Print Friendly, PDF & Email

SECURE SYNOPSIS: 02 JULY 2019

Are you Ready for Insta 75 Days Revision Plan (UPSC Prelims - 2020)?


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 02 JULY 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.

 1) Do you agree India’s strategy for Indo-Pacific needs to recognise the importance of the continent of Africa? Critically analyse.(250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question: 

The article talks about the need to focus on the continent of Africa from a newer perspective essential for the changing Indo-Pacific needs.

Demand of the question:

One has to appreciate the role of the African continent with the Indi-pacific perspective.

Directive word: 

Critically analyzeWhen asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

Start by highlighting first the importance of Indi-Pacific region for India and other world countries.

Body

Discussion should have the following different aspects covered:

  • First bring out the new geopolitical construct that surrounds the region.
  • Explain how and why South East Asia has been central to the Indo-Pacific debate and more importantly Africa has remained a neglected element.
  • Then explain why is Africa important?
  • Discuss the stakeholder countries in the region, how the power equation is defined for the region?
  • India’s stand and what needs to be done?

Conclusion 

Conclude with way forward and by reasserting the need to focus on Africa.

Introduction:

Indo-Pacific region is a multi-polar region, contributing more than half of the world’s GDP and population. Countries falling in the direct hinterland of the vast Indian and Pacific oceanic expanse are termed ‘Indo-Pacific countries’.  The attributes of the Indo-Pacific are also highly appealing. The region comprises at least 38 countries that share 44 percent of world surface area and 65 per cent of world population, and account for 62 per cent of world–GDP and 46 per cent of the world’s merchandise trade.

Body:

Importance of Africa for India’s strategy for Indo-Pacific:

  • Africa has turned from “The Hopeless Continent” to “A Hopeful Continent” given its demography, resources, market etc.
  • India and Africa share historical ties, the 1955 Bandung Conference was not just about Asia or non-alignment but promoting Afro-Asian solidarity.
  • Africa assumes strategic importance for India in relation to:
    • Geopolitical interest: South-South cooperation, UNSC reforms, Competition with China, Cooperation in global issues such as climate change and WTO reforms.
    • Geo-economic interest: Energy security – Oil (Nigeria), the supply of Uranium (South Africa), huge mineral resources of Africa, growing population of Africa provides for new opportunities for goods and services exports from India.
    • Geostrategic interest: Maritime security – East coast countries are important for peace and prosperity of the Indian Ocean region, trade relations across and beyond Africa and interests of Indian diaspora in Africa.
  • Since the rise of Asia and Africa, these continents are reconstituting the geographies of the eastern hemisphere and breaking down the artificial mental maps that emerged in the 20th century.
  • Thus, India must recognise the growing importance of Africa for the security and prosperity of the Indo-Pacific.

However, there are several issues that impede India’s engagement with Africa

  • Africa is witnessing a phenomenon called the “New Scramble for Africa”.
  • If Europe and North America dominated Africa’s economic relationship in the past, China, India, Japan, South Korea and the ASEAN share the geopolitical space today with the US and EU. China, Japan, Korea and India are also major investors in Africa as well as providers of development assistance
  • China’s Belt and Road Initiative is about connecting China’s eastern seaboard with the Indian Ocean littoral.
  • China is involved in the development of 47 ports in sub-Saharan Africa.
  • China’s expanding defence and security engagement in Africa. Over the last few years, China has emerged as the largest major arms supplier to Sub-Saharan Africa.
  • The US, which was focused on terrorism and other non-military threats after 9/11, is paying attention to Africa’s new geopolitics.
  • Russia, which seemed to turn its back on Africa after the collapse of the Soviet Union, is now returning with some vigour.
  • Many regional actors like Iran, UAE, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and Turkey are taking a growing interest in African security affairs.
  • India lacks diplomatic presence in Africa as India has an embassy only in 29 out of 54 African countries.
  • A lot of African countries are suffering from political instability.
  • Thus pan African strategy is not working as Africa is not homogenous
  • The general perception is that “India promises and China delivers”. India’s implementation and delivery have been flawed.

