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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 29 JUNE 2019


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 29 JUNE 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic: social empowerment

1) Sexual harassment at workplace is often a manifestation of expression of power, in the light of the above statement discuss the loopholes and the inadequacies in the implementation of Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act and suggest what needs to be done.(250 words)

Epw

Why this question:

The article talks about the lacunae the Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act would face owing to implementation difficulties as most of the time the act of harassment is a result of power expression.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must first justify why the sexual harassment at workplace is often a manifestation of power and in what way the Act fails to address the issue in totality owing to different reasons.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by explaining the statement in the question.

Body:

Discussion should include the following: 

First discuss the coming of the Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act. Its benefits and the relief it brought with it.

Then move on to discuss how Sexual harassment cases at the workplace continue to be reported in large numbers, which means that the nature of the workplace itself needs to be questioned.

Substantiate sufficiently how laws alone are not enough and other redressal mechanisms need to be put in place to address the issue.

Conclusion:

Conclude by stating the way forward.

Introduction:

The Supreme Court in a judgment in 1997 laid the Vishaka guidelines, which are legally binding, defined sexual harassment and imposed three key parameters on the institutions i.e., prohibition, prevention and redressal. Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) legislation passed by the Parliament in December, 2013 is the landmark law in gender protection. Together with the Criminal Law Amendments to Sections 354A, 354B, 354C & 354D of the Indian Penal Code, (treating harassment as criminal offences) the act constitutes a determined response to meet the challenge of Sexual Harassment of women at the workplace.

Body:

Features of the act:

  • The Act defines sexual harassment at the workplace and creates a mechanism for redressal of complaints. It also provides safeguards against false or malicious charges.
  • Every employer is required to constitute an Internal Complaints Committee at each office or branch with 10 or more employees.
  • The Complaints Committees have the powers of civil courts for gathering evidence.
  • The Complaints Committees are required to provide for conciliation before initiating an inquiry if requested by the complainant.
  • Penalties have been prescribed for employers. Non-compliance with the provisions of the Act shall be punishable with a fine.
  • Repeated violations may lead to higher penalties and cancellation of license or registration to conduct business.

Loopholes and inadequacies in the act:

  • It fails to cover those women working in the agricultural workers and armed forces, which are largely men – dominated sectors.
  • The act appears to be gender biased since it only protects women.
  • The act has a wide scope for false allegations. There are high chances of these laws getting misused at the hands of women for their personal benefits.
  • The Act does not satisfactorily address accountability. Notably, it does not specify who is in charge of ensuring that workplaces comply with the Act, and who can be held responsible if its provisions are not followed.
  • Many organizations have not constituted an Internal Complaints Committee. Further, women rights activists point out that organizations generally view sexual harassment cases from the perspective of their public image and not as a breach to individual employee’s breach to dignity and safety. This often leads to hushing up of cases.
  • Most of the ICCs lack people who have knowledge about legal technicalities involved in conducting the inquiry, cross-examinations and its importance.
  • The Act and Rules do not contain any provision to address anonymous complaints and, from a strict reading of the Act and the Rules, it appears that a complaint should be made by the victim herself or any other person she authorises. However, employers often find that complaints are made anonymously or that the complainant does not want to be identified.
  • The employer is under an obligation to submit an annual report on redressal of complaints of sexual harassment to such authorities as may be notified under the Act. Many states have not issued a notification determining the authority.
  • A survey conducted by Indian National Bar Association revealed that nearly 70% of women did not complain about sexual harassment at workplace due to fear, embarrassment, lack of confidence in complaint mechanism, unawareness, and due to stigma attached to sexual harassment.
  • Cases of sexual harassment of domestic workers have been specifically excluded from the purview of the Bill.

Measures needed:

  • State governments should take on the responsibility of enforcing implementation
  • Greater gender diversity at the workplace—an area where India lags.
  • Sensitise female employees to their rights and the guidelines.
  • There has to be a sense of fear in the mind of the offenders which has to be ensured.
  • There must also be equal punishment to women who make false charges.
  • Any complaint of rape should have a time bar and complaints cannot be entertained beyond certain time limit.
  • The attitudinal change, socialisation process and education must go towards making man more sensitive while dealing with women.
  • The process of making sexual harassment complaints should be
  • Workplace audits should be as big a priority as auditing the finances of the company.
  • The law that mandate that the investigation should be completed within 90 days should be strictly adhered to.
  • Adequate workshops and awareness programme against sexual harassment must be conducted across the organisation

Conclusion:

The issue of sexual harassment cannot be addressed by mere enactment of laws. Sincere efforts need to be made in overcoming stereotypes, narrow-mindedness and gender biasness. A more gender-neutral approach needs to be taken to address sexual harassment.


