage by October 2019.

Body:

Behavioural Economics and Swachh Bharat Mission:

  • The Economic Survey 2019 has drawn on Nobel Laureate Richard Thaler’s Behavioural Economics Theory to lay out what it describes as an “ambitious agenda” for behaviour change that will bring in social change, which in turn, will help India transit to a $5 trillion economy by 2024-25.
  • Given our rich cultural and spiritual heritage, social norms play a very important role in shaping the behaviour of each one of us.
  • Behavioural economics provides the necessary tools and principles to not only understand how norms affect behaviour, but also to utilize these norms to effect behavioural change.
  • Behavioural economics tells us that even if people are truly interested in SBM; their actions may differ from their intent as they need to be moved to action with a gentle nudge.
  • Nudge policies gently steer people towards desirable behaviour while preserving their liberty to choose” and the government was planning to go ahead with the programmes to usher social change.
  • It does not talk about penalizing people if they do not behave in a particular manner, rather it encourages them to make desirable decisions.
  • It believes that Humans are not-so-rational and often need encouragement or intervention — a nudge — to get going and do what’s best for the country or society at large.

Success of SBM so far:

  • The major finding of this analysis was that all these health indicators improved significantly in both groups after the implementation of SBM. (ES-2019)
  • Five hundred and eighty four districts, 5,840 blocks, 244,687 gram panchayats and 541,433 villages are open defecation free (ODF).
  • Towards the end of 2017, an independent verification agency (IVA) conducted the National Annual Rural Sanitation Survey (NARSS), and found that 93.4 per cent people who had toilets, used them regularly. NARSS also re- confirmed the ODF status of 95.6 per cent of the villages that had been verified ODF by the state governments.
  • SBM had resulted in the improvement of key primary health indicators–diarrhoea deaths among children less than five years had reduced significantly in the past four years. (ES-2019)
  • Around 2% of rural India has got individual household latrines (IHHL) coverage in the last four years under SBM, which has had significant impact on health. For example, an estimated 140,000 deaths were reported due to diarrhoeal diseases in 2014. This has declined to about 50,000 deaths in 2017-2018. While diarrhoea accounted for 11% deaths of children under five in 2013, an independent survey claims it is around 8.6% now. (ES-2019)
  • Districts with low IHHL coverage suffered more from diarrhoea, malaria, still births and low birth weight, when compared to districts with high IHHL coverage—indicating that lack of sanitation and hygiene are the primary reasons for these health problems. (ES-2019)
  • Over the last four years, a cadre of 500,000 Swachhagrahis has been created who have triggered lakhs of villages to become ODF.
  • The foot-soldiers have helped in geo-tagging toilets, verifying household behaviour, converting old toilets and retro-fitting them, engaging in other forms of cleanliness.
  • Bal Swachhata mission that was launched to inculcate cleanliness values and personal hygiene amongst children.

Other instances of Behavioural Economics at play:

  • Among the successful programmes to introduce behavioural change was the Ujjwala scheme, which sought to move from incandescent to LED bulbs to promote energy efficiency, among other benefits.
  • Another example was the subsidy “Give it Up” campaign, under which the government encouraged “above poverty line” households to voluntarily surrender their LPG subsidies. For every household that contributed, a below poverty level household was promised a gas connection.

Way Forward:

  • Governmental Initiatives of Swachhata Pakwada Campaigns should be promoted to raise awareness of sanitation and hygiene. Adequate Budgetary Allocation should be given to construct twin-pit toilets at villages, public toilets etc.
  • Teach them young: Children must be taught the importance of Sanitation and hygiene. Initiatives like Bal Swachhata Mission, Swachh Vidyalaya Abhiyan are pushing forward the objective.
  • Competition raising initiatives like Swachha Survekshan Abhiyan will help in boosting the spirit of cities and towns to improve the ODF status.
  • In places of water scarcity, trains etc. use of bio-toilets can be promoted.
  • Technology like mini-jetting machines, robots to clean the clogged pits as done in Hyderabad and Trivandrum should be emulated in other places to curb manual scavenging.
  • Swachhata Doots, NGOs and CSOs must be involved at the grassroots level to achieve 100% ODF by October 2nd, 2019.

