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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 29 MAY 2019


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 29 MAY 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

1) Educational institutions have been the preserves of the upper caste and the rich. With affirmative action in the form of caste-based reservations, however this hegemony has been challenged to a significant extent often through harassment, disgrace and coercion. Critically analyse the statement in the light of recent incident of Mumbai doctor’s suicide owing to caste-based discrimination.(250 words)

Indianexpress

 

Why this question:

Recently a Mumbai Doctor committed suicide over alleged harassment by the seniors based on caste discrimination. In such a disturbing event it is important for us to examine the social issues deeply still present in our society.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the societal issues that still perpetuate in our society even today and the adverse implications it has on the country as a whole.

Directive word:

Critically analyzeWhen asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin with brief write up on the background of the case.

Body:

Discussion should include the following aspects –

Explain how educational institutions in India have long been a monopoly of the upper caste and the high standard society, explain that though through affirmative actions the downtrodden were and are given a chance such incidences only indicate the absence of acceptance of such steps even today.

Discuss what needs to be done to overcome the challenges involved?

Who are the stakeholders involved etc.s

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance of such schemes in the upliftment of the unorganized working class.

Introduction:

Sociologist Emile Durkheim had famously hypothesised that ‘suicides are a result of not just psychological or emotional factors but social factors as well’. The death of Payal Tadvi, a 26-year-old resident doctor at Mumbai’s BYL Nair Hospital, has exposed yet again the insidious nature of discrimination and casteism against Scheduled Caste (SC)/Scheduled Tribe (ST) students in educational institutions. Tadvi belonged to the Bhil Muslim community, recognised as an ST group. The death of Rohith Vemula, the Dalit student pursuing his PhD at the University of Hyderabad, whose suicide was described as “institutional murder” in 2016 is also a case in point.

Body:

Despite constitutional provisions and safeguards, dalit representation in higher educational institutes and in the work force remains largely minimal.

Discrimination at Educational institutions and Jobs:

  • Discrimination happens in different ways. At the institute level, it could be a teacher failing a student because of personal bias against their rural background.
  • Or it could be teachers and students making casteist comments against students.
  • Dalit children have been made to sit separately while eating in government schools.
  • Sometimes the government itself puts students at disadvantage by not implementing its policies. When a student avails the post-metric scholarship, for example, they sometimes don’t get it for the next one or two years.
  • The person either drops out or goes to a private loan shark, ending up in a vicious cycle of debt and, eventually, poverty.
  • People belonging to lower castes have little chances to be called for an interview
  • Another pertinent issue is the experience of caste discrimination in educational institutions and the level of politicisation of such issues on the college/university campuses.
  • Sometimes disagreements between student groups on the university campuses take on ugly forms.
  • According to a 2010 report by the National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) on the Prevention of Atrocities against Scheduled Castes, a crime is committed against a Dalit every 18 minutes.

Thorat Committee findings on discrimination:

  • The Thorat Committee report eventually served as a milestone in efforts to identify caste-based discrimination in higher educational institutes.
  • It revealed that about 69 per cent of the SC/ST students reported that they did not receive adequate support from teachers and about half of them cited inaccessibility and indifference as reasons for less contact with teachers.
  • About one-third gave caste background as reason for avoidance by the teachers, and 72 per cent of SC/ST students mentioned some kind of discrimination during teaching sessions.
  • About 76 per cent of students mentioned that their papers were not examined properly and 88 per cent mentioned that they got fewer marks than they expected.
  • About 84 per cent of these students mentioned that evaluation in practical and viva was unfair and 85 per cent of them mentioned that the SC students didn’t receive enough time with the examiners, as compared to higher caste students.
  • Besides, a large chunk of SC/ST students experienced social isolation and discrimination during their stay in the hostels at AIIMS.
  • The report also delineated the discrimination felt by SC/ST faculty members employed at AIIMS, Delhi.

Impacts of such discriminations:

  • Lower castes don’t enjoy a good quality life and it pulls down the overall HDI
  • Potential of lower castes remain untapped and human capital is lost
  • Psychological impact whereby they adopt their conditions as if they are entitled to it and shun in raising their voice against discrimination
  • In extreme cases, discrimination may lead to incidents like suicide.

Reasons behind persistence of such discrimination:

  • Traditional mindset with deep rooted caste system in pockets of India
  • Low level of awareness among lower caste about the government polices and legislation intended for their favour
  • Poor implementation of existing laws like Prevention of Atrocities Act
  • The primary reason for educational institutions emerging as pulpits of protest lies in the fractured social structure in universities, where the elite of the Dalits are competing with general students.