Way Forward:

  • India should focus on its comparative advantages like services sector, pharma and private sector relationship.
  • India has leverage over China as the latter’s investments are perceived as neo-colonial whereas India is engaged in partnership based on mutual benefit and capacity building
  • Africa is too big for both India and China, so they both must cooperate and wherever there is competition it must be constructive.
  • India elevated the engagement with Africa by hosting a summit in Delhi for all the African leaders, unveiling sustained high-level political contact, expanding India’s diplomatic footprint, strengthening economic engagement and boosting military diplomacy.
  • But the scale and speed of Africa’s current transformation need to be a priority on India’s strategic map.

Conclusion:

Indian foreign policy has always envisaged a rules-based order anchored upon international law, openness, transparency, inclusivity and commitment to advancing economic engagement in the region. In this regard India can focus on four areas of cooperation with Africa i.e. maritime cooperation; connectivity; UN Sustainable Development Goals 2030; and economic development.


Topic: Mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of vulnerable sections.

2) The prevention of torture has been one of the key human rights developments in the last decade, However, India’s commitment to preventing and abolishing torture as well as punishing its perpetrators has remained extremely weak. Critically analyse in the light of recent incidences of custodial deaths around the country. (250 words)

Livemint

 

Why this question:

Recently Kerala govt has come in the line of fire over rising cases of custodial deaths, police torture.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must analyse the recent custodial deaths and the underlying causes as to what is the key issue associated and why India has remained weak in this aspect of human rights.

Directive:

Critically analyzeWhen asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief discuss the recent police custodial ills across the country.

Body:

Have the following points discussed in the answer:

Discuss the issue first in detail, use data/facts to substantiate.

Explain why there has been a neglect;causes of such ill happenings.

Discuss what needs to be done? Need for reforms in the police across the country.

What needs to be done?

Conclusion:

Conclude that reforms are needed with respect to custodial deaths on an urgent basis to do away with the human rights violation.

Introduction:

Custodial torture is global, old and stubborn. Recent incident where the Kerala high court ordered a probe into the actions of Idukki magistrate over custodial death of a 49-year-old man. This is the fifth allegation of custodial death against the Kerala Police since 2016. In India, the National Human Rights Commission figures of reported torture cases, the report said the figures showed custodial violence and torture continue to be rampant in the country. It also pointed out that the number of reported cases being only a fraction of actuals, the situation was serious.

Body:

Custodial torture is an inhuman practice:            

  • It represents the worst form of excesses by public servants entrusted with the duty of law enforcement.
  • The practice of custodial power is about men — and sometimes, women — who are in positions of power, even if for a brief while and over a limited terrain, having custody over a powerless person.
  • Custodial death, when not ‘natural’, is the extreme end-point of custodial torture. The death penalty, notwithstanding ‘due process’, is a close kin to this lawless and heartless game.

Need for an anti-torture legislation in India:

  • India has practised and continues to practise the ‘third degree’ with impunity.
  • India signed the UN Convention against Torture in 1997, but neither has it ratified nor followed or preceded by domestic legislation to outlaw and prevent custodial torture.
  • India’s non-ratification of the Convention is both surprising and dismaying.
  • In 2010, the then government introduced Prevention of Torture Bill in the Lok Sabha in 2010 and had it passed in 10 days. The bill as passed by the Lok Sabha was referred to a select committee of the Rajya Sabha.
  • The committee gave its report recommending the Bill’s adoption later the same year. It lapsed with the dissolution of the 15th Lok Sabha. And was not revived by the 16th, the present Lok Sabha.
  • The current government spoke of amending Sections 330 (voluntarily causing hurt to extort confession) and 331 of the Indian Penal Code, but in vain.
  • There has been no consistent documentation of torture-related complaints. The National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) does not document cases of custodial torture. The NHRC does deal with cases of torture in custody, but the annual figures related to such cases do not get reported in its reports.
  • In the ten-month period between September 2017 and June 2018, English language news reports on Internet noted 122 incidents of custodial torture resulting in 30 deaths. In several cases among these 122 incidents, there were multiple victims.
  • The procedure to deal with children in conflict with law is different from the routine procedure of criminal justice system. But incidents show that children have been subjected to torture in police custody
  • Torture is not just confined to police custody, but is also perpetrated in otherwise assumed to be “safer” custodial institutions like judicial custody (prisons), juvenile homes, de-addiction centres etc
  • Nine years after the report of the Select Committee and 21 years after signing the Convention, India is yet to legislate a law that will outlaw torture