Conclusion:

The success of the Swachh Bharat Mission is linked to the participation of the people. It depends on people changing their attitudes towards cleanliness, building and using toilets, and maintaining personal hygiene among other things. This means creating a ‘behavioural change’ in an individual is critical to help break old habits and norms. Going forward, the Behavioural economics theory can be applied to bring about other social changes too like reducing tax evasion, reducing corruption etc.

 

Case Study of Behavioural Changes:

  • Patakpur village in Unnao, UttarPradesh:
  • A technique of behavioural change called community led total sanitation (CLTS) came in handy. World Vision India, a non-profit organisation, began working in the district to raise awareness.
  • The technique helps shift the focus just acquiring the sanitation hardware to creation of open-defecation free villages. The onus of ensuring that all families have household toilets rests with the community. It integrates hygiene and health, keeping the community’s ownership sustained.
  • They used rangoli (colored powder) to draw a map of our village to explain how the faeces gets into our water sources, contaminating it. It took a while, but they were eventually convinced that their homes wouldn’t become impure with toilets. Rather, not having one would make the village dirty and impure.
  • Indore’s ‘Roko And Toko’ Push To Stop Open Defecation:
  • Under this unique initiative take up by Indore’s civic body, ‘dibba gangs’ have been created to ‘roko aur toko’ those who defecate in the open. These ‘gangs’, mostly made up of schoolchildren, have taken to spreading the message by beating metal boxes loudly whenever they come across anyone defecating in the open.
  • The ‘gang members’ can also impose a fine of ₹100 on anyone found defecating or urinating in the open. This initiative is successful since it involves members of the very community it is seeking to change.

Topic:  Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

3) Right local community level healthcare intervention is a precondition to achieve ‘Health for All’ in India. Elucidate.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question:

 The question is about analyzing the role of local community level healthcare intervention in achieving the health for all dream of India.

Key demand of the question:

The answer has to bring out the importance of local healthcare intervention in supporting the health system of the country.

Directive:

Elucidate Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the  particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Discuss the current stresses in terms of doctors, staff and support system the healthcare system of the country is undergoing.

Body:

One has to affirm that how significant shifts in focus would enable the Indian state to re-prioritize its policies in its pursuit to provide universal health and medical care by taking full support from the local community healthcare intervention. 

Explain that the Gandhian dream of self-sufficient, networked community governments – Panchayats – is often dismissed as utopian and impractical. The contrary is true. Community institutions have many distinct advantages in looking after their own habitat and the health and welfare of their members. Interventions can be context specific and based on intimate knowledge of one another; they will rely on mutual cooperation rather than on a bureaucracy or the dictates of the ‘market’; they will be able to have a more holistic and a less ‘medicalised’ approach to health and they will be able to work out the most appropriate cost recovery methods for whatever facilities and services they provide.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

Primary healthcare or local community level healthcare, similarly defined, is healthcare provided to all, especially the most marginalised, with their participation and for their needs. If the primary healthcare system of a country is not functioning well, it is symptomatic of problems in its democracy itself.

Body:

Importance of local community level health care:

  • Primary Health Care (PHC) is the heart and soul of medicine. It is the foundation of every health care system: the first contact and ongoing link between people and their health providers.
  • PHC is how individuals and families connect with the health care system throughout their lives, for everything from prenatal checkups and routine immunizations to the treatment of illness and the management of chronic conditions.
  • When PHC works, people are able to get the care they need to stay healthy. The vast majority of a community’s health needs can be met by a well-functioning primary care system.
  • PHC explicitly ensures a focus on equity, accessibility and quality of care. PHC is people-focused: organized around people rather than diseases, and encompassing the full range of interventions that foster good health.
  • The principles of the PHC approach of the Alma Ata declaration (1978) such as healthcare closest to home and appropriate technology that is effective, safe, cheap, and simple to use, need to be applied to the healthcare system as a whole. The PHC-infused-UHC could facilitate such a shift.