Topic: The Freedom Struggle – its various stages and important contributors /contributions from different parts of the country.

2) Discuss the legacy of Maharaja Ranjit Singh and his contributions to the Sikh community.(250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question: 

The question is straightforward and is about discussing the contributions of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. On Thursday, a statue of Ranjit Singh, who ruled Punjab for almost four decades (1801-39), was inaugurated in Lahore. June 27 is his death anniversary.

Demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the legacy of Maharaja Ranjit Singh and his contributions to the Sikh community.

Directive word: 

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

Start with brief introduction on Maharaja Ranjit Singh.

Body

Explain the following aspects – Ranjit Singh was born on November 13, 1780 in Gujranwala, now in Pakistan. At that time, Punjab was ruled by powerful chieftains who had divided the territory into Misls. Ranjit Singh overthrew the warring Misls and established a unified Sikh empire after he conquered Lahore in 1799.

Then explain the contributions of him to Sikh community.

Conclusion 

Conclude by reasserting the contributions and significance of the same.

Introduction:

Maharaja Ranjit Singh was the leader of the Sikh Empire, which ruled the northwest Indian subcontinent in the early half of the 19th century. His empire grew in the Punjab region under his leadership through 1839. Many reforms were introduced in the political, religious spheres along with modernization, investment into infrastructure and general prosperity during his reign. He was popularly known as Sher-e-Punjab, or “Lion of Punjab”. Recently, a statue of Ranjit Singh, who ruled Punjab for almost four decades (1801-39), was recently inaugurated in Lahore n the occasion of 180th death anniversary of the legendary Sikh ruler.

Body:

Legacy of Maharaja Ranjit Singh:

  • Ranjit Singh was born on November 13, 1780 in Gujranwala, now in Pakistan.
  • At that time, Punjab was ruled by powerful chieftains who had divided the territory into Misls.
  • Ranjit Singh overthrew the warring Misls and established a unified Sikh empire after he conquered Lahore in 1799.
  • He was given the title Lion of Punjab (Sher-e-Punjab) because he stemmed the tide of Afghan invaders in Lahore, which remained his capital until his death.
  • His general Hari Singh Nalwa built the Fort of Jamrud at the mouth of the Khyber Pass, the route the foreign rulers took to invade India.
  • At the time of his death, he was the only sovereign leader left in India, all others having come under the control of the East India Company in some way or the other.

Lead a powerful and modernized Army:

  • Ranjit Singh’s combined the strong points of the traditional Khalsa army with western advances in warfare to raise Asia’s most powerful indigenous army of that time.
  • His army was a match for the one raised by the East India Company.
  • He appointed French General Jean Franquis Allard to modernise his army.
  • He also employed a large number of European officers, especially French, to train his troops.
  • During the Battle of Chillianwala, the second of the Anglo-Sikh wars that followed Ranjit Singh’s death, the British suffered the maximum casualties of officers in their entire history in India.

Extent of his reign:

  • Ranjit Singh’s trans-regional empire spread over several states. His empire included the former Mughal provinces of Lahore and Multan besides part of Kabul and the entire Peshawar.
  • The boundaries of his state went up to Ladakh — Zorawar Singh, a general from Jammu, had conquered Ladakh in Ranjit Singh’s name — in the northeast.
  • His empire extended till Khyber pass in the northwest, and up to Panjnad in the south where the five rivers of Punjab fell into the Indus.
  • During his regime, Punjab was a land of six rivers, the sixth being the Indus.

Contributions to Sikh community:

  • The maharaja was known for his just and secular rule; both Hindus and Muslims were given powerful positions in his Darbar.
  • The Sikhs take pride in him for he turned Harmandir Sahib at Amritsar into the Golden Temple by covering it with gold.
  • Right at the doorstep of the sanctum sanctorum of the temple is a plaque that details how in 1830 AD, the maharaja did service over 10 years.
  • He is also credited with funding Hazoor Sahib gurudwara at the final resting place of Guru Gobind Singh in Nanded, Maharashtra.

