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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 20 JUNE 2019


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 20 JUNE 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic: Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and their location- changes in critical geographical features (including waterbodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

1) Arabian Sea is comparatively less prone to cyclonic storms than the Bay of Bengal, do you think climate change off late has been changing the cyclone behaviour and challenging the fact that Arabian sea is less prone? Analyse.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question:

The article discusses how Cyclone patterns and occurrence over India’s western sea show a change and that the recent data suggests that the previously calm body of water has also started receiving tropical cyclones of high intensity in a small-time interval.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must analyse in detail why Arabian Sea is comparatively less prone to cyclonic storms than the Bay of Bengal and what has been the effect of climate change on it.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin with brief introduction on the geographical aspects of Arabian sea and Bay of Bengal; their regular trends etc.

Body:

Discussion should include the following:

  • First explain in detail why Arabian Sea is comparatively less prone to cyclonic storms than the Bay of Bengal – Almost 50 per cent of the storms do not sustain over its waters since the west-central and north Arabian Sea have a colder sea temperature than other adjacent regions. This cold sea surface temperature is not favourable for the development and sustenance of cyclonic storms.
  • Then explain the recent unusualness around the Arabian sea; causative factors.
  • Discuss the key role played by climate change in such a drastic change in the regular pattern.

Conclusion:

Conclude by reasserting the importance of taking control over climate change to restore the natural course of the climate patterns and oceanic circulations.

Introduction:

A cyclone is a large scale air mass that rotates around a strong center of low atmospheric pressure. Cyclones are characterized by inward spiralling winds that rotate about a zone of low pressure. Tropical cyclones are intense low-pressure areas confined to the area lying between 30° N and 30° S latitudes, in the atmosphere around which high velocity winds blow. Horizontally, it extends up to 500-1,000 km and vertically from surface to 12-14 km.

Body:

Arabian Sea is comparatively less prone to cyclonic storms than Bay of Bengal:

  • Temperature: BOB is hotter than Arabian sea. Hot water temperature is the basic criteria for the development & intensification of cyclones.
  • Salinity: Arabian sea has higher salinity than BOB. It’s easier to heat & simultaneously evaporate water having lower salinity.
  • Location: The typhoons originating in the Pacific Ocean too influences the cyclones in BOB, not the case in Arabian Sea.
  • Movement: According to IMD cyclones originating in Arabian Sea are believed to move northwest. So they actually move away from Indian mainland.
  • The Bay receives higher rainfall and constant inflow of fresh water from the Ganga and Brahmaputra rivers. This means that the Bay’s surface water keeps getting refreshed, making it impossible for the warm water to mix with the cooler water below, making it ideal for a depression.

Cyclones in Arabian Sea:

  • In the usual course, there was an occurrence of one extremely severe cyclone in every four-five years in the Arabian.
  • The cyclone pattern and occurrence has shown a change and the climatological data from the last few years suggest that the Arabian Sea (west coast) also started receiving tropical cyclones of high intensity in a small time interval.
  • For instance, in 15 years (1998 to 2013), five extremely severe cyclones originated in the Sea.
  • In October 2014, the west coast of India saw an extremely severe cyclonic storm, ‘Nilofar’ (Category 4).
  • Winds blowing at speeds greater than 125 miles per hour forced authorities to evacuate nearly 30,000 people residing along the coastline.
  • In 2015, within one week, the Arabian Sea experienced two more cyclones, even stronger than Nilofar: Cyclone ‘Chapal’ followed by Cyclone ‘Megh’.