The major challenges faced by healthcare system in India are:

  • Finance: At about 1.3% of the national income, India’s public healthcare spending between 2008 and 2015, has virtually remained stagnant. This is way less than the global average of 6 per cent. It is a herculean task to implement a scheme that could potentially cost Rs 5 lakh per person and benefit 53.7 crore out of India’s 121 crore citizenry, or roughly about 44% of the country’s population. Over 70 per cent of the total healthcare expenditure is accounted for by the private sector.
  • Crumbling public health infrastructure: Given the country’s crumbling public healthcare infrastructure, most patients are forced to go to private clinics and hospitals. There is a shortage of PHCs (22%) and sub-health centres (20%), while only 7% sub-health centres and 12% primary health centres meet Indian Public Health Standards (IPHS) norms.
  • High Out of Pocket Expenditure: Reports suggest that 70% of the medical spending is from the patient’s pockets leading to huge burden and pushing many into poverty. Most consumers complain of rising costs. Hundred days into the PMJAY, it remains to be seen if private hospitals provide knee replacement at Rs 80,000 (current charges Rs 3.5 lakh) bypass surgery at Rs 1.7 lakh (against Rs 4 lakh).
  • Insurance: India has one of the lowest per capita healthcare expenditures in the world. Government contribution to insurance stands at roughly 32 percent, as opposed to 83.5 percent in the UK. The high out-of-pocket expenses in India stem from the fact that 76 percent of Indians do not have health insurance.
  • Doctor-Density Ratio: The WHO reports the doctor-density ratio in India at 8 per 10,000 people as against one doctor for a population of 1,000.To achieve such access, merely increasing the number of primary and secondary healthcare centres is not enough.
  • Shortage of Medical Personnel: Data by IndiaSpend show that there is a staggering shortage of medical and paramedical staff at all levels of care: 10,907 auxiliary nurse midwives and 3,673 doctors are needed at sub-health and primary health centres, while for community health centres the figure is 18,422 specialists.
  • Rural-urban disparity: The rural healthcare infrastructure is three-tiered and includes a sub-center, primary health centre (PHC) and CHC. PHCs are short of more than 3,000 doctors, with the shortage up by 200 per cent over the last 10 years to 27,421. Private hospitals don’t have adequate presence in Tier-2 and Tier-3 cities and there is a trend towards super specialisation in Tier-1 cities.
  • Social Inequality: The growth of health facilities has been highly imbalanced in India. Rural, hilly and remote areas of the country are under served while in urban areas and cities, health facility is well developed. The SC/ST and the poor people are far away from modern health service.
  • Poor healthcare ranking: India ranks as low as 145th among 195 countries in healthcare quality and accessibility, behind even Bangladesh and Sri Lanka.
  • Commercial motive: lack of transparency and unethical practices in the private sector.
  • Lack of level playing field between the public and private hospitals: This has been a major concern as public hospitals would continue receiving budgetary support. This would dissuade the private players from actively participating in the scheme.
  • Scheme flaws: The overall situation with the National Health Mission, India’s flagship programme in primary health care, continues to be dismal. The NHM’s share in the health budget fell from 73% in 2006 to 50% in 2019 in the absence of uniform and substantial increases in health spending by States.

Steps taken up currently:

  • The National Health Policy (NHP) 2017 advocated allocating resources of up to two-thirds or more to primary care as it enunciated the goal of achieving “the highest possible level of good health and well-being, through a preventive and promotive healthcare orientation”.
  • A 167% increase in allocation this year for the Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (PMJAY) — the insurance programme which aims to cover 10 crore poor families for hospitalisation expenses of up to ₹5 lakh per family per annum.
  • The government’s recent steps to incentivise the private sector to open hospitals in Tier II and Tier III cities.
  • Individual states are adopting technology to support health-insurance schemes. For instance, Remedinet Technology (India’s first completely electronic cashless health insurance claims processing network) has been signed on as the technology partner for the Karnataka Government’s recently announced cashless health insurance schemes.