Conclusion:

Ranjit Singh made his empire and the Sikhs a strong political force, for which he is deeply admired and revered in Sikhism. Singh is remembered for uniting Sikhs and founding the prosperous Sikh Empire. He is also remembered for his conquests and building a well-trained, self-sufficient Khalsa army to protect the empire.


Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

3) Do you agree sanitation will remain a mirage even after India stops defecating in the open? Discuss the challenges with respect to sanitation aspects in India and what needs to be done to overcome the same? (250 words)

Reference

Why this question:

The article takes a hard look at the challenges that need to be addressed with respect to sanitation as although we will meet the target of an open defecation free India much before deadline, it is still the easiest milestone that India has crossed.

Key demand of the question:

One has to explain the challenges and hurdles that the sanitation aspect is facing in India despite efforts in the right direction.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin with brief on the SBM and other sanitation programmes of the country.

Body:

Explain the following aspects:

State facts and data from the article.

Discuss why the sanitation drives though have taken civilizational leap forward are still not success stories in reality.

Explain the areas of lacunae, the challenges/hurdles in detail that the sanitation drives /policies have been facing.

Conclusion:

Conclude with what needs to be done? Suggest way forward.

Introduction:

Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) is perhaps the largest behaviour change campaign ever, aims to make India a clean nation. The mission will cover all rural and urban areas. The World Health Organization (WHO) believes that SBM could prevent about 300,000 deaths due to water borne diseases assuming we achieve 100 per cent coverage by October 2019.

Body:

Achievements of SBM so far:

  • Five hundred and eighty four districts, 5,840 blocks, 244,687 gram panchayats and 541,433 villages are open defecation free (ODF).
  • As of September 2018, the sanitation coverage of India is upwards of 93 per cent and over 465,000 villages have been declared ODF.
  • Towards the end of 2017, an independent verification agency (IVA) conducted the National Annual Rural Sanitation Survey (NARSS), and found that 93.4 per cent people who had toilets, used them regularly. NARSS also re- confirmed the ODF status of 95.6 per cent of the villages that had been verified ODF by the state governments.
  • Since October 2014, 91.5 million toilets have been constructed and 154.3 million rural households have toilets now.
  • IHHL (individual household latrine application) coverage in all states is in excess of 95 per cent, except Goa and Odisha.
  • Over the last four years, a cadre of 500,000 swachhagrahis has been created who have triggered lakhs of villages to become ODF.
  • The foot-soldiers have helped in geo-tagging toilets, verifying household behaviour, converting old toilets and retro-fitting them, engaging in other forms of cleanliness.
  • Bal Swatchata mission that was launched to inculcate cleanliness values and personal hygiene amongst children. This would go a long way.

However, some lacunae are still present.

  • The key reason for this is that basic latrines that need to be emptied out manually or pumped by simple machines are unacceptable to higher caste Hindus.
  • It is considered polluting to the individual and the home, and historically associated with untouchability. So people rather defecate in open than having a toilet at home.
  • There are serious problems, like disposal of faecal matter, quality and maintenance of toilets, and inappropriate technology
  • Adoption of twin-pit toilets in rural areas is still inadequate.
  • Centre has literally forgotten to spend the money earmarked to promote the use of toilets, a concern raised in the State of India’s Environment in Figure: 2018.
  • Centre has also failed to exhaust its budget for Swachh Bharat Mission-Gramin. This, despite the fact, that the budget for the scheme has seen a dipover the past year
  • States like Odisha, Goa, Tripura, Telangana are still lacking in IHHL (individual household latrine application) coverage.
  • Simple on-ground verification of numbers uploaded on the MDWS website in a few areas found that many of the toilets claimed may not actually exist on the ground. This was revealed when organizations working in those areas went to provide the communities where such toilets were built information on post-construction usage and instead found the toilets missing. This raises questions on the efficacy of the SBM’s monitoring systems.
  • Standing committee has also raised questions over the construction quality of toilets and said that the government is counting non-functional toilets, leading to inflated data.
  • City drains are still cleaned by manual scavengers leading to violation of rule of law and death of many scavengers..
  • Sanitation coverage figures seemed to be more on paper but the actual progress at the ground level is very lethargic. Behavioural change is still a distant reality.