Impact of Climate change on cyclone behaviour in Arabian Sea:

  • The studies associated with temperature suggest that the Indian Ocean is warming, particularly the Arabian Sea, which is doing so at the fastest rate.
  • Previously, tropical cyclones in the Arabian Sea were restricted to Gujarat.
  • In the past decade though, Kerala and Karnataka have also become more vulnerable to cyclones. A recent example is ‘Ockhi’.
  • The Arabian Sea is quickly responding to climate change signals, heating rapidly and driving more and more cyclones, and excessive rainfall, although, experts still do not understand how much of a performance climate change must work on Ockhi.
  • The rise in Arabian Sea surface temperature makes it warmer than other seas all through this period.
  • Global warming adds to climate variability and weather changes.
  • A sophisticated climate model to compare the conditions in 2015 to conditions in 1860, keeping in mind the carbon footprints. The findings suggest that 64 per cent of the cyclone risk in the Arabian Sea was due to climate change.
  • The coastal areas surrounding the Arabian Sea are at specific risk since the geographical location offers cyclones nowhere to go but the land.

Cyclone Management in India:

  • India is highly vulnerable to natural disasters especially cyclones, earthquakes, floods, landslides, and drought. Natural disasters cause a loss of 2% of GDP every year in India. According to the Home ministry, 8% of total area in India is prone to cyclones.
  • In 2016, National Disaster Management Plan was unveiled to tackle disaster. It provides a framework to deal with prevention, mitigation, response and recovery during a disaster.
  • Due to increased awareness and tracking of Cyclone, the death toll has been reduced substantially. For example, Very severe cyclone Hudhud and Phailin claimed lives of around 138 and 45 people respectively, which might have been more. It was reduced due to the early warning and relocation of the population from the cyclone-hit areas.
  • But the destruction of infrastructure due to cyclonic hit is not been reduced which leads to increase in poverty due to the economic weakening of the affected population.

Measures to tackle such incidences:

  • The National Cyclone Risk Mitigation Project (NCRMP), to be implemented with financial assistance from the World Bank, is envisaged to have four major components:
    • Component A: Improvement of early warning dissemination system by strengthening the Last Mile Connectivity (LMC) of cyclone warnings and advisories.
    • Component B: Cyclone risk mitigation investments.
    • Component C: Technical assistance for hazard risk management and capacity-building.
    • Component D: Project management and institutional support.
  • These components are highly interdependent and have to be implemented in a coherent manner.
  • The NDMA had come up with its National Guidelines of Management of Cyclones in 2008. The basic premise of these guidelines is that the mitigation has to be multi-sectoral.
  • Developing Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) frameworks for addressing the sustainability and optimal utilisation of coastal resources as also cyclone impact minimisation plans.
  • Ensuring cyclone resistant design standards are incorporated in the rural/ urban housing schemes in coastal areas
  • Implementing coastal flood zoning, flood plain development and flood inundation management and regulatory plans.
  • Coastal bio-shields spread, preservation and restoration/ regeneration plans.
  • There is a need for private sector participation in designing and implementing policies, plans, and standards.
  • Need of Disaster Management program to be inclusive including women, civil society, and academia.

Conclusion:

In Indian waters, cyclonic storms are associated with heavy rains, thunderstorms, high tides and intense winds that cause shocking destruction in coastal areas. The increase in the frequency of tropical cyclones over the Arabian Sea can result in a massive loss of lives, livelihood and costal ecology. India should prepare to mitigate and deflect the destruction caused by Cyclones. We need to employ technology, strict following of command structure and most importantly the participation and cooperation of local communities in the affected area


Topic:Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

2) Reforms in India’s law enforcement are the need of the hour. Discuss the key reasons hindering both police reforms and the impetus for police performance. (250 words)

Livemint

Why this question:

The article discusses in detail the issues police system is facing in the country.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must analyse in detail what are the issues and concerns associated with functioning of Police system; causes and consequences along with the necessary reforms needed.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin with some facts from the article that could substantiate the question’s demands.

Body:

Discussion should include the following:

What are the issues with the law enforcement system in the country?

Major issues with Police in India- huge vacancies, over-burden, Arduous nature of duties and working conditions, lack of physical infrastructure, Qualifications and training of police personnel etc.