Measures needed to strengthen the existing state of Health infrastructure in the country are:

  • There is an immediate need to increase the public spending to 2.5% of GDP, despite that being lower than global average of 5.4%.
  • The achievement of a distress-free and comprehensive wellness system for all hinges on the performance of health and wellness centres as they will be instrumental in reducing the greater burden of out-of-pocket expenditure on health.
  • There is a need to depart from the current trend of erratic and insufficient increases in health spending and make substantial and sustained investments in public health over the next decade.
  • A National Health Regulatory and Development Framework needs to be made for improving the quality (for example registration of health practitioners), performance, equity, efficacy and accountability of healthcare delivery across the country.
  • Increase the Public-Private Partnerships to increase the last-mile reach of healthcare.
  • Generic drugs and Jan Aushadi Kendras should be increased to make medicines affordable and reduce the major component of Out of Pocket Expenditure.
  • The government’s National Innovation Council, which is mandated to provide a platform for collaboration amongst healthcare domain experts, stakeholders and key participants, should encourage a culture of innovation in India and help develop policy on innovations that will focus on an Indian model for inclusive growth.
  • India should take cue from other developing countries like Thailand to work towards providing Universal Health Coverage. UHC includes three components: Population coverage, disease coverage and cost coverage.
  • Leveraging the benefits of Information Technology like computer and mobile-phone based e-health and m-health initiatives to improve quality of healthcare service delivery. Start-ups are investing in healthcare sector from process automation to diagnostics to low-cost innovations. Policy and regulatory support should be provided to make healthcare accessible and affordable.

Conclusion:

India needs a holistic approach to tackle problems in healthcare industry. This includes the active collaboration of all stakeholders public, private sectors, and individuals. Amore dynamic and pro-active approach is needed to handle the dual disease burden. A universal access to health makes the nation fit and healthy, aiding better to achieve the demographic dividend.


Topic:  Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System- objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing.

4) Though Economic contribution of livestock is today more than that of food grain crops, absence of policy focus has stifled the sector that caters to the poorest. India’s livestock productivity is 20-60 per cent lower than the global average. Discuss the challenges and concerns associated with the growth of this sector and suggest what needs to be done.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question:

The question is based on the theme of Livestock sector of the country and the challenges and concerns associated with it.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss in detail the challenges and concerns associated with the growth of livestock sector in the country.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Describe the current status of livestock sector in India. Quote relevant facts/statistics depicting the contribution of livestock to the agricultural GDP.

Body:

The answer must discuss the following aspects:

First highlight the contribution of the sector to the agriculture sector of the country.

Then discuss specific challenges associated with the sector – Inadequate availability of credit, Poor accesses to organized markets deprive farmers of proper milk price, Limited availability of quality breeding bulls, Deficiency of vaccines and vaccination set-up, Due to industrialization and Urbanization Majority of grazing lands are either degraded or encroached, Diversion of feed and fodder ingredients for industrial use.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward by suggesting measures to overcome the above mentioned challenges.

Introduction:

India’s livestock sector is one of the largest in the world. About 20.5 million people depend upon livestock for their livelihood. Livestock contributed 16% to the income of small farm households as against an average of 14% for all rural households. Livestock provides livelihood to two-third of rural community. It also provides employment to about 8.8 % of the population in India. India has vast livestock resources. Livestock sector contributes 4.11% GDP and 25.6% of total Agriculture GDP.

Body:

Livestock resources in India: (Source: 19th Livestock Census)

  • World’s highest livestock owner at about 512.05 million
  • First in the total buffalo population in the world – 105.3 million buffaloes
  • Second in the population of cattle and goats – 140.5 million goats
  • Second largest poultry market in the world – production of 63 billion eggs and 649 million poultry meat.
  • Third in the population of sheep (72 millions)
  • Fifth in the population of ducks and chicken
  • Tenth in camel population in the world.

