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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 04 JULY 2019


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 04 JULY 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic: Development processes and the development industry ,mobilization of resources, growth, development ,Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc

 1) The global automobile industry is striding forward to move away from fossil fuels. Do you think India become a world leader in electric vehicles industry? Critically analyse the issues and challenges in front of Indian automobile industry to shift to electric vehicles. (250 words)

The hindu

 

Why this question:

To push the adoption of electric mobility in the country, government think-tank NITI Aayog has proposed the establishment of giga factories in India for the manufacture of lithium-ion batteries in the next couple of years.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must evaluate the current automobile industry scenario in India and the challenges before it in shifting to the electric mobility generation technology.

Directive:

Critically analyzeWhen asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In short explain the current automobile industry scenario in India.

Body:

The answer must analyse the global trends of electric mobility, its importance, then explain what are the issues or challenges for Indian automobile industry to move away from current fossil fuel based system to electric mobility system. One has to discuss in detail the bottlenecks and suggest way forward as to what needs to be done and how far can India achieve in this direction.

Conclusion:

One can conclude with government’s efforts in this direction.

Introduction:

Electric vehicles (EVs) are automobiles that run on electricity only. They are propelled by one or more electric motors powered by rechargeable battery packs. Electric vehicles are cleaner than petroleum-fuelled vehicles and are seen as a promising solution to global warming. To push the adoption of electric mobility in the country, government think-tank NITI Aayog has proposed the establishment of giga factories in India for the manufacture of lithium-ion batteries in the next couple of years.

Body:

India definitely has the potential to be a global leader in EVs and the government is making strong push in favour of the electric vehicles or the e-vehicles. Government is also encouraging or sometimes even forcing auto industry to shift towards the e-vehicles. While e-vehicles have their benefits over normal vehicles, the topic of e-mobility seems to be missing from the agenda of the government.

E-vehicles reduce the localized pollution and are important in the cities like Delhi, Pune, Lucknow etc. Such vehicles would also reduce the dependence on the petroleum, import of which has adverse effect on Indian economy. E-vehicles are also instrumental in reducing the emission of green-house gases and many health hazards

Issues and challenges involved:

  • Price Volatility:
    • The first has to do with policy volatility. E-mobility is a nascent industry in India and most of the developing countries. Capital costs are high and the payoff is uncertain.
    • Inconsistencies remain. For instance, while electric vehicles are taxed at 12% under the goods and services tax (GST), batteries were taxed at 28% until recently. This has now been lowered to 18% but the discrepancy still exists.
  • Lack of policy certainty: Cannot frame in Isolation:
    • The lack of policy certainty spills over into perhaps the single most important element of enabling e-vehicle usage: charging infrastructure.
    • Lack of attention on building charging infrastructure.
  • Local and Private Investment results in Low Cost production Technology:
    • Localization is another tricky area, as the strife caused by the rupee’s depreciation has shown.
    • India does not have any known reserves of lithium and cobalt, which makes it entirely dependent on imports of lithium-ion batteries from Japan and China.
  • Short Driving Range and Speed
    • Most of these cars have range about 50-100 miles and need to be recharged again.
  • Battery Recharge Issues
    • An electric car takes about 4-6 hours to get fully charged. Therefore there is a need for dedicated power stations as the time taken to recharge them is quite long.
  • Silence as Disadvantage
    • Silence can be a bit disadvantage as people like to hear noise if they are coming from behind them
    • An electric car is however silent and can lead to accidents in some cases.
  • Limited seating capacity
    • They are not meant for entire family and a third person can make journey for other two passengers bit uncomfortable.
  • Not Suitable for Cities Facing Shortage of Power
    • Cities already facing acute power shortage are not suitable for electric cars.
    • The consumption of more power would hamper their daily power needs.
  • High cost
    • The primary reason for the current high prices of EVs is the expensive battery

Way forward:

  • For EVs to contribute effectively, we need commensurate efforts in developing an entire ecosystem.
  • Need to shift the focus from subsidizing vehicles to subsidizing batteries because batteries make up 50% of EV costs.
  • Increasing focus on incentivizing electric two-wheelers because two-wheelers account for 76% of the vehicles in the country and consume most of the fuel.
  • A wide network of charging stations is imminent for attracting investment.
  • Work places in tech parks, Public bus depots, and Multiplexes are the potential places where charging points could be installed. In Bangalore, some malls have charging points in parking
  • Corporates could invest in charging stations as Corporate Social Responsibility compliances.
  • Addressing technical concerns like AC versus DC charging stations, handling of peak demand, grid stability etc.
  • Private investment in battery manufacturing plants and developing low cost production technology is needed.
  • India is highly dependent on thermal sources, which account for about 65% of current capacity. As EV adoption increases, so should the contribution of renewables.
  • Need for a policy roadmap on electric vehicles so that investments can be planned.
  • Acquiring lithium fields in Bolivia, Australia, and Chile could become as important as buying oil fields as India needs raw material to make batteries for electric vehicles.
  • Providing waiver of road tax and registration fees, GST refunds and free parking spaces for EVs.

Conclusion:

Environment-friendly EVs will reduce air pollution and thus contribute to the fight against climate change. As per NITI Aayog’s report EVs will help in cutting down as much as 1 Gigatonne (GT) of carbon emissions by 2030.The government should have a role. Instead of trying to pick winners, the government should focus on building an enabling business environment that supports research and innovation.


Topic: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

2)  The effectiveness of Government measures in recent times have indicated a decline in child labour in India. Will this lead to complete eradication of child labour in India? Critically analyse.(250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question: 

The article highlights the recent reports published in Lok Sabha that suggested instances of child labour detected during inspections having reduced successively from 2014 to 2018.

Demand of the question:

The answer has to evaluate the recent declining trends in child labour and to what extent government efforts alone have contributed to eradication of it and what more is needed to make India child labour free.

Directive word: 

Critically analyzeWhen asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

Quote some facts to depict the declining trends.

Body

  • Explain what is meant by Child labour? – 
  • According to International Labour Organization (ILO), the term ‘child labour’ is often defined as work that deprives children of their childhood, their potential, and their dignity, and that is harmful to physical and mental development.
  • Then explain What are the consequences/adverse effects of child labour on a child’s life?
  • What have been the government’s efforts in addressing the issue?
  • What needs to be done to completely get rid of such a social evil?

Conclusion 

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

Child labour typically means the employment of children in any manual work with or without payment. It is a deep rooted social ill in India. As per the 2011 Census, in the age group 5-14 years, 10.1 million of 259.6 million constituted working children. Even though there was a decline in the number of working children to 3.9% in 2011 from 5% in 2001, the decline rate is grossly insufficient to meet target 8.7 of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which is to end child labour in all forms by 2025.

Body:

Current state of Child Labour in India:

Efforts taken to eradicate child labour in India:

  • Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act(1986) to prohibit the engagement of children in certain employments and to regulate the conditions of work of children in certain other employments
  • Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Amendment Act, 2016 : The Amendment Act completely prohibits the employment of children below 14 years.
  • The amendment also prohibits the employment of adolescents in the age group of 14 to 18 years in hazardous occupations and processes and regulates their working conditions where they are not prohibited.
  • On World Day Against Child Labour (June 12) in 2017, India ratified two core conventions of the International Labour Organization on child labour.
  • National Policy on Child Labour (1987), with a focus more on rehabilitation of children working in hazardous occupations and processes, rather than on prevention.
  • Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act2000 and amendment of the JJ Act in 2006: includes the working child in the category of children in need of care and protection, without any limitation of age or type of occupation.
  • Section 23 (cruelty to Juvenile) and Section 26 (exploitation of juvenile employee) specifically deal with child labour under children in need of care and protection.
  • Pencil: The government has launched a dedicated platform viz. pencil.gov.in to ensure effective enforcement of child labour laws and end child labour.
  • The Right to Education Act 2009 has made it mandatory for the state to ensure that all children aged six to 14 years are in school and receive free education. Along with Article 21A of the Constitution of India recognizing education as a fundamental right, this constitutes a timely opportunity to use education to combat child labour in India.
  • Amendments made to the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act prescribes severe punishment for people found guilty of retaining bonded labour.
  • The amendment stipulates rigorous imprisonment for those who force children to beg, handle or carry human waste and animal carcasses.
  • The draft National Policy for Domestic Workers, when goes into force, will ensure minimum Rs.9,000 salary for household helpers.
  • Every police station in the country has a separate cell for juvenile, women and child protection.
  • Many NGOs like Bachpan Bachao Andolan, CARE India, Child Rights and You, Global march against child labour, RIDE India, Child line etc. have been working to eradicate child labour in India.