Measures needed for Inclusive Educational System:

  • Banish Untouchability in Educational institutions: The government must proactively ensure a discrimination free education atmosphere.
  • Constitutional safeguards and protective legal clauses can play a great enabling role.
  • Reservations combined with economic opportunities and social empowerment of Dalits could stem atrocities against them
  • Country needs a better basis of reservation which includes the poor and the backward groups and excludes the rich and the dominating sections among all castes.
  • The present reservation system requires serious amendments.
  • Before extending reservation to more groups, the entire policy needs to be properly examined, and its benefits over a span of nearly 60 years have to be gauged.
  • A change of attitude is needed among the ruling classes to stem the tide.
  • The private sector will have to accept the social responsibility setting aside its sole profit motive.

Conclusion:

Quality education is the bedrock of sustainable development, the foundation for improving people’s lives. Sure, we have made improvements in this area, but we need to take stronger measures if we want this development to reach the most marginalised in time for achieving our Sustainable Development Goals.


Topic : contributors to Indian freedom struggle.

2) Discuss the contributions of Vinayak Damodar Savarkar in the freedom movement of India. (250 words)

Reference

Why this question:

Swatantryaveer Vinayak Damodar Savarkar’s birth anniversary was celebrated yesterday thus it is important for us to analyse his contributions to Indian freedom struggle .

Demand of the question:

List the contributions of Vinayak Damodar Savarkar in Indian freedom struggle.

Directive word:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

Start with brief narration of his role in freedom struggle.

Body

Discuss the following points in detail:

  • Born on this day in 1883 near Nasik in Maharashtra, Vinayak Damodar Savarkar was popularly called Veer Savarkar.
  • Veer Savarkar was a freedom fighter . He called 1857 revolt as the first war of independence.
  • He founded the following Organizations: Abhinav Bharat Society and Free India Society.
  • He was also a member of India House. He was not the founder of Hindu Mahasabha, but he did serve as its president.
  • He opposed the Quit India struggle in 1942, calling it a “Quit India but keep your army” movement.
  • Savarkar endorsed the ideal of India as a Hindu Rashtra and is credited with developing the Hindu nationalist political ideology Hindutva.
  • He wrote the book” Joseph Mazzini- Biography and Politics.”
  • He published “The Indian War of Independence” about the Indian rebellion of 1857.

Conclusion

Conclude with significance of his contributions.

Introduction:

Vinayak Damodar Savarkar (Veer Savarkar) occupies a unique place in the history of Indian freedom struggle. His name evokes controversy. While some consider him as one of the greatest revolutionaries in the Indian freedom struggle, others consider him a communalist and right-wing leader.

Body:

Contributions made by Vinayak Damodar Savarkar:

  • In Pune, Savarkar founded the “Abhinav Bharat Society”. He was also involved in the Swadeshi movement and later joined Tilak’s Swaraj Party. His instigating patriotic speeches and activities incensed the British Government. As a result the British Government withdrew his B.A. degree.
  • In June 1906, Veer Savarkar, left for London to become Barrister. However, once in London, he united and inflamed the Indian students in England against British rule in India. He founded the Free India Society.
  • The Society celebrated important dates on the Indian calendar including festivals, freedom movement landmarks, and was dedicated to furthering discussion about Indian freedom. He believed and advocated the use of arms to free India from the British and created a network of Indians in England, equipped with weapons.
  • In 1908, brought out an authentic informative researched work on The Great Indian Revolt, which the British termed as “Sepoy Mutiny” of 1857. The book was called “The Indian War of Independence 1857”.
  • The British government immediately enforced a ban on the publication in both Britain and India. Later, it was published by Madame Bhikaiji Cama in Holland, and was smuggled into India to reach revolutionaries working across the country against British rule.
  • When the then British Collector of Nasik, A.M.T. Jackson was shot by a youth, Veer Savarkar finally fell under the net of the British authorities. He was implicated in the murder citing his connections with India House. Savarkar was arrested in London on March 13, 1910 and sent to India.
  • In 1920, many prominent freedom fighters including Vithalbhai Patel, Mahatma Gandhi and Bal Gangadhar Tilak demanded the release of Savarkar. On May 2, 1921, Savarkar was moved to Ratnagiri jail, and from there to the Yeravada jail. In Ratnagiri jail Savarkar wrote the book ‘Hindutva: who is hindu?’.
  • Savarkar began describing a “Hindu” as a patriotic inhabitant of Bharatavarsha, venturing beyond a religious identity. While emphasising the need for patriotic and social unity of all Hindu communities, he described Hinduism, Jainism, Sikhism and Buddhism as one and the same.
  • He outlined his vision of a “Hindu Rashtra” (Hindu Nation) as “Akhand Bharat” (United India), purportedly stretching across the entire Indian subcontinent. He defined Hindus as being neither Aryan nor Dravidian but as “People who live as children of a common motherland, adoring a common holy land.”
  • Although staunch anti-British in his early years, he supported British efforts in India seeking military efforts to Hindus during World War 2 and opposed the Quit India Movement.
  • Hindu Mahasabha activists protested Gandhi’s initiative to hold talks with Jinnah in 1944, which Savarkar denounced as “appeasement.” He assailed the British proposals for transfer of power, attacking both the Congress and the British for making concessions to Muslim separatists.
  • Vinayak Savarkar was a president of Hindu Mahasabha from 1937 to 1943. When congress ministries offered resignation on 22nd Oct 1939, Hindu mahasabha under his leadership cooperated with Muslim league to form government in provinces like Sindh, Bengal and NWFP.
  • His strong views on Hindutva though secular in broader outlook, led to rise in radicalism among his followers. This also led to rise in tension between two communities.