Way Forward:

  • In a matter that concerns ‘life and liberty’, the Supreme Court is the guardian of the Constitution’s guarantees.
  • The Law Commission of India submitted its 273rd report recommending government to ratify the UNCAT and also proposed the Prevention of Torture Bill 2017.
  • Definition of torture should be broadened to include discrimination of any kind as one of the purposes of torture. It is widely recognised that discrimination based on religion, caste and association with ideas does have an impact on the incidence and extent of torture.
  • Given the fact that there is a possibility of a range of acts that can be committed under torture, cruelty and ill-treatment leading to differing severity of harm—the punishment prescribed should have further gradation. Also, death penalty should not be included as the punishment.
  • The bill should enlist possible factors based on which the calculation of compensation should be devised.
  • It is imperative that the democratic opposition makes the ratification of the Convention and a new anti-torture legislation part of its common programme. The 17th Lok Sabha must take a stand on this matter.
  • It gives us a choice to join the civilised world in moving away from ancient barbarism

Conclusion:

The prevention of torture has been one of the key human rights developments in the last decade. With India’s strong stake for a seat at the UNSC, the issue has assumed importance. There is an urgent need to address the ways in which inequalities continue to exist and question the nature of our criminal justice system which turns a blind eye to torture.


Topic:  Important aspects of governance, Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

3) Discuss the importance of legal aid in India. Do you agree that citizens often upon the law as an enemy, not as a friend in India? Discuss the issues and challenges associated specifically with free legal aid services in India.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question:

 Recently the National Law University, Delhi (NLUD) in a report titled ‘Quality of Legal Representation: An Empirical Analysis of Free Legal Aid Services in India’ has revealed that people don’t have faith over the services of legal aid counsel (LAC) under the free legal aid services.

Key demand of the question:

A majority of the people who are entitled to the free legal aid system see the service as an option only when they cannot afford a private lawyer. Thus, it is important for us to analyse the underlying issues and challenges facing the same.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Briefly discuss the concept of free legal aid.

Body:

  • First bring out the importance of free legal aid – Legal aid to the poor is necessary for the preservation of rule of law which is necessary for the existence of the orderly society. It implies giving free legal services to the poor and needy who cannot afford the services of a lawyer for the conduct of a case or a legal proceeding in any court, tribunal or before an authority. Until and unless poor illiterate man is not legally assisted, he is denied equally in the opportunity to seek justice.
  • Then move on to discuss the issues and challenges – lack of awareness of the availability of legal aid, perception that free service is incompatible with quality service etc.
  • Quote facts and findings of the report, take hints from the article.

Conclusion:

Conclude by suggesting solutions and way forward.

Introduction:

Legal aid is free legal assistance to the poor and weaker sections of the society with the object to enable them to exercise the rights given to them by law. Justice P.N.Bhagwati has rightly said that “the poor and the illiterate should be able to approach the Courts and their ignorance and poverty should not be an impediment in the way of their obtaining Justice from the Courts.” Article 39A of the Constitution of India provides for free legal aid to the poor and weaker sections of the society and ensures justice for all. Article 14 and 22(1) of the constitution also make it obligatory for the State to ensure equality before law and a legal system which promotes justice on the basis of equal opportunity to all.