Challenges faced by Livestock sector in India:

  • Livestock sector did not receive the policy and financial attention it deserved. The sector received only about 12% of the total public expenditure on agriculture and allied sectors, which is disproportionately lesser than its contribution to agricultural GDP.
  • The sector has been neglected by the financial institutions.
    • The share of livestock in the total agricultural credit has hardly ever exceeded 4% in the total (short-term, medium-term and long-term). The institutional mechanisms to protect animals against risk are not strong enough.
  • Insurance:
    • Currently, only 6% of the animal heads (excluding poultry) are provided insurance cover. Livestock extension has remained grossly neglected in the past.
    • Only about 5% of the farm households in India access information on livestock technology. These indicate an apathetic outreach of the financial and information delivery systems.
  • Lack of access to markets may act as a disincentive to farmers to adopt improved technologies and quality inputs.
  • Productivity:
    • Improving productivity of farm animals is one of the major challenges. The average annual milk yield of Indian cattle is 1172 kg which is only about 50% of the global average.
  • Diseases:
    • The Frequent outbreaks of diseases like Food and Mouth Diseases, Black Quarter infection, Influenza etc. continue to affect Livestock health and lower the productivity.
  • Environment:
    • India’s huge population of ruminants contributes to greenhouse gases emission adding to global warming. Reducing greenhouse gases through mitigation and adaptation strategies will be a major challenge.
  • Crossbreeding of indigenous species with exotic stocks to enhance genetic potential of different species has been successful only to a limited extent.
  • Limited Artificial Insemination services owing to a deficiency in quality germplasm, infrastructure and technical manpower coupled with poor conception rate following artificial insemination have been the major impediments.
  • Livestock derives a major part of their energy requirement from agricultural by-products and residues. Hardly 5% of the cropped area is utilized to grow fodder. India is deficit in dry fodder by 11%, green fodder by 35% and concentrates feed by 28%. The common grazing lands too have been deteriorating quantitatively and qualitatively.
  • Except for poultry products and to some extent for milk, markets for livestock and livestock products are underdeveloped, irregular, uncertain and lack transparency. Further, these are often dominated by informal market intermediaries who exploit the producers.
  • Likewise, slaughtering facilities are too inadequate. About half of the total meat production comes from un-registered, make-shift slaughterhouses. Marketing and transaction costs of livestock products are high taking 15-20% of the sale price.

Measures needed:

  • A national breeding policy is needed to upgrade the best performing indigenous breeds.
  • Buffalo breeding ought to be given more attention, while poultry breeding should be focused on conservation.
  • State governments should be encouraged to participate in national breeding policy implementation. Geographical information system-based analysis must be utilised to map production systems.
  • Animal health care should become a priority, with greater investment in preventive health care.
  • Private investment must also be encouraged. The government needs to create better incentive structures for investment in livestock.
  • State governments should sponsor research and assessment of the market, along with highlighting investment potential.

Conclusion:

With increasing population, persistent rise in food inflation, unfortunate rise in farmer’s suicide and majority of the Indian population having agriculture as the primary occupation, the practice of animal husbandry is no more a choice, but a need in contemporary scenario. Its successful, sustainable and skilful implementation will go a long way in ameliorating the socio-economic condition of lower strata of our society.  Linking the animal husbandry with food processing industry, agriculture, researches & patents has all the possible potential to make India a nutritional power house of the world. Animal husbandry is the imperative hope, definite desire and urgent panacea for India as well as the world.


Topic Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System- objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing.

5) Explain the different types of agriculture revolutions that took place post Independence in India. Also explain how these revolutions have helped in bringing food security in India?(250 words)

 Indian geography by Majid Hussain, Indian economy by Dutt and Sundaram

 

Why this question:

The question is straight forward and is about discussing the agrarian revolutions that India witnessed post-independence.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the contributions of Agrarian revolutions in India and role played by them in ensuring food security in India.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin with brief on significance of important agrarian revolutions in India that started immediately after post-independence.