Why is the issue? What are the underlying causes? – criminalization of politics, lack of political will, lack of education etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by suggesting solutions.

Introduction:

The primary role of police forces is to uphold and enforce laws, investigate crimes and ensure security for people in the country. Under the Constitution, police is a subject governed by states. There has been almost 30 years of debate on policing and reform in India. However, the centre is also allowed to maintain its own police forces to assist the states with ensuring law and order. The present Indian police system is largely based on Police act of 1861

Body:

Need for Police Reforms:

  • If India is to achieve its status as a great power, it is absolutely essential that police is restructured and modernised.
  • Without the police ensuring good law and order in the country, the other services would find it difficult to operate.
  • To transform the colonial police structure of the country into a progressive, modern force sensitive to the democratic aspirations of the people.
  • To eliminate the undue political interference. The police of today are victims of politicization as well as criminalization.
  • To instil the confidence of the people in the institution of police by making police more people friendly.
  • The security of the society and the welfare of the people is dependent on the efficiency of the police.

Key reasons hindering both police reforms:

  • An overburdened police force:
    • Police force is over burdened especially at lower levels where constabulary is forced to work continuously 14-16 hrs and also for 7 days a week. It adversely impacts their performance.
    • While the sanctioned police strength was 181 police per lakh persons in 2016 when the United Nations recommended standard is 222 police per lakh persons.
    • 86% of the state police comprises of constabulary. Constables are typically promoted once during their service. This could weaken their incentive to perform well.
  • Improving police infrastructure:
    • Failure of police infrastructure like vehicles, weaponry. Also audits have found that the POLNET network is non-functional in various states.
    • For example, an audit of the Gujarat police force reported that the network had not been operationalised till October 2015 due to non-installation of essential infrastructure, such as remote subscriber units and generator sets.
    • Funds dedicated for modernisation of infrastructure are typically not utilised fully. For example, in 2015-16, only 14% of such funds were used by the states.
  • Political influence:
    • Second Administrative Reforms Commission has noted that ministers have used police forces for personal and political reasons.
  • Police accountability:
    • Police forces have the authority to exercise force to enforce laws and maintain law and order in a state. However, this power may be misused in several ways.
  • Poor quality of investigation:
    • Crime per lakh population has increased by 28% over the last decade (2005-2015). However, convictions have been low. So it shows the poor quality of investigation.
    • The Law Commission and the Second Administrative Reforms Commission have noted that state police officers often neglect investigation because they are understaffed and overburdened with various kinds of tasks.
    • Further, they lack the training and the expertise required to conduct professional investigations.
    • They also have insufficient legal knowledge and the forensic and cyber infrastructure available to them is both inadequate and outdated. In light of this, police forces may use force and torture to secure evidence.
    • Crime investigations may be influenced by political or other extraneous considerations
  • Forensic labs:
    • Expert bodies have however said that these laboratories are short of funds and qualified staff. Further, there is indiscriminate referencing of cases to these labs resulting in high pendency.
  • Lack of co-ordination between centre and states is matter related to maintenance of law & order results in ineffective functioning of police force.
  • Police force is not in the position to tackle present problems of cyber crime, global terrorism, Naxalism because of structural weaknesses.
  • Prevalence of Rank system within the police force results in abuse of power by top level executive over lower level personnel.

Reforms needed:

Reforms needed:-

  • Directions of the Supreme Court in Prakash Singh vs Union of India:
    • The Supreme Court ordered the centre and states to set up authorities to lay down guidelines for police functioning, evaluate police performance, decide postings and transfers, and receive complaints of police misconduct.
    • The court also required that minimum tenure of service be guaranteed to key police officers to protect them from arbitrary transfers and postings.
  • Independent Complaints Authority:
    • The Second Administrative Reforms Commission and the Supreme Court have observed that there is a need to have an independent complaints authority to inquire into cases of police misconduct.
    • Example is that of the New York City Police which has a Civilian Complaint Review Board comprising of civilians appointed by local government bodies and the police commissioner to investigate into cases of police misconduct.
  • Investigation:
    • Experts have recommended that states must have their own specialized investigation units within the police force that are responsible for crime investigation.
  • Padmanabhaiah commission:
    • It has also been recommended that constables, and the police force in general, should receive greater training in soft skills given they need to deal with the public regularly.
  • Housing:
    • Importance of providing housing to the constabulary (and generally to the police force) to improve their efficiency and incentive to accept remote postings has also been emphasised by expert bodies, such as the National Police Commission.
  • Community policing: Janamaithri Suraksha in Kerala
    • This project is an initiative of the Kerala Police to facilitate greater accessibility, close interaction and better understanding between the police and local communities. For example, Beat Constables are required to know at least one family member of every family living in his beat area.
    • Meira Paibi (Torch-bearers) in Assam: The women of the Manipuri Basti in Guwahati help with improving the law and order problem in their area, by tackling drug abuse among the youth. They light their torches and go around the basti guarding the entry and exit points, to prevent the youth of the area from going out after sunset
  • Courts:
    • The Madras High Court has said that the state government should contemplate giving policemen a day off in a week like other government officials in order to spend time with their families.
    • The court suggested introducing an 8-hour, three-shift system for police personnel. It will help them rejuvenate themselves and relieve them from stress.
  • Evidence based policing is gaining credibility day by day – Indian police force must be exposed to it.
  • Second ARC recommended that the government should declare certain crimes as “federal” and entrust their investigation to a Central agency.
  • Police need to have the operational freedom to carry out their responsibilities professionally, and satisfactory working conditions, while being held accountable for poor performance or misuse of power.
  • Gender Parity in Police force: The 2nd Administrative Reform Commission recommended that the representation of women in police at all levels should be increased through affirmative action so that they constitute about 33% of the police.
  • Improvement in Intelligence gathering: The intelligence gathering machinery in the field needs to be strengthened and at the same time, made more accountable. Human intelligence should be combined with information derived from diverse sources with the focus on increased use of technology.

Conclusion:

The police force needs to be freed from the stranglehold of the executive and given functional autonomy to enforce the rule of law. Police should be a SMART Police -a police which should be strict and sensitive, modern and mobile, alert and accountable, reliable and responsible, tech-savvy and trained.


Topic: Issues relating to poverty and hunger.

4) Provide for a detailed critical assessment of poverty alleviation programmes of the country so far.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question:

The question is straightforward and is about discussing the poverty alleviation programs of the country.

Key demand of the question:

One must discuss the successes and failures of the poverty alleviation programmes till date.

Directive:

Critically analyzeWhen asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin with brief introduction on the timeline of various poverty alleviation programmes.

Body:

Explain that despite various strategies to alleviate poverty, hunger, malnourishment, illiteracy and lack of basic amenities continue to be a common feature in many parts of India. Though the policy towards poverty alleviation has evolved in a progressive manner, over the last five and a half decades, it has not undergone any radical transformation.

List down few successful programmes, discuss their relevance etc.

Discuss what needs to be done.

Conclusion:

Conclude by reasserting that policies to alleviate poverty need to be multipronged in approach.

Introduction:

Poverty is one of the evils that impedes development of the country. Recognising this, India had pursued various poverty alleviation programmes to pull people out of the vicious cycle of poverty. India used multi pronged approach in dealing with this. Efforts at poverty alleviation have borne fruit in that for the first time since independence, the percentage of absolute poor in some states is now well below the national average. Despite various strategies to alleviate poverty, hunger, malnourishment, illiteracy and lack of basic amenities continue to be a common feature in many parts of India.