 

Way Forward:

 

  • Parliamentary Committee recommends the government to review its data time to time and delete the number of defunct toilets from the list to have a real picture of constructed and functional toilets in the country.
  • Deeply entrenched cultural contexts must be taken into account for successful policy outcomes. India needs to change perceptions of ritual purity through education and awareness in rural areas. This can be done by investing in sewage systems.
  • Enabling local governments to construct sewage systems will solve the purity issue.
  • A toilet that flushes away human waste into the sewage and waste management system solves the problem. If there is a functional sewage system, it is relatively low cost for households to build a toilet in every home that is connected to the sewage system.
  • Developing proper sewage system in village would also have wider impact with water not stagnating any more, lesser vector borne diseases etc so the wider objective of sanitation will be achieved.
  • Modernising the sewer lines and septic tanks and investing money and energy on smart techniques of sanitation
  • Also it would not put stress on manual scavenging and this occupation can slowly fade away giving sense of dignity and equality to the most vulnerable sections.
  • Mohalla toilets: Villages have very small houses and much clustered places where there is no place to construct toilets. The ideal solution is to have mohalla toilets designated to each house where people will keep their toilet clean by seeing others. One advantage is that when the toilets are outside the home, there will be a peer pressure to keep it clean.
  • There should be a proper database about what are the requirements in a particular area because we cannot force a toilet in a house where there is no place.
  • For India constructing toilets is like a social work and not a development work. Once it is seen as a development work with country’s image, then the thrust will come and the people will realise how important it is and we should not lag behind other countries.
  • Governmental Initiatives of Swachhata Pakwada Campaigns should be promoted to raise awareness of sanitation and hygiene. Adequate Budgetary Allocation should be given to construct twin-pit toilets at villages, public toilets etc.
  • Teach them young: Children must be taught the importance of Sanitation and hygiene. Initiatives like Bal Swachhata Mission, Swachh Vidyalaya Abhiyan are pushing forward the objective.
  • Competition raising initiatives like Swachha Survekshan Abhiyan will help in boosting the spirit of cities and towns to improve the ODF status.
  • In places of water scarcity, trains etc. use of bio-toilets can be promoted.
  • Technology like mini-jetting machines, robots to clean the clogged pits as done in Hyderabad and Trivandrum should be emulated in other places to curb manual scavenging.
  • Swachhata Doots, NGOs and CSOs must be involved at the grassroots level to achieve 100% ODF by October 2nd, 2019.

Conclusion:

                The success of the Swachh Bharat Mission is linked to the participation of the people. It depends on people changing their attitudes towards cleanliness, building and using toilets, and maintaining personal hygiene among other things. This means creating a ‘behavioural change’ in an individual is critical to help break old habits and norms.


Topic Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country, different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers.

4) Discuss the scope of replication of ‘White Revolution’ in India. (250 words)

 Indian Geography by Majid Hussain

 

Why this question:

The answer must discuss the scope of white revolution.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must evaluate the scope of white revolution in India.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Describe what is white revolution. 

Body:

The question is direct one has to discuss the success of white revolution in the past and the possible white revolution 2.0 in the coming future.

Students must make use of facts and figures to justify the potential of the revolution in India.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

The huge increase in milk supply through concerted efforts on a cooperative level is known as the White Revolution. Forty-eight years after Operation Flood – that made India the world’s largest milk producer – India continues to be on the lookout for the next breakthrough in agricultural produce and productivity.

Body:

Milk production in India:

  • India is the world’s largest producer and consumer of dairy products.
  • Currently India has 17% of world output of dairy products, surpassing USA in 1998 as world’s largest producer of dairy. All this was achieved by operation Flood which was launched in 1970’s.
  • According to market research company IMARC, the milk and dairy products industry reached Rs7.9 lakh crore in 2017.
  • In 2016, the milk sector alone was valued at Rs3 lakh crore and is projected to scale Rs7.3 lakh crore by 2021.
  • The per capita milk availability in India has gone up from 126 gm per day in 1960 to 359 gm per day in 2015.