Body:

Importance of legal aid in India:

  • The main object is to provide equal justice is to be made available to the poor, down trodden and weaker section of society.
  • The foundation of the right to legal aid is premised in the universally accepted principle of “Fair trial”.
  • The right to a fair hearing is universally recognized and documented in national constitutions and regional and international human rights instruments. It is the foundation for the protection of individual liberties.
  • Right to legal aid is a demonstration of the need to level the powers of state to those of the suspect.
  • The right to legal aid and representation at the expense of the state becomes a constituent element of the right to a fair trial.
  • The purpose of legal aid provision is to inform those in contact with the law of the extent of their rights and provide assurance of the existence and availability of services, irrespective of social and economic means.
  • Legal aid to the poor is necessary for the preservation of rule of law which is necessary for the existence of the orderly society.
  • It implies giving free legal services to the poor and needy who cannot afford the services of a lawyer for the conduct of a case or a legal proceeding in any court, tribunal or before an authority.
  • Until and unless poor illiterate man is not legally assisted, he is denied equally in the opportunity to seek justice. Therefore a step towards making the legal service serve the poor and the deprived; the judiciary has taken active interest in providing legal aid to the needy in the recent past.
  • The Indian Constitution provides for an independent and impartial judiciary and the courts are given power to protect the constitution and safeguard the rights of people irrespective of their financial status.

Legal Services Institutions for providing Free Legal Services:

  • National Level : National Legal Services Authority
  • State Level: State Legal Services Authority. It is headed by the Chief Justice of the State High Court who is its Patron-in-Chief. A serving or retired Judge of the High Court is nominated as its Executive Chairman.
  • District Level: District Legal Services Authority. The District Judge of the District is its ex-officio Chairman.
  • Taluka/ Sub-Division Level: Taluka/ Sub-Divisional Legal Services Committee. It is headed by a senior Civil Judge.
  • High Court : High Court Legal Services Committee
  • Supreme Court: Supreme Court Legal Services Committee

Challenges of free legal aid in India:

  • The National Law University, Delhi (NLUD) in a report titled ‘Quality of Legal Representation: An Empirical Analysis of Free Legal Aid Services in India’ has revealed that people don’t have faith over the services of legal aid counsel (LAC) under the free legal aid services.
  • A majority of the people who are entitled to the free legal aid system see the service as an option only when they cannot afford a private lawyer.
  • there is a general lack of awareness of the availability of legal aid;
  • there is a perception that free service is incompatible with quality service;
  • there are not enough lawyers delivered by the legal services authorities, and
  • Lawyers generally are uninterested in providing competent legal assistance because of financial constraints.
  • Lawyers assigned to provide legal aid and paid with public funds do not faithfully represent their clients, casting serious doubt on the credibility of the scheme of legal aid provided to weaker sections of society.
  • Some lawyers engaged by legal aid committees hold their client’s cases for ransom by employing delay tactics.
  • Another major obstacle to the legal aid movement in India is that the delivery system for legal aid is far too inefficient.

Measures needed:

  • The key to a successful free legal aid system is increased awareness among the populace and more efficient delivery processes.
  • More lawyers must be encouraged to delivery free legal aid and a campaign should be launched to inform people about the existence of free legal aid.
  • Successful legal aid delivery in India requires the government to embark on a campaign to inform and educate the public of its right to free legal aid.
  • Further, the government must employ more efficient processes to improve legal aid delivery, including but not limited to increased compensation for legal aid lawyers.
  • Payment of better honorarium to the lawyers who provide Legal Aid.
  • Provide Free and Competent Legal Services to the eligible persons;
  • organize Lok Adalats for amicable settlement of disputes;

Conclusion:

Legal aid is not a charity or bounty, but is an obligation of the state and right of the citizens. The focus of legal aid is on distributive justice, effective implementation of welfare benefits and elimination of social and structural discrimination against the poor. The prime object of the state should be “equal justice for all”. Thus, legal aid strives to ensure that the constitutional pledge is fulfilled in its letter and spirit and equal justice is made available to the downtrodden and weaker sections of the society.


Topic Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System- objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing.

4) Discuss the significance of ICT / E-technology in intensifying the reach of extension services to farmers in the country.(250 words)

Reference

 

Why this question:

The question is direct and is about discussing the role of ICT in extending services to farmer communities of the country.

Key demand of the question:

Explain in detail role played by E- technology/ICT in aid of farmers.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin with brief on what are the ICT/e-technology services available for farmers in the country.