Body:

Discussion should include the following: 

  • India is primarily an agricultural economy and majority of people are still dependent on agriculture for their livelihood. After independence, development of agriculture has been assured by various revolutions supported by government.
  • Green Revolution – This revolution led to tremendous rise in production of food grains, especially wheat, by use of high-yielding varieties of seeds, fertilizers and pesticide.
  • White Revolution – Operation Flood (1970), an initiative of National Dairy Development Board has led to revolution in milk production in India. The world’s largest dairy development programme transformed India from a milk deficient nation to world’s largest milk producer.
  • Blue Revolution – This revolution focused on management of fisheries sector and has led to phenomenal increase in both fish production and productivity from aquaculture and fisheries resources of the inland and marine fisheries.
  • Other revolutions which are no less significant includes yellow revolution (oil seed production), golden fibre revolution (jute), golden revolution (horticulture), silver fibre revolution (Cotton) and red revolution (meat production).

Then suggest their contributions/significance. And conclude that To further the momentum of these programmes and assure food security in long run in face of ever increasing population, there is an urgent need for an ‘evergreen revolution’ that should focus on all round development of the agriculture sector.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

India is primarily an agricultural economy and majority of people are still dependent on agriculture for their livelihood. After independence, development of agriculture has been assured by various revolutions supported by government. The Agricultural Revolution or Agrarian Revolution refers to the significant change in agriculture that occurs when there are discoveries, inventions, or new technologies that changes the production.

Body:

RevolutionsContributions/significance
Green RevolutionIt stands for a major technological breakthrough in India based on:

1. Improved seeds of high yielding varieties
2. Adequate and assured supply of water for irrigation
3. Increased and appropriate application of chemical fertilizers for increasing agricultural production.

White RevolutionIt stands for remarkable increase in milk production and establishment of a national milk grid, removing regional and seasonal imbalances. Among the technological inputs are:

1. Cross-breeding of indigenous cows with high milk yielding European breed
2. Pasteurisation of milk for keeping it for a longer duration
3. Collection of quality milk from members in rural areas
4. Refrigerated transport system which helps sending milk to far-off metropolitan centres both by road and rail

Blue revolutionIt refers to big rise in catching of freshwater and marine fish.
Golden RevolutionOverall Horticulture development/Honey Production
Pink RevolutionIt is a term used to denote the technological changes in the meat and poultry processing sector.
Yellow RevolutionIt refers to remarkably steady and assured supply of Oil Seeds production.
Red RevolutionMeat and Tomato Production
Silver Fibre RevolutionCotton Revolution

 

Agricultural Revolution and Food Security:

  • These innovations in agriculture have lifted millions of people out of poverty by generating rural income opportunities for farmers, farm labourers, and also reduced prices for consumers. India has become self sufficient in food grain production with the help of green revolution.
  • The exponential rise in milk production has led to nutritional security among the masses. Per capita availability of milk has reached all time high of 337gms/day.
  • These steps have provided avenues for income diversification for farmers.

Conclusion:

To further carry on the momentum of these programmes and assure food security in long run in face of ever increasing population, there is an urgent need for an ‘evergreen revolution’ that should focus on all round development of the agriculture sector. The concept of Rainbow revolution is an integrated development of crop cultivation, horticulture, forestry, fishery, poultry, animal husbandry and food processing industry is the need of the hour.


Topic: Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration

6) Humility is the mother of all virtues, purity, charity and obedience. Comment. Do you consider yourself humble? How can you prepare yourself to become humbler? Discuss.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question:

The question is to analyse the importance of the virtue of humility and in what way it is the mother of all virtues.

Key demand of the question:

Explain in detail what you understand by Humility, its significance and one has discuss their personal experience and conclude with how one can be humble in life and what are its implications.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Explain what you understand by Humility.

Body:

Explain the virtue of humility – Humility in true sense is not inflating oneself with ego despite of all the praises and respect offered for one’s work. Humility is at the foundation of all the virtues as said by Confucius is a profound statement with lot of depth in it.

Humility can free our mind from getting clouded by all the praises and respect. Humility counters ego which can be dangerous for further growth and development. With no ego in mind, one can invest his energy in more creative ideas.