Potential of diary sector:

  • The dairy industry in India is unique. With six lakh villages housing about 90 crore people, dairying is not just a large economic activity but also an integral part of our social and cultural heritage
  • Its uniqueness lies in its unifying power, in the fact that no other industry touches lives of millions of farmers, of which 70 per cent are landless.
  • Complementing this are Indian climatic conditions that support animal husbandry. Dairy, in effect, could become a great tool for equitable growth and income distribution.
  • What remains is providing market access by offering stable and remunerative prices to farmers and encouraging this generations-old sustainable livelihood source.
  • Can help small farmers to reduce dependence on crop sales
  • Can increase source of income of farmers in low yielding areas like Marathwada, Bundelkhand etc
  • India is surrounded by countries and regions that are milk-deficient, such as the Middle East, South Asia and Southeast Asia.
  • There is ample scope for export of value-added milk products to Bangladesh, China, Singapore, Thailand, Malaysia, Philippines, Japan, the UAE, Oman and other gulf countries, all of which are located close to India.
  • At present, the population of South Asia alone is growing at 1.3 per cent a year; it is likely to be 2.2 billion by 2050. This presents an opportunity for India’s dairy industry.

Need for White Revolution 2.0:

  • As per UN-DESA estimates, by 2025, India will beat China to become the most populous country in the world with 1.4 billion people.
  • Further, by 2060, 56 per cent Indians will reside in urban areas and 44 per cent in rural areas. India is likely to have 143 cities with a population of more than one million by 2060.
  • On the other hand, the number of villages will witness only a marginal increase, from 640,000 lakh in 2012 to just 675,000 lakh in 2060.
  • This clearly indicates that India will face the problem of ‘mouths to feed’ growing faster than ‘hands to produce’.
  • To help alleviate the agrarian distress this is being faced in past 5 years.
  • To reduce the malnourishment and increase the “milk security” for every citizen.

Challenges to White Revolution 2.0:

  • The Indian cows and buffaloes are generally low yielding and non-descript because of the lack of healthy cattle-feed and fodder, tropical heat and diseases.
  • Despite lack of water and gradually declining arable land, dairy farming is on the rise.
  • Free trade agreements, or FTAs, for instance, will allow EU government-subsidised products to be imported from Europe with little entry barriers. This will pose a big challenge to cow-farmers.
  • Due to unhygienic production, handling conditions and high temperatures, the quality of milk is adversely affected.
  • Because of inadequate marketing facilities, most of the marketable surplus is sold in the form of ghee which is the least remunerative of all milk products.

Measures needed:

  • Education and Training at Panchayat level for small and medium size farmers
  • Subsidizing cattle production and encouraging cattle markets
  • Facility of logistics for produced milk
  • Improved Veterinary facility specially in artificial insemination of cattle
  • Encouraging private sector firm to procure dairy produced at rural level
  • Low interest loans for small and medium scale farmers for cattle purchase
  • Encouraging rural women to take up animal husbandry
  • Insurance of cattle against diseases like Anthrax, Foot and Mouth, Peste des Ruminantes, etc.
  • Nurture dairy entrepreneurs through effective training of youth at the village level coupled with dedicated leadership and professional management of farmers’ institutions.
  • Agricultural practices, sanitation, quality of drinking water & fodder, type and quality of pipelines – all of these need to be aligned to the goal of healthy milk.

Topic:  Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country, different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers.

5) Discuss the pattern of land holdings in India and the challenges related to land fragmentation also suggest possible solutions to the problems.(250 words)

A comprehensive geography by Khullar

Why this question:

The question is about dealing the issues related to agriculture with specific focus on land holdings and land fragmentation issues.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the problems related to land holdings, land fragmentations and their effect on the agriculture practices of the country and farm income.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin with brief write up on the current conditions of land holdings.

Body:

Discussion should include the following: 

Paint a picture of the current status of land holdings in India, what are the issues associated with it, why is it a cause of concern? What are the challenges posed by it etc.

Then discuss the impact of it on farmers, what needs to be done to overcome the challenges and concerns.

Conclusion:

Conclude with solutions and suggest way forward.

Introduction:

The term land holding or ‘agricultural holding’ indicates average size of agricultural land held by the farmers in India. The number of small and marginal agricultural land holdings in the country (known as operational holdings) has registered a marginal increase in 2015-16 compared to 2010-11, according to the Tenth agricultural census. This means that there are more people who now own smaller parcels of agricultural land.