Body:

The application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in agriculture is increasingly important. E-Agriculture is an emerging field focusing on the enhancement of agricultural and rural development through improved information and communication processes. More specifically, e-Agriculture involves the conceptualization, design, development, evaluation and application of innovative ways to use information and communication technologies (ICT) in the rural domain, with a primary focus on agriculture. ICT promises a fundamental change in all aspects of our lives, including knowledge dissemination, social interaction, economic and business practices, political engagement, media, education, health, leisure and entertainment.

 ICTs are most natural allies to facilitate the outreach of Agricultural Extension system in the country. Despite large, well-educated, well-trained and well-organized Agricultural extension manpower, around 60% of farmers in the country still remain un-reached, not served by any extension agency or functionary. 

Conclusion:

Conclude that information per se is not enough, but appropriate communications systems are needed to ensure that information come to farmers in an effective, accurate and clear way.

Introduction:

Extension and advisory services are relevant to smallholder farmers, who remain the bedrock of the agricultural and food supply chains in India. ICTs are very useful in agricultural extension and advisory services and in facilitating reaching out to small and marginal farmers. Extension and Advisory services play a crucial role in promoting agricultural productivity, increasing food security, improving rural livelihoods.

Body:

E-Agriculture is an emerging field focusing on the enhancement of agricultural and rural development through improved information and communication processes. More specifically, e-Agriculture involves the conceptualization, design, development, evaluation and application of innovative ways to use information and communication technologies (ICT) in the rural domain, with a primary focus on agriculture.

Significance of ICT / E-technology in intensifying the reach of extension services to farmers in the country:

  • Improve the wellbeing of individuals and communities
  • Change production systems so that they improve rural livelihoods and sustain the resource base
  • Improve agriculture and the social, economic and political status of rural communities
  • Improve the wellbeing of farm families
  • Improve productivity and livelihoods for farmers
  • Increase and improve farmers’ incomes and productivity on a sustainable basis
  • Enhance farmers’ production
  • Attain higher levels of efficiency in the farm enterprise
  • Attain food security and improve rural livelihoods.

ICT tools can help in meeting the challenges in agricultural development in the following ways:

  • Land mapping: Using satellite data and remote sensing, farmers can get real time information about soil moisture, water level etc. Soil quality assessment with help of remote sensing and tools for assessing the feasibility of crops.
  • Soil and Water Testing Laboratories: These Testing Labs spreads across the country educate the farmers about various scientific tools for identifying superb soil and water for agricultural purposes
  • Land record maintenance: This can also help in the measurement of the plots, land fragmentation etc.
  • Weather information: Advanced information about adverse weather condition, so that farmers can take precautionary measures.
  • Credit and finance: Information regarding agrifinance, agriclinics and agribusiness. Banking facilities like mobile banking, DBT of subsidies can be done easily.
  • Agri-Marketing: Real time and near real times pricing and market information. E.g.: e-NAM
  • It is as a powerful tool when combined with price incentives, input supply, credit, seed multiplication.
  • Agri-Price Support: Market intervention scheme involving procurement through a notified agency like Commission for Agriculture Costs and Prices, Agricultural & Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA), and Marketing Research and Information Network (AGMARKNET) etc, can surely be of great help in assuring fair returns to farmers.
  • Advisory services: Agriculture Information, Awareness and Education.
  • Government Initiatives: Information dissemination about various government schemes.
  • Discussion portals: Online Farmer Communities to discuss the trends, issues etc.
  • Allied sector information: in order to help farmer sustain and increasing income through beekeeping, fishery, animal husbandry. Recently , Mushroom farming on stubble left is being promoted through information dissemination in Punjab
  • It acts as an intermediary link between agricultural development institutions such as research institutes, universities, colleges of agriculture and target groups
  • The agricultural extension services mainly concentrated on to strengthen the agricultural system by empowering farmers in terms of health, education, livelihood and income.