Gaps still persist:

  • Multiple forms exist: Child labour is not uniform. It takes many forms depending upon the type of work that children are made to do, the age and sex of the child and whether they work independently or with families.
  • Due to this complex nature of child labour, there is no one strategy that can be used to eliminate it.
  • The absence of national legislation to give effect to global conventions on the employment of children in hazardous industries, as well as on the minimum age of work.
  • The lack of harmony between global commitments and domestic priorities.
  • Incoherency between laws that prescribe a minimum age for employment and those for completion of compulsory school education. It also means that the expansion of quality universal basic education has to extend beyond the fulfilment of statutory provisions.
  • Lack of effective labour inspections in the informal economy. Around 71% of working children are concentrated in the agriculture sector, with 69% of them undertaking unpaid work in family units.

Way forward:

  • Abolition of child trafficking, elimination of poverty, free and compulsory education, and basic standards of living can reduce the problem to a great extent.
  • Strict implementation of labour laws is also essential in order to prevent exploitation by parties or multinational companies
  • Strengthening policy and legislative enforcement, and building the capacities of government, workers’ and employers’ organisations as well as other partners at national, State and community levels should be prioritized.
  • Education:
    • Spreading literacy and education is a potent weapon against the practice of child labour, because illiterate persons do not understand the implications of child labour
    • The single most effective way to stem the flow of school-aged children into child labour is to improve access to and quality of schooling.
  • Eradicate Unemployment:
    • Another way to stop child labour is to eliminate or rein in unemployment. Because of inadequate employment, many families cannot afford to meet all their expenses. If employment opportunities are increased, they will be able to let their children read and write and become worthy citizens
  • Continued progress against child labour requires policies that help mitigate the economic vulnerability of households. Accelerating progress towards universal social protection is key, as social protection helps prevent poor households from having to rely on child labour as a coping mechanism.
  • Attitude change:
    • It is important that the attitudes and mindsets of people are changed to instead employ adults and allow all children to go to school and have the chance to learn, play and socialize as they should.
    • A sector-wide culture of child labour-free businesses has to be nurtured.

Conclusion:

Eliminating child labour is firmly placed within Goal 8 of the SDGs. A stronger nexus between the discourse on SDGs and the discourse on eliminating child labour can take the advantage of complementarities and synergies of a wide range of actors engaged in both areas of work. The fight against child labour is not just the responsibility of one, it is the responsibility of all.


Topic:  Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

3)  Discuss the impact of Digitalization on Healthcare Services Performance and analyse the trends and evaluate the various challenges posed by it.(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question:

 India’s apex drug regulator, the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO), has issued an alert about a possible risk of hacking of some insulin pumps manufactured by device maker Medtronic PLC recently, after the US FDA flagged the issue last week.

Key demand of the question:

The question is intended to evaluate the effect that digitization/technology is having upon the Healthcare system and the various challenges it poses upon it.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Define the role played by technology in healthcare system in general.

Body:

Healthcare systems are facing many challenges, from demographics to multi-morbidities that are associated with increasing the demand for more services. New technologies are thought to be a solution to these problems. However, to address these problems with digitalization of healthcare will imply the combination of properly using technologies, aligned with integrated working processes and skilled professionals. 

In the answer one must first highlight the challenges associated with the digitalization of healthcare, the next the implementation of digital services, considering a method to design online service, and then the impact of digitalization on healthcare workforce performance.

 Finally, the discussion should examine the challenges of digitalization for the future. 

Explain how proper digitalization of healthcare will enable changes in the paradigm of healthcare delivery as well as in the mechanism for patients’ participation and engagement. 

Conclusion:

Conclude that the sustainability of healthcare will depend on how efficient we will make digital service design.