Body:

Various poverty alleviation programs in India since Independence:

  • Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP): It was introduced in 1978-79 and universalized from 2nd October, 1980, aimed at providing assistance to the rural poor in the form of subsidy and bank credit for productive employment opportunities through successive plan periods.
  • Jawahar Rozgar Yojana/Jawahar Gram Samriddhi Yojana: The JRY was meant to generate meaningful employment opportunities for the unemployed and underemployed in rural areas through the creation of economic infrastructure and community and social assets.
  • Rural Housing – Indira Awaas Yojana: The Indira Awaas Yojana (LAY) programme aims at providing free housing to Below Poverty Line (BPL) families in rural areas and main targets would be the households of SC/STs.
  • Food for Work Programme: It aims at enhancing food security through wage employment. Food grains are supplied to states free of cost, however, the supply of food grains from the Food Corporation of India (FCI) godowns has been slow.
  • National Old Age Pension Scheme (NOAPS): This pension is given by the central government. The job of implementation of this scheme in states and union territories is given to panchayats and municipalities. The states contribution may vary depending on the state. The amount of old age pension is ₹200 per month for applicants aged 60–79. For applicants aged above 80 years, the amount has been revised to ₹500 a month according to the 2011–2012 Budget. It is a successful venture.
  • Annapurna: This scheme was started by the government in 1999–2000 to provide food to senior citizens who cannot take care of themselves and are not under the National Old Age Pension Scheme (NOAPS), and who have no one to take care of them in their village. This scheme would provide 10 kg of free food grains a month for the eligible senior citizens. They mostly target groups of ‘poorest of the poor’ and ‘indigent senior citizens’.
  • Sampoorna Gramin Rozgar Yojana (SGRY): The main objective of the scheme continues to be the generation of wage employment, creation of durable economic infrastructure in rural areas and provision of food and nutrition security for the poor.
  • Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) 2005: The Act provides 100 days assured employment every year to every rural household. One-third of the proposed jobs would be reserved for women.  The central government will also establish National Employment Guarantee Funds. Similarly, state governments will establish State Employment Guarantee Funds for implementation of the scheme. Under the programme, if an applicant is not provided employment within 15 days s/he will be entitled to a daily unemployment allowance.
  • National Rural Livelihood Mission: Ajeevika (2011): It evolves out the need to diversify the needs of the rural poor and provide them jobs with regular income on monthly basis. Self Help groups are formed at the village level to help the needy.
  • National Urban Livelihood Mission: The NULM focuses on organizing urban poor in Self Help Groups, creating opportunities for skill development leading to market-based employment and helping them to set up self-employment ventures by ensuring easy access to credit.
  • Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana: It will focus on fresh entrant to the labour market, especially labour market and class X and XII dropouts.
  • Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana: It aimed at direct benefit transfer of subsidy, pension, insurance etc. and attained the target of opening 1.5 crore bank accounts. The scheme particularly targets the unbanked poor.

Assessment:

  • However, none resulted in any radical change in the ownership of assets, process of production and improvement of basic amenities to the needy.
  • Scholars, while assessing these programmes, state three major areas of concern which prevent their successful implementation. Due to unequal distribution of land and other assets, the benefits from direct poverty alleviation programmes have been appropriated by the non-poor.
  • Compared to the magnitude of poverty, the amount of resources allocated for these programmes is not sufficient. Moreover, these programmes depend mainly on government and bank officials for their implementation.
  • Since such officials are ill motivated, inadequately trained, corruption prone and vulnerable to pressure from a variety of local elites, the resources are inefficiently used and wasted. There is also non-participation of local level institutions in programme implementation.
  • Government policies have also failed to address the vast majority of vulnerable people who are living on or just above the poverty line. It also reveals that high growth alone is not sufficient to reduce poverty.
  • Without the active participation of the poor, successful implementation of any programme is not possible

Conclusion:

Poverty can effectively be eradicated only when the poor start contributing to growth by their active involvement in the growth process. This is possible through a process of social mobilisation, encouraging poor people to participate and get them empowered. This will also help create employment opportunities which may lead to increase in levels of income, skill development, health and literacy. Moreover, it is necessary to identify poverty stricken areas and provide infrastructure such as schools, roads, power, telecom, IT services, training institutions etc.