Key Government initiatives to promote use of ICT in agriculture include  National e-Governance Plan in Agriculture (NeGP-A), various Touch Screen Kiosks, Krishi Vigyan Kendras, Kisan Call Centres, Agri-Clinics, Common Service Centers, mKisan, Kisan TV and various other applications.

In India ICT applications such as Warana, Dristee, E-Chaupal, E-Seva, Lokmitra, E-Post, Gramdoot, Dyandoot, Tarahaat, Dhan, Akshaya, Honeybee, Praja are quite successful in achieving their objectives.

Conclusion:

The implementation or rural ICTs involves organizational and social change. Information is vital to tackle climate change effects: for this reason, a shift is needed in the agriculture sector to disseminate appropriate knowledge at the right time to the ones who are at the frontline in the battle: the farmers, in both developed and developing countries.


Topic:  Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System- objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing.

5) From both economic and environmental perspectives, cultivation of pulses is the is the most optimal choice.” Explain.(250 words)

 Ethics by Lexicon publications

Why this question:

The question is based on the premise of cultivation of pulses and its significance in the current times.

Key demand of the question:

Explain in detail the relevance of cultivation of Pulses to the agrarian system of the country.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Discuss the context of the question.

Body:

Explain why pulses are the optimal choice and in what wat they are the right choice from the economic and environmental standpoints.

List the benefits of cultivating pulses, Pulses are rich in proteins and found to be main source of protein to vegetarian people of India, can be grown on all types of soil and climatic conditions, being legumes fix atmospheric nitrogen into the soil, helpful for checking the soil erosion as they have more leafy growth and close spacing etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by how they can act as a shock absorbent for farmers in distress and take care of both environmental and economic aspect.

Introduction:

Pulses occupy an important place in Indian agriculture. They provide protein and fibre, and are a great source of vitamins and minerals such as iron, zinc and magnesium. In India, pulses are grown over an area of 2.38 crore hectares with a total production of 1.86 crore tonnes. The average yield of pulses in India is about 735 kg/hectare. Pulses are generally grown in irrigated as well as rainfed area and belong to leguminaceae family. Madhya Pradesh is the leading state in India in pulses, in terms of cultivated area and productivity.

Body:

Environment benefits:

  • Pulse crops are important components of production systems that are resilient to climate change.
  • Pulses are able to convert nitrogen in the atmosphere into compounds in the soil. This process is known as nitrogen fixation.
  • Some (types) of pulses are also able to free soil-bound phosphorous. Both nitrogen and phosphorus are essential nutrients for growing plants.
  • The ability to produce them naturally drastically reduces the need for synthetic fertilizers and pesticides while at the same time improving yields.
  • The less fertilizers and pesticides applied, the lower the risk of environmental contamination and unintended effects on the environment.
  • Including pulses in intercropping farming systems and cultivating them as cover crops not only reduces the need for synthetic fertilizers, but also helps reduce soil erosion, thus contributing to the creation of healthy soils.
  • Healthy soils, are in turn, better able to retain moisture and facilitate the uptake of nutrients by plants.
  • Pulses in general need lesser water compared to rice, wheat and sugarcane. This in turn helps in conserving the dwindling ground water resources and help the dry-land farming grow.
  • The reduced need for synthetic fertilizers indirectly reduces the level of greenhouse gases released in the atmosphere.
  • Fertilizers are energy intensive and a significant source of emissions. At the same time, pulses also promote higher rates of accumulation of soil carbon than cereals or grasses.
  • Including pulses in intercropping farming systems and cultivating them as cover crops creates a more diverse environment at the field level.
  • This, in turn, supports a broader range of insects and “wildlife” above ground and in the range of bacteria and fungi in the soil.
  • The presence of this broader range of insects and microbial life provides for a more resilient “ecosystem” that helps keep harmful insects, diseases and pathogens in check, thus reducing the need (to) use pesticides.
  • There are hundreds of different varieties of pulses and only a limited number of these are widely grown.
  • It is from this diversity that climate-resilient varieties (which are adaptive) to changes in temperature and have the ability to grown in poor soils or under drought conditions can be derived.
  • Since climate experts suggested that heat stress will be the biggest threat to bean production in the coming decades, the improved pulse varieties will be of critical importance, especially for low-input agricultural production systems.