Introduction:

The technology shift has cast itself over the field of healthcare, bringing with it a digital transformation in the way doctors and patients interact. Rapidly transforming medical technology and the availability of technology diagnostic and therapeutic equipment together with changing practice pattern of doctors has revolutionized the way health care is being delivered today. It is even more helpful in a country where nearly 70 per cent of the population lives in rural communities, e-health initiatives would change the game for our healthcare sector and the one billion it serves.

Body:

Impact of digitalization on Healthcare:

  • Telemedicine has fast become the mainstay of health technology deployment for the delivery of services
  • Disease surveillance and management, maternal and infant education, awareness on prevention of NCDs and vector-borne diseases can all be enabled through SMS-based communications, videos and messaging services for the rural population.
  • Mobile phone applications offering aggregator services for medical professionals, delivery of medicines and availability of diagnostic and test reports are set to enhance efficiency of services and also ensure faster access to medical treatment
  • The digitisation of medical records can be enabled by providing cloud-based storage for key health documents with patient profiles.
  • Electronic medical record systems such as HealthConnect in Australia, SPINE in England, AORTA in the Netherlands, EMRX in Singapore and others have had a profound impact on the quality and continuity of care.
  • Healthcare industry is one of the fields where you can use big data to its maximum potential. Big data analysis has evolved to be a major boon, both for managing the health of the patient and for the business angle of the healthcare organizations.
  • With virtual reality, it is possible to understand the organs and their positioning in alarming clarity and in three-dimensional terms. This is known as 3D bioprinting.
  • Wearable technology and internet of things has revolutionized the monitoring of health parameters.
  • Most importantly the core processes within the institutions become automated, making early detection and quick diagnosis, proving it to be quite impactful

Benefits:

  • Reducing Medical Errors: It provides a vehicle for improving quality and safety of patient care by reducing medication and medical errors.
  • Patient Involvement: It stimulates consumer education and patients’ involvement in their own health care.
  • Increases efficiency: by eliminating unnecessary paperwork and provides caregivers with clinical decision support tools for more effective care and treatment
  • Improves public health reporting and monitoring: by creating a potential loop for feedback between health-related research and actual practice. Further, it provides a basic level of interoperability among electronic health records (EHRs) maintained by individual physicians and organizations.
  • Technology in Healthcare: It facilitates efficient deployment of emerging technology and health care services and provides the backbone of technical infrastructure for leverage by national and State level initiatives

Challenges posed to adoption of digitalization:

  • Digital transformation places significant demands on the digital infrastructure. Lack of internet connectivity put patients’ life at risk.
  • Connectivity lapses in various regions affecting the poor more
  • Affordability of hi-tech solutions will pose a challenge to poorer sections of society.
  • The increasing adoption of cloud technologies, and explosive growth in the number of connected devices and data fuelled by digital health will bring significant strain and complexity to legacy IT systems. This could threaten performance and the user experience.
  • Possible risk of hacking of some medical devices or databases which could leak the private information of patients leading to violation of right to privacy.
  • In some cases, digital health initiatives will fail to take off altogether.
  • There is a huge supply-demand gap in health infrastructure and human resourcing for the sector. With 80 per cent of doctors, 75 per cent of dispensaries and 60 per cent of hospitals in urban areas, there exists a great distortion in the distribution of health infrastructure.

Way forward:

  • Stable source and supply of electricity and internet services in every rural area, so as to facilitate IT innovations applied.
  • The government must encourage application development in the health sector with a fund set aside to encourage young entrepreneurs in this field.
  • The government’s scheme should help extend credit to health technology entrepreneurs.
  • Strengthening the telemedicine sector, by hiring more efficient staff and tele callers, so as to meet the vast rural population

Conclusion:

Though the healthcare sector has traditionally seen lower levels of IT investment and adoption, the trend is fast changing. Currently, the industry is in the phase shedding away its initial reluctance towards technology and exploring the impact of various technologies. While many programs have either been rolled out, or envisaged in parts of India, the implementation, almost always, has been partial or incomplete, but is expected to improve over the coming years.


Topic Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System- objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing.