Topic:  Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

5) India faces a water crisis acute enough to cause popular unrest as it slowly assumes calamitous proportions. Discuss the causes that have led to such conditions and what needs to be done to address the situation on ground?   (250 words)

Livemint

 

Why this question:

The article captures the water crisis currently that is prevailing in India. It points to the alarming crisis that may soon become a catastrophe.

Demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the underlying causes for such a crisis and analyse as to what needs to be done.

Directive word:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

Start with few facts explaining the water crisis situation in the country. India has only 4% of the planet’s fresh-water for 16% of its population.

Body

One can have the following points in the answer:

Economic  Growth: A  good  transportation system  is an important selling  point to communities that desire to attract development that provides for employment and growth of a city. If transport costs due to congestion increase, goods and services produced within that city tend to increase in costs  thus losing  competitiveness  in international  markets. Efficient  transportation access  is therefore  a very important  consideration as it  has a direct impact on  sound and sustainable economic growth and productivity. The cost of congestion in the Western Province of Sri  Lanka is over Rs 20,000 million per year (around 2 percent of Regional GDP). This includes the cost of productive time and wastage of fuel.   

Quality-of-Life: To some people, congested highways are a symptom of deteriorating quality-of-life-in a community.  The amount of time that is spent on commuting to and from work is also in reality, time that is taken away from social interactions or pursuit of activities that have a personal value and satisfaction.

Explain the crisis situation first, draw a map of India to depict the water crisis situation across the country.

Explain the root cause of such situation – falling Groundwater levels, India is the world’s biggest groundwater extractor, All manner of structures have encroached upon lakes and rivers with impunity, while industrial waste and sewage inflows render various water bodies toxic. The problem is compounded by the large-scale adoption of thermocol and plastic plates and glasses even in the countryside, the stuff of non-biodegradable waste that ends up killing rural pools of water that have traditionally served entire villages etc.

Discuss what needs to be done to prevent the situation turning into a popular catastrophe.

Conclusion

Conclude with suggesting solutions, increased water harvesting techniques, scientific interventions for conservation of water is the need of the hour.

Introduction:

The NITI Aayog report on Composite Water Management Index(CWMI) said that India is facing its ‘worst’ water crisis in history. Taps in Shimla went dry in summer of 2018, posing an unprecedented water crisis in the hill town. According to a forecast by the Asian Development Bank, India will have a water deficit of 50% by 2030. Recent studies also ranked Chennai and Delhi at the top of the 27 most vulnerable Asian cities in terms of low per-day water availability Mumbai and Kolkata follow close.

Body:

Current water crisis in India:

  • India has only 4% of the planet’s fresh-water for 16% of its population.
  • The annual per capita availability of water continues to decline sharply from about 5,177 cubic metres in 1951 to about 1,720 cubic metres in 2019.
  • The NITI Aayog in its report on Composite Water Management Index (2018) has underlined that currently 600 million people face high to extreme water stress.
  • Twenty-one cities, including Delhi, Bengaluru, Chennai and Hyderabad will run out of groundwater by 2020, affecting 100 million people.
  • The rate of groundwater extraction is so severe that NASA’s findings suggest that India’s water table is declining alarmingly at a rate of about 0.3 metres per year.
  • At this rate of depletion, India will have only 22 per cent of the present daily per capita water available in 2050, possibly forcing the country to import water.