 Humility thus must be seen as virtue that makes you into someone that has the capacity of accepting or developing other virtues.

Then move on to explain humbleness in your own personal life experience and suggest ways that make a person humbler.

Conclusion:

Conclude by reasserting significance of humility in one’s life.

Introduction:

Humility in true sense is not inflating oneself with ego despite of all the praises and respect offered for your work. Humility is at the foundation of all the virtues as said by Confucius is a profound statement with lot of depth in it. To understand it we must understand what humility can do to us. It shows the importance of humility for a person.

Body:

Humility is mother of all virtues:

  • Humility in true sense is not inflating oneself with ego despite of all the praises and respect offered for your work.
  • Humility is at the foundation of all the virtues as said by Confucius is a profound statement with lot of depth in it.
  • Humility can free our mind from getting clouded by all the praises and respect.
  • Humility counters ego which can be dangerous for further growth and development.
  • With no ego in mind, one can invest his energy in more creative ideas.

Mother Teresa, Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam are few individuals who were epitome of humility.

An individual can become humbler by:

  • Respecting other human beings and treating all equally.
  • Wiping out all prejudices and stereotypes.
  • Staying grounded and not showing superiority complex.
  • Accepting mistakes and learning from them.
  • Being tolerant to other’s views and heeding to their concerns.

Conclusion:

Humility is thus a virtue that makes you into someone that has the capacity of accepting or developing other virtues. It is similar to a potter who converts a load of mud into a vessel that can contain water and also keep it cool. If it has not been for the potter, the mud could never have developed the capacity to hold water within itself. Similar is humility. It is like a potter’s hands that shape an individual into a form which can be used to cultivate other profound virtues like – patience, hard work, perseverance, and many more.


Topic: Work culture

7) How ‘professional loyalty’ can bring a positive work culture in an organization? What are the after effects of poor professional loyalty of the civil servants? (250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon publications

Why this question:

The question is based on the theme of professional loyalty.

Key demand of the question:

Explain in what way professional loyalty brings positive work culture in an organization. Effect that it has in civil services.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Explain in brief – what you understand by professional loyalty.

Body:

Start with what is the importance of loyalty in the workplace?

Explain that loyal employees contribute extensively to the productivity of your business. They are able to create the value required to put your business on the path to success. Customers are always on the lookout for value and nothing else.

Explain how one can demonstrate loyalty in the workplace?

Discuss the significance of professional loyalty in civil services , explain their advantages.

Conclusion:

Conclude by reasserting its significance.

Introduction:

Work culture is a concept which deals in the study of beliefs, thought processes, attitudes of the employees and Ideologies and principles of the organization. It is the work culture which decides the way employees interact with each other and how an organization functions. Professional loyalty refers to the dedication of an employee towards his work, colleagues, organizational values and organization as a whole.

Body:

Professional loyalty and Positive work culture:

  • It leads to satisfied employees and an increased productivity.
  • Reduces the attrition rate helping retain the best minds.
  • Encourages discussions at the workplace where employees discuss issues among themselves to reach to better conclusions. Each one should have the liberty to express his views.
  • Promotes team building activities to bind the employees together.
  • Establishing fairness, procedural fairness, impartiality and consistency in the workplace.
  • Helps take Responsibility for actions, pursuit of excellence and creating accountability for each other. Informal feelings such as caring, loving, compassion, kindness, sharing, and consideration go beyond the normal obligation.

Effects of poor professional loyalty of the civil servants:

  • Loss of Integrity leading to immoral and corrupt activities.
  • Lack of general interest leading to poor outcomes.
  • Innovative solutions for problems of people will not be tendered.
  • Delegating the responsibilities.
  • Nepotism, favouritism leading to poor work efficiency.
  • Poor workplace relationships leading to disintegration of the organization in turn.

Conclusion:

Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel described Civil Service as the Steel frame of country which will help progress the nation. A strong, lively, trustworthy and compassionate work-culture is in the best interest of the civil servants as well as the citizens and other stakeholders.