Body:

Trends in land holding (Agricultural Census 2015-16):

ClassificationRange (ha)2010-11 (mn.)2015-16 (mn.)% change
Small<1117.25125.867.34%
Medium1-419.7219.3-2.13%
Large4-100.980.83-15.31%

 

  • The percentage of land holders who are women has increased from 12.79% in 2010-11 to 13.87% in 2015-16, with a corresponding increase of 1.2 percentage points in the operated area.
  • This shows that more and more females are participating in the management and operation of agricultural lands.
  • Marginal, small and medium land holdings constitute the lion’s share of operated area – large land holdings account for only 9% of the total operational area.
  • The average size of operational holdings is highest in Nagaland (5 hectares) and lowest in Kerala (0.18 hectares).
  • The total number of land units used for agricultural production has shown a 5% increase in 2015-16 compared to 2010-11.
  • The total number of operational holdings in the country has increased from 138 million in 2010-11 to 146 million in 2015-16.
  • Uttar Pradesh is home to the largest number of land holders, constituting 16% of the total number.

Land fragmentation

  • It refers to the breakdown of the landholdings to smaller, unviable tracts of lands due to inheritance laws.
  • The land belonging to the father is equally distributed among his sons. This distribution of land does not entail a collection or consolidated one, but its nature is fragmented.
  • Demographic pressure has pushed down the land: man ratio to less than 0.2 hectares of cultivable land per head of rural population.
  • It has also progressively pushed down the size structure of landholdings.
  • The problem of small and fragmented holdings is more serious in densely populated and intensively cultivated states like Kerala, West Bengal, Bihar and eastern part of Uttar Pradesh where the average size of land holdings is less than one hectare and in certain parts it is less than even 0.5 hectare.
  • About 92% of holdings operated by SC groups comprised small and marginal holdings.

Challenges posed by Land fragmentation:

  • Sub-division and fragmentation of the holdings is one of the main causes of our low agricultural productivity and backward state of our agriculture.
  • A lot of time and labour is wasted in moving seeds, manure, implements and cattle from one piece of land to another.
  • Irrigation becomes difficult on such small and fragmented fields.
  • Further, a lot of fertile agricultural land is wasted in providing boundaries. Under such circumstances, the farmer cannot concentrate on improvement.
  • The farm mechanization cannot be applied in small land holdings.
  • Although legislation for consolidation of holdings has been enacted by almost all the states, it has been implemented only in Punjab, Haryana and in some parts of Uttar Pradesh.
  • The shrinking of productive agricultural land and land base being utilized for non agricultural purposes also makes the crises of fragmented land holdings multi-dimensional.
  • Research suggests that only 14% of marginal and 27% of small holdings were able to get credit from institutional sources whereas about 33% of medium and 29% of large farmers could avail institutional credit in India.
  • Producers with small holdings also often face problems due to inefficiencies in transporting their produce leading to increased dependence on middlemen. Therefore, there is loss of income which becomes the middleman’s commission.

Measures needed:

  • To ensure farmer-centric agricultural development, land consolidation efforts for good quality and efficient farming needs to be undertaken.
  • Cooperative farming: Cooperative farming is a method wherein farmers pool their resources in certain areas of agricultural activity for mutual benefit.
  • Contract Farming and Collaborative Farming initiatives: Though contract farming does not directly help in preventing fragmentation, the need of contractual requirements can be a tool for farmers to collaborate for joint cultivation.
  • Corporate farming: Large corporate and MNCs that are into agricultural supply chain often try to integrate and consolidate their product supply chains to have better control on costs and ensure supply security.
  • NGOs, farmer associations and the extension wing of the agricultural ministry at the grass root level should educate small and marginal farmers on the benefits of land consolidation which will reap benefits in scaling up of their operations and increasing profitability.
  • India has a robust and effective Panchayati Raj system that is an institutional forum for undertaking developmental projects. Pilot studies of collective farming, structured and monitored by the Panchayats can be undertaken at various gram and zila parishad levels.

Conclusion:

While Indian agriculture has shown resilience to many shocks that penetrated into the world in the last decade, the farmers are successfully producing crops in spite of many hardships. However, all this will change in the coming decades as growing population, further fragmentation, land conversion will lead to lower productivity, shortage of labour and dwindling natural resources.