4) Discuss the key features of Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana (PKVY) and evaluate its contributions in promoting organic farming in India.(250 words)

Vikaspedia

 

Why this question:

The question is about evaluating the scheme of Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana (PKVY).

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the key features, objectives and significant role played by Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana (PKVY) in boosting the organic farming system of the country.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Describe in brief coming of Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana (PKVY).

Body:

The body of the answer should discuss the following aspects:

Explain that Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana is an elaborated component of Soil Health Management (SHM) of major project National Mission of Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA).

Discuss its implementation of the program and in what way it has contributed to organic farming and its development in India.

Conclusion:

Conclude with its importance.

Introduction:

The Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana (PKVY) – traditional farming improvement programme was launched in 2015. It is an extended component of Soil Health Management (SHM) under the Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS), National Mission on Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA). PKVY aims at supporting and promoting organic farming, reduction in dependence on fertilizers and agricultural chemicals, in turn, resulting in improvement of the soil health while increasing the yields. Organic food, thus produced will be linked with modern marketing tools and local markets. The revamped PKVY promotes organic farming through the adoption of organic village by cluster approach and Participatory Guarantee System of certification.

Body:

Objective of the scheme:

  • Promote organic farming among rural youth, farmers, consumers and traders.
  • Disseminate latest technologies in organic farming.
  • To utilise the services of experts from the public agricultural research system in India.
  • Organise a minimum of one cluster demonstration in a village.

Contributions of PKVY to organic farming promotion:

  • Groups of farmers would be motivated to take up organic farming under Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana (PKVY).
  • Fifty or more farmers will form a cluster having 50 acre land to take up the organic farming under the scheme.
  • In this way during three years 10,000 clusters will be formed covering 5.0 lakh acre area under organic farming.
  • There will be no liability on the farmers for expenditure on certification.
  • Every farmer will be provided Rs. 20,000 per acre in three years for seed to harvesting of crops and to transport produce to the market.
  • The produce will be pesticide residue free and will contribute to improving the health of the consumer.
  • Organic farming will be promoted by using traditional resources and the organic products will be linked with the market.
  • It will increase domestic production and certification of organic produce by involving farmers
  • Adoption of Participatory Guarantee System (PGS) certification through cluster approach
  • Adoption of organic village for manure management and biological nitrogen harvesting through cluster approach

However, challenges remain:

  • The Centre’s free organic certification programme “the Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana” has not picked up as most States have failed to utilise the funds set aside for the scheme.
  • A 2018 report on the implementation of PKVY highlights that all states, except Tripura, Odisha and Karnataka, have failed to utilise even 50 per cent of their funds under the scheme.
  • While the Centre has increased allocation for the scheme by 44 per cent for the current year, corrective measures are needed to ensure that the states become responsible and contribute toward “organic India”.

Conclusion:

With the increase in global health consciousness, organic food is set to knock every door and make its way in healthy kitchens worldwide. People the world over use organic food as a hygiene factor rather than a product by itself. Organic food is a holistic approach in the Indian environment which starts at the farm and ends at the fork of the consumer. The way forward is to support the change in a gradual manner. A holistic and community-driven approach, similar to the “Swachh Bharat” for “Swachh Food” needs to be undertaken.


Topic:  Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System- objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing.

5) Hidden hunger is a major challenge for India. Discuss the statement in the light of recent Global Hunger Index and also elaborate on India’s effort to achieve food security.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question:

The question is intended to evaluate the hidden hunger scenario prevalent in the country.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must highlight the recent findings of the global hunger index report and discuss the efforts being made to eradicate the hidden hunger issue.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin with brief narration of the findings of the report.

Body:

Discussion should include the following: 

Explain that the Global hunger index and its rankings reflect the status of food security in a particular country. It is based on four factors – stunting, wasting, under nourishment and child mortality.

Nutritional transition in India where food habits are moving from minimally processed food to highly processed, calorific, micro nutrient poor foods can be cited as a reason.

 Excessive stress on high yielding staple crops such as rice and wheat has also worsened the stress on micro nutrient rich food. Food inflation, lack of sufficient information, education on balanced nutrition can be cited as other reasons.