Causative factors for water crisis:

  • A combination of population explosion, unplanned growth of the city and its expansion to some traditional catchment areas (a region from which rainfall flows into a river, lake, or reservoir) have led to a reduction in the natural flow of water, and large-scale deforestation.
  • Climate change, leading to much lower precipitation during the winter months. As a result, the natural flow and recharge of water in the region has fallen sharply
  • Failure of State governments to check unplanned development and exploitation of water resources. There is no attempt at the central or state levels to manage water quantity and quality
  • The vegetation pattern has changed, tree cover is shrinking and unscientific dumping of debris in water streams is rampant.
  • The debris blocks the natural course of water bodies.
  • Increasing number of tube wells resulting in depletion of groundwater.
  • Changes in farming patterns lead to consumption of more water for irrigation and also change the soil profile because of the use of fertilizers
  • The states ranked lowest like Uttar Pradesh, Haryana and Jharkhand – are home to almost half of India’s population along with the majority of its agricultural produce.
  • There is also a lack of interest in maintaining India’s traditional water harvesting structures.

Measures needed:

  • India’s priority must be:
    • To make our irrigation and water systems amenable to modern concepts.
    • To complete irrigation and water sector reforms.
    • To implement improved water management, governance and regulation practices.
    • Pricing system for water: For making people use water efficiently
  • Deepen our understanding of our water resources and usage and put in place interventions that make our water use efficient and sustainable.
  • Augmentation of watersheds that can store more good water, for use in agriculture and to serve habitations.
  • Strict pollution control enforcement.
  • Decentralisation of irrigation commands, offering higher financial flows to well-performing States through a National Irrigation Management Fund.
  • Groundwater extraction patterns need to be better understood through robust data collection.
  • Pollution can be curbed by levying suitable costs.
  • Poor maintenance of pipelines, consistent leakage and illegal tapping of water are some of the issues that need to be addressed on a war-footing.
  • Adopting rainwater harvesting techniques is the need of the hour.
  • A legal mandate will work better than just competition and cooperation; it would make governments accountable.
  • These forward-looking changes would need revamped national and State institutions, and updated laws.
  • Urban India needs to focus on recycling and harvesting water, having better testing and purification facilities and increase public awareness on the need to conserve water.
  • Large catchment areas need to be developed around water bodies so that natural recharge of groundwater takes place. A good example is the Seog catchment area which has been denoted as a wildlife sanctuary and where no construction is allowed.
  • Greywater recycling, a method of recycling wastewater from kitchen sinks, showers and laundry fixtures.
  • Greywater recycling helps reduce household water usage by about 50% .
  • This year’s World Water Development Report makes it clear that nature-based solutions which are also aligned with the principles and aims of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development can offer answers to our most pressing water-related challenges.

Conclusion:

There is a need for credible environmental and cumulative impact assessments, genuine public consultation process at multiple stages of planning and project implementation, confidence-inspiring appraisal, which includes the appointment of independent experts, and most crucially, achieving some real monitoring and compliance. The water governance ought to be made transparent, accountable and participatory in every sub-sector, including management of rivers, groundwater, floods, and biodiversity, among others.


Topic: Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

6) “Non-cooperation with evil is as much a duty as it is to cooperate with the good”, explain in the context of civil services.(250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon Publications

Why this question:

The question is based on the aspect of strengthening of Ethical and Moral Values in Governance.

Key demand of the question:

Explain the necessity of ethics and morals in public services and significance of strong values of co-operation in doing good and standing strong against bad.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Explain in brief the background of the question’s context.

Body:

The quote is given by Mahatma Gandhi, such questions are best explained with examples. One must justify how Non-cooperation with evil, is as much a duty as is cooperation with good.

Explain how doing good is as important as not co-operating with the evil or evil doers.

Conclusion:

Conclude by reasserting that the anecdote stands significant even in today’s scenario.

Introduction:

Gandhiji used non-cooperation as one of the strategy to fight against the immoral laws of the British. At the same time, he made sure that he didn’t co-operate with the violence either as seen during the Chauri-Chaura incident. Civil Services form the steel frame of public administration in India. The civil servants work in challenging conditions, where they need to uphold their integrity and morality constantly.