Economic benefits:

  • Pulses contribute to food security in a number of ways.
  • They represent an important source of food.
  • They can be a source of income for the farmer, simply by selling some of what has been produced.
  • The possibility of further processing or value addition may be another source of revenue while also generating employment opportunities.
  • The crop residues left after harvest may be used to feed livestock, further contributing to a diversified diet and potential source of income.
  • Pulses production can help curb the import bill of the country which can be used for other socio-economic development.
  • Minimum support price for pulses is expected to help push up their output and thereby contain food inflation

Way forward:

  • New research efforts should be initiated to achieve a breakthrough in the productivity.
  • Innovative ideas need to be implemented instead of conducting routine research and material evaluation.
  • Scientists to work for development of shorter duration, widely adaptable and biotic and abiotic stress resistant varieties to boost the production of pulses.
  • Modernization of pulse breeding programme, supporting genetic gains through transgenic technology, enhancing biological nitrogen fixation through development of super nodulating plant types and breeding short duration varieties for achieving self sufficiency in pulses.
  • Extension workers and agriculture technology information centers should work more towards development and dissemination of newer technologies.

Conclusion:

India need to produce 40-50 lakh tonnes of additional pulses for meeting the domestic requirement and this can be possible only if we develop high yielding short duration, drought and insect-pest resistance varieties of pulses. The important role that pulses can play in sustainable crop production systems, in particular through their contribution to improved soil fertility and to agro-biodiversity along with providing a balanced and healthy diet as evidenced by their use by the World Food Programme and other food aid initiatives makes it a naturally optimal choice.


Topic: Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service

6) What is intuition? Why intuition is considered as a special attribute of a good leader? Illustrate.(250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon publications

Key demand of the question:

The answer must appreciate the concept of intuition and in what way it is a key attribute/trait of a good leader.

Directive:

Illustrate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin with brief definition of intuition.

Body:

Intuition is the ability to acquire knowledge without recourse to inference or conscious reasoning. … The word intuition comes from the Latin verb intueri translated as “consider” or from the late middle English word intuit, “to contemplate”.

Discuss what is intuition based on?

Explain that one of the primary reasons top leaders are able to make tough decisions is because they have learned to trust their intuitive instincts. Bill Gates says, “Often you have to rely on intuition.” The facts are great, and we need them, but sometimes it boils down to what we feel in our gut.

Conclusion:

Conclude by reasserting significance of intuition in making a good leader.

Introduction:

Just as our body has many parts, so does our spirit and our soul. Our spirit is composed of three: conscience, fellowship, and intuition. Intuition is something we are born with. And the more we use it, the better we learn how to use it. It is the ability to understand something immediately without the need for conscious reasoning.

Body:

Intuition may be defined as understanding or knowing without conscious recourse to thought, observation or reason. Intuition is currently understood to be the subliminal processing of information that is too complex for rational thought, e.g. mate choice. Intuition like imagination is an innate ability of mind that manifests when consciousness transcends the wall of logic build by of our empirical experiences. Sometimes, we know things that are to come, or to be, in our world even though we see no reason for them to be, which means that mind also contains the entirety of our sensory experience. However, it is still a cognitive process.

Intuition is a special attribute of a good leader because:

  • Intuition is the accumulation of all the experiences had: Everything that you have experienced becomes data points in your mind, every person you have met, every success you have experienced and every failure you had to go through, the learning that you were taught, the mistakes that have becomes lessons are stored. as a memory chip – to be utilized.
  • Intuition bridges the information gap. Most of the times, decisions have to be taken in the void, where the potential consequences cannot be assessed.
  • Intuition is something that provides understanding and judgment without any rational justification.
  • Take action based on Vision: Intuitive leaders are not motivated by external goals; they are inspired by inner Vision. This subtle yet powerful shift of personal meaning and value, cultivates an expanded awareness that enables them to see and apply solutions where others cannot and allows them to meet the mission statement of their business in unique and often groundbreaking ways.
  • Let go of things that are no longer working or viable: Intuitive leaders do not spend a lot of time focused on things that don’t move the vision forward. They are able to elegantly move through difficult choices, perceived failures and situations that require them to jettison unnecessary protocol.
  • Allow others on their team to thrive, excel and contribute: Intuitive leaders are powerfully aware that they are only a part of the whole. As people who feel and sense things deeply, they know how to support and encourage members of their team by creating trust and connection, thus generating a safe yet energized environment that brings out the innovative best in everyone
  • Ask evolved questions: Intuitive leaders know that empowered questions lead to empowered answers. Questions such as ‘How can we be different?’ ‘How can we be a better example of sustainable enterprise?’ ‘How can we serve people in a more enlightened way?’ will generate more beneficial results than questions like, ‘How can we do less and make more?’ ‘How can we improve our bottom line?’ or ‘How can we squash the competition?
  • Able to cultivate solutions and courses of action in multiple directions: Intuitive leaders do not take action based on linear thinking. That is A leads to B, leads to C. Their expanded vision allows them to design and successfully implement action plans that move in multiple directions at the same time empowering innovation and influence far more quickly than their logical counterparts.

Conclusion:

Leaders can be more innovative and creative than others, because they don’t use their control of their thinking mind, they let go of what they know to let all the dots of their mind connect, to let come in new information, in a way, that we cannot do for ourselves. As Albert Einstein said “the intuitive mind is a gift and rational mind is a faithful servant, we have created a society that honours the servant but forgot the gift”.


Topic:  Information sharing and transparency in government.

7) Explain with examples how Whistle-blowing in civil services is both an ethical and unethical act if seen in different perspectives?(250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon publications

Why this question:

The question is about discussing the ethical and unethical perspectives of whistle -blowing in civil services.

Key demand of the question:

Explain in detail the act of whistle blower and how it can have both perspectives.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Explain what is whistle blowing in civil services.

Body:

The discussion in such questions can be best explained using examples, students must explain in what way whistle blowing in civil services can prove to be unethical or ethical depending on situations.

Explain What are the moral and ethical justification of whistleblowing? – whistleblowing is morally required when it is required at all; people have a moral obligation to prevent serious harm to others if they can do so with little costs to themselves.

Debate whether whistleblowing is an act of ethical practice?

Conclusion:

Conclude with a fair and balanced opinion.

Introduction:

A whistleblower is a person who comes forward and shares his/her knowledge on any wrongdoing which he/she thinks is happening in the whole organisation or in a specific department. A whistleblower could be an employee, contractor, or a supplier who becomes aware of any illegal activities. Personal Values and Organizational Culture are the Foundation of Whistle-blowing

Body:

Ethical perspective:

The ethics of whistleblowing is a tricky matter. Whistle-blowing brings two moral values, fairness and loyalty, into conflict.

In the case where a company does serious harm through its service or product, the disclosure of such information for the sake of public constitute the ground for an understanding that takes whistleblowing as an ethical behavior.

The situations where whistleblowing is morally justified:

  • Whenever and wherever the product/service of the firm will cause considerable harm to the public.
  • Whenever an employee feels serious threat or harm to him or anybody he should report to the firm.
  • If an immediate boss does not care for report (whistle blowing) the employee should go up to highest level to present his case.

Unethical perspective:

However, if a whistle-blower’s motive is to gain a financial reward such as is available through whistle-blowing complaints or to blackmail for his/her personal gains, then such acts are unethical. It is unethical in both senses as it not only affects the organizational values but also personal values.

Some people argue that whistleblowing is unethical because it involves disloyalty to the organization and disrupts business; therefore it deserves punishment. However, employees are not always required to protect the profit of the organization when it conflicts with the social welfare and public interest.

Conclusion:

Whistleblowing is an ethical behavior because in an environment that supports whistleblowers through encouraging self-regulation and accountability, management can ensure that the business activities are protected from unethical exercises. Whistle blowing is a great tool in organization to avoid unlawful activities and it is morally required under some conditions