Then discuss in what way the report took a positive opinion on India s effort to raise its food security. PDS system, NRHM, Midday meal program, ICDS scheme, Antyodaya anna yojana all are the steps in ensuring food security. Here the criticism is that Indian planning was centered on carbohydrate security rather than nutritional security as a whole. 

Added to this, leakages in PDS, improper targeting need to be addressed. In this context, reforms initiated in Chhattisgarh for protein malnutrition, Universal PDS system can provide a direction.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

According to the Global hunger Report, when Govt. provides only free or subsidised wheat and rice, then the hunger gets eliminated only from the energy intake angle. The deficiency in vitamins and minerals still continues and this is called Hidden Hunger. It occurs when the quality of food people eat does not meet the nutrient requirements, so the food is deficient in micronutrients such as the vitamins and minerals that need for their growth and development.

Body:

Hidden hunger is a major challenge for India:

  • India is home to over 40 million stunted and 17 million wasted children (under-five years).
  • Despite a fast-growing economy and the largest anti-malnutrition programme, India has the world’s worst level of child malnutrition
  • Iron deficiency is thought to be the most common cause of anaemia globally, accounting for between 25-50% of anaemia cases.
  • Though anaemia among children has declined, it affects every second child in the country. There has been no perceptible decline in anaemia among 15 to 49-year old women; it affects around 60 per cent of them.
  • The daily consumption of iron rich dark green leafy vegetables has reduced from 64 per cent to 48 per cent of the population in the last decade.
  • Many, in fact, argue that the NFSA’s focus on wheat and rice has forced millets — traditional source for iron and minerals — out of the market.
  • The government’s iron supplementation programme to overcome IDA has led to only 30 per cent of pregnant women consuming iron and folic acid tablets.
  • Lack of sanitation and clean drinking water are the reasons high levels of malnutrition persists in India despite improvement in food availability

India’s effort to achieve food security:

  • Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS), with its network of 1.4 million Anganwadi Centres, reaching almost 100 million beneficiaries who include pregnant and nursing mothers and children up to 6 years;
  • Mid-day meals (MDM) that reach almost 120 million children in schools; and
  • Public Distribution System (PDS) that reaches over 800 million people under the National Food Security Act.
  • The recently announced flagship program of the Ministry of Women and Child Development will be anchored through the National Nutrition Mission (NNM), or Poshan Abhiyaan, with its own specific budget of ₹9,046 crore and a proposed World Bank loan of $200 million, to ensure convergence among the various programmes of the government.
  • Additionally, NITI Aayog has worked on a National Nutrition Strategy (NNS), isolated the 100 most backward districts for stunting and prioritised those for interventions.
  • The National Nutrition Strategy (NNS) has set very ambitious targets for 2022 and the Poshan Abhiyaan has also specified three-year targets to reduce stunting, under-nutrition and low birth weight by 2% each year, and to reduce anaemia by 3% each year.
  • IYCF(Infant and Young child feeding), Food and Nutrition, Immunization, Institutional Delivery, WASH(Water, Sanitation and Hygiene), De-worming, ORS-Zinc, Food Fortification, Dietary Diversification, Adolescent Nutrition, Maternal Health and Nutrition, ECCE(Early Childhood care and Education), Convergence, ICT-RTM(Information and Communication. Technology enabled Real Time Monitoring), Capacity Building.

Measures needed:

  • Early life-cycle interventions targeting the first 1,000 days of a child’s life are crucial for reducing a child’s susceptibility to infections, and breaking the link between undernutrition, disease and mortality.
  • Direct nutrition interventions can reduce stunting only by 20%; indirect interventions, for example, access to water, sanitation and hygiene, must tackle the remaining 80%.
  • The Swachh Bharat Abhiyan should be used to leverage policy complementarities with household sanitation, and behavioural change encouraged through social messaging and information-education-communication activities for pregnant and lactating mothers.
  • Policy must deliver universal, rights-based nutrition services, which overcome disparities across gender, communities and geographical regions.
  • The Global Hunger Index report recommends returning to traditional diets comprising locally available, biodiverse food to overcome growing under-nutrition.
  • To combine fragmented efforts, a nodal government body should be established with responsibility for meeting time-bound nutrition targets, and coordinating multi-sectoral programmes, including the ICDS, the National Rural Health Mission, the midday meal scheme, and the public distribution system.
  • Food fortification of staples (including wheat, flour, rice and edible oils) represents a cost-effective and scalable solution to enhance nutrient intake. Standards for food fortification should be established, and guidelines changed to promote the use of fortified inputs in ICDS-provided hot cooked meals.
  • The government should facilitate public-private partnerships in the sector. Private sector engagement can leverage technological solutions for scaling up food fortification initiatives, and complement the government’s outreach efforts through mass awareness and education campaigns in communities.