Body:

Cooperation with good is necessary for civil servants due to:

  • The goal of serving the society, citizenry and the nation at large.
  • They are endowed with the responsibility of nation’s resources, whose judicious management depends on their probity and objectivity.
  • Finally, it is also a moral duty of a civil servant to be honest, transparent and ethical in dealing with public transactions and follow the code of conduct.

Non-Cooperation with evil is also necessary due to:

  • Rooting out evils like corruption, red tapism, nepotism. India still ranks poorly on Transparency International’s Corruption perception index.
  • Socio-economic challenges of poverty, illiteracy, inequality and unemployment that hamper India can be tackled only when civil servants follow ethics and have integrity.
  • To ensure public trust and rights of people are upheld.

Conclusion:

Civil service is intended to work for the welfare of the masses. They need to be objective in their choices and take decisions which are good for the citizens.


Topic: Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems;
ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations
and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance;
strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international
relations and funding; corporate governance.

7) What do you understand by Morality? In what way it plays a significant role in public services? Elucidate.(250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon

Why this question:

The question is straightforward and is about discussing the significance of morality and its role in public services.

Key demand of the question:

Explain in detail what is morality, discuss the role played by it in public services.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin with brief introduction on what are morals.

Body:

Discussion should include the following:

  • Explain that the concept of morality pertains to the principles of right and wrong human conduct. Moral qualities in human are their character traits such as honesty, integrity, etc. The concept of ethics is quite complex for the mankind. It is related to the standards of conduct acceptable to a group, a profession or members of an organization. Since whole organization or group is concerned, it creates problem for the individual to choose between the right and wrong and also between do’s and don’ts.
  • The effective functioning of an organization rests on its manpower and leadership quality. Thus, an employee or an individual associated with the organization or a group establish the most important input in its administration. The manpower has to be converted into human resources using various systematic planning, adequate training and sufficient education. Using these methods, effective moral and ethics are inculcated among the members of the organization.

Conclusion:

Conclude by reasserting its significance.

Introduction:

Morality is a particular system of values and principles of conduct concerning with the distinction between right and wrong or good and bad behaviour. It is something which depends upon one’s knowledge of understanding and ability to interpret. As Mahatma Gandhiji says, “Morality is the basis of things and truth is the substance of all morality“. One’s basis of moral values may differ from culture to culture or society to society or community to community, but at the end essence of it remains the same.

Body:

Role of Morality in public services:

  • Ethical behaviour requires that we use our moral compass to guide us in our interactions with others. Ethical behaviour is also about the ability to inspire trust in others.
  • The civil service enjoys permanence of tenure and has the attributes of political neutrality, anonymity, impartiality and commitment to the government policies.
  • The nexus determines the quality of the services rendered to the country.
  • A healthy Politico-administration nexus can do wonders in the delivery of the public services and the opposite can prove to be a debacle for the growth of nation.
  • Public officials are given the trust of the public to develop and carry out policies that are in the public’s best interest.
  • Living up to this trust has a significant impact on the national will; public confidence is essential to the exercise of national power.
  • Thus public officials have a moral duty to act in a trustworthy manner, which leads to good governance.
  • Strong moral values like love and compassion help civil servants to work towards deprived section of the society.

For e.g.: Truthfulness is very much important as it is directly related to a person’s moral character. A truthful person is respected, trusted, regarded by people everywhere. Truth gives morality the strength to face the world For instance Martin Luther king was truthful to his mission against racial discrimination which was moral quality.

By not being truthful a person’s morality comes under question. If a person is corrupt he is not being truthful to himself so his integrity comes under question which is a moral trait. The society judges that some person is a criminal the basis on which evidence is found is the truth. A civil servant can be moral only when he/she can see the truth of the conditions of the society. So truth guides people to be moral and gives an ethical dimension to life.

Conclusion:

Moral resilience in public service is often tested due to prevailing work culture, political interference etc. At such times it is necessary for public servant to uphold there moral values to work in true public interest. Ethics and morality should come from the soul, only then our society will emerge as a powerful entity.