These may put us back in the grip of a perennial food crisis. There is, therefore, a great responsibility on the farming community and the government alike to realize this future shock and take proactive steps to avoid such crises. Consolidation is one such solution theme.


Topic: Attitude and values

6) Discuss the role of ‘attitude’ in one’s life with suitable examples.(250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon publications

Why this question:

The question is about discussing the importance of attitude in one’s life. 

Key demand of the question:

Explain in detail the aspects related to ‘Attitude’ as a key attribute in defining one’s behaviour and lifestyle.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Define attitude in brief.

Body:

Explain the following:

  • What is importance of attitude?
  • What is an example of an attitude?
  • Why is attitude important in the workplace?
  • How your attitude affects your life?
  • Discuss its significance with suitable examples.

Conclusion:

Conclude by asserting importance of right attitude in one’s life.

Introduction:

Attitudes are views, beliefs, or evaluations of people about something (the attitude object). The attitude object can be a person, place, thing, ideology, or an event. Attitudes can be positive or negative.

Body:

Attitudes are often the result of social influence, experience or upbringing. Attitudes have a powerful influence over behaviour. While attitudes are enduring, they can change, resulting in a change in behaviour as well.

Role of Attitude:

  • Attitude defines life and life defines attitude.
  • Attitude makes a big difference in our lives. One may have high IQ and a sharp logical mind but without the right attitude, both are rendered useless.
  • Without a right attitude, one will be like a misdirected rocket reaching the wrong destination. Our right attitude can empower us.
  • Attitudes direct our future feelings and thoughts about the objects of those feelings and thoughts. Attitudes are cognitive structures that guide perception and help us fill the gaps when information is lacking.
  • Stereotypes are often associated with intense emotions which can sometimes lead to intergroup conflict.
  • Attitudes serve an ego-defensive function when they protect us against our fears and anxieties.

E.g.: Hitler and Gandhiji, although both were powerful and revered by the crowd, their attitudes which defined their actions made them the personalities they are.

Note: Here we can quote two examples which bring out the difference between right and wrong attitude.

Conclusion:

Dalai Lama says that “If you can cultivate the right attitude, your enemies are your best spiritual teachers because their presence provides you with the opportunity to enhance and develop tolerance, patience and understanding.” Our attitude is what influences all our actions. It is only the right attitude, which gets us good results.


Topic: Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.

7) Public service is a privilege that must be based on pure moral foundations. Elucidate.(250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon publications

Why this question:

The question is about discussing significance of good moral foundations for public services.

Key demand of the question:

Explain in what way moral foundations are necessary for the right exercise of the public services.

Directive:

ElucidateGive a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin with what you understand by moral foundations.

Body:

There is no fixed set of answer to it, one has to justify how and in what way strong moral grounds/foundations are necessary for a public servant to exercise his/her duty. Then explain in what way these moral foundations can be strengthened.

Conclusion:

Conclude by suggesting what needs to be done to ensure moral grounds in public services.

Introduction:

A public service is associated with government and it is offered by administrative bodies to people living within its region and considered essential to modern life. It refers to the broad framework under which government personnel extend services with the aim of advancing greater public good.

Body:

Public service is a privilege because:

  • It acts as the backbone of administration of any country and serves its own people in the form of facilitation, protecting rights, welfare schemes, maintaining law and order, etc.
  • It helps reduce the inequality and bring all on the same pedestal.
  • It gives voice to the marginalized and vulnerable sections of the society.
  • A proficient public service is vital for creating a favourable investment climate and facilitating people’s participation in economic life.

For this to be fruitful, a public servant must ensure that he possesses the following virtues

  • Integrity: It ensures that public servants work with the honesty of highest standards.
  • Non – partisanship: this is a must to ensure an inclusive reach of services and that there is no injustice.
  • Objectivity: This helps take decisions with rationality and logic.
  • Humility: the actions must not be high-handed and should be free of any vanity.
  • Transparency and Accountability: this increases the credibility and public trust on the public services.
  • Compassion: this guarantees that the relationship between the citizens and service provider is firm and based on trust.

Conclusion:

public service in both the developed and developing world has significant contribution in providing public goods, such as defence, public order, property rights, macro-economic management, basic education, public health, disaster relief, protection of environment, and managing private sector activity.