Conclusion:

Prioritizing early childhood nutrition is key to ensuring India’s development rests on strong and steady shoulders. India’s ability to harness long-term demographic dividends rests on it prioritizing nutrition in its health agenda, and reforming the institutional framework through which interventions are delivered.


Topic: challenges of corruption.

6) What do you mean by ‘white collar crimes’? If poor and illiterate are more vulnerable to be corrupt, why do the rich and educated people become corrupt? Suggest measures to stop corruption by the rich and educated people? (250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon publications

Why this question:

The question is based on the theme of corruption and in what way it is beyond the lines of poor or rich.

Key demand of the question:

Explain in detail with examples how corruption need not always be driven by poverty or un-educatedness rather it is often the manifestation of lack of right values and morals in individuals.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In short explain the prevalence of corruption among rich and poor.

Body:

Discuss with suitable examples how corruption is rampant even among the rich and educated. The question can be best explained with examples where it is evident that the rich and literate have indulged in corruption by compromising on values and morals. 

Conclusion:

Conclude with what needs to be done.

Introduction:

White-collar crime refers to financially motivated nonviolent crime committed by business and government professionals. Within criminology, it was first defined by sociologist Edwin Sutherland in 1939 as “a crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation”. Typical white-collar crimes could include fraud, bribery, Ponzi schemes, insider trading, labour racketeering, embezzlement, cybercrime, copyright infringement, money laundering, identity theft, and forgery. E.g.: Nirav modi scam, Vijay Mallya scam, Harshad Mehta scam etc.

Body:

Rich people become corrupt due to:

  • Greed: The people who usually commit these crimes are financially secure.
  • Materialism: Driven by motive of material pleasures, they are willing to take any crooked means.
  • Lack of Respect: Disregard and ignorance for laws as they think they are above laws.
  • Power: Legislators and the law implementers belong to the same group or class to which these occupational criminals belong;
  • Financial or physical duress.
  • The emergence of cutting edge technology, growing businesses, and political pressures has opened up new avenues for these criminal organizations to prosper.
  • This increase is due to a booming economy and technological advancement such as the Internet and fast money transfer systems.
  • Law enforcement is sometimes reluctant to pursue these cases because they are so hard to track and investigate.
  • It is very difficult to detect as white collar crimes always committed in privacy of an office or home and usually there is no eyewitness.

Measures needed:

  • Strengthening the implementation of laws like Fugitive Economic Offenders Act, Benami Transactions act, Prevention of Money laundering act etc.
  • Special Tribunals should be constituted with power to award sentence of imprisons upto 5 years for white-collar crimes. Convictions should result in heavy fines rather than arrest and detention of white-collar criminals.
  • Strengthening Corporate Governance by implementing the measures suggested by Uday Kotak panel.
  • Increasing the democratic nature of the company by improving transparency and accountability through audits, tax measures etc.
  • Creating public awareness against these crimes through the media of press, and other audio-visual aids and legal literacy programmes.
  • Public vigilance seems to be corner-stone of anti-white-collar crime strategy. Unless people strongly detest such crimes, it will not be possible to contain this growing menace.

Conclusion:

Our social system is corrupted by number of white collar crime and it is a great challenge for us to discover suitable resolution to the increasing menace of white-collar crime. These crimes are directly affecting the economy of the nation and the public’s confidence, therefore corrective action must be taken immediately for preventing, detecting, investigating, and prosecuting economic crimes in order to minimize their outcome. The provisions of Indian Penal Code dealing with white-collar crimes should be amended to enhance punishment particularly fine in tune with changed socio-economic conditions.