Conclusion:

Many of Savarkar’s ideas on social and religious reforms, embrace of science, and building a stronger state continue to be relevant for India. His controversial position on Hindutva also continues to inform current political debates. It is time that a wider set of scholars began to engage with Savarkar’s ideas—including controversial ones


Topic: Important International institutions, agencies and fora- their structure, mandate.

3) Discuss the significance of BIMSTEC in bridging South Asia and Southeast Asia. What is India’s stake in the region? Elaborate.(250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question:

By inviting leaders from the BIMSTEC (Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation) countries, Kyrgyz Republic and Mauritius at his swearing-in ceremony on May 30, Prime Minister Narendra Modi has made a carefully calibrated diplomatic move that signals a major outreach to India’s neighborhood from the Bay of Bengal to Central Asia, as well as the Indian diaspora across the world.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the significance of BIMSTEC in bridging south Asia and Southeast Asia. And India’s stake in the region in detail.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain the mandate of BIMSTEC in general.

Body:

Body of the answer should discuss the following aspects:

  • Explain what is BIMSTEC?
  • Discuss why the region matters?
  • The Bay of Bengal is the largest bay in the world. Over one-fifth (22%) of the world’s population live in the seven countries around it, and they have a combined GDP close to $2.7 trillion.
  • Despite economic challenges, all the countries in the region have been able to sustain average annual rates of economic growth between 3.4% and 7.5% from 2012 to 2016.
  • The Bay also has vast untapped natural resources. One-fourth of the world’s traded goods cross the Bay every year.
  • India’s stake in the region in detail.
  • Conclude as to what can be the way ahead.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

The Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) is a regional grouping of seven countries i.e. Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Thailand that lie in the littoral and adjacent regions of the Bay of Bengal. This sub-regional organisation came into being on June 6, 1997, through the Bangkok Declaration. The first summit was held in 2004 and the secretariat established in Dhaka in 2014.Technological and economic cooperation among South Asian and Southeast Asian countries along the coast of the Bay of Bengal is the main objective of BIMSTEC

Body:

BIMSTEC is a bridge between South Asia and South East Asia. BIMSTEC has gained more favour as the preferred platform for regional cooperation in South Asia.

Significance of BIMSTEC in bridging South Asia and Southeast Asia:

  • Connectivity:
    • BIMSTEC serves two purposes for India – it makes it easier for India to share a common regional platform with its neighbours in South Asia (sans Pakistan) and secondly, BIMSTEC also establishes a linkage between South and Southeast Asia.
    • Urgency of promoting regional and sub-regional cooperation via BIMSTEC and BBIN has to be seen in the context of China’s BRI and the compelling strategic challenge posed by China’s muscular geo-economic and geo-political interventions in Asia, particularly in India’s neighbourhood.
    • The development of the North-eastern region, by opening up to Bangladesh and Myanmar, is another incentive for India.
  • Regional Co-operation: Regional cooperation under the ambit of SAARC has become difficult made BIMSTEC more viable:
    • Despite India’s keen interest in cooperating and strengthening intra-regional connectivity by backing the SAARC–Motor vehicle agreement, the agreement was stalled following Pakistan’s reluctance.
    • Similarly, the SAARC satellite project that India proposed was abandoned following objection from Pakistan in 2016
    • SAARC has also faced obstacles in the area of security cooperation. A major hindrance in this regard has been the lack of consensus on threat perceptions, since member countries disagree on the idea of threats. Example: cross-border terrorism emanating from Pakistan.
  • Cordial Relationship:
    • The member countries have generally cordial relationships, something patently missing among the SAARC countries.
    • BIMSTEC’s major strength comes from the fact that it includes two influential regional powers: Thailand and India. This adds to the comfort of smaller neighbours by reducing the fear of dominance by one big power.
  • Economic vistas: As a trade bloc, BIMSTEC provides many opportunities.
    • The region has countries with the fastest-growing economies in the world. The combined GDP in the region is around US$2 trillion and will likely grow further.
    • Trade among the BIMSTEC member countries reached six percent in just a decade, while in SAARC, it has remained around five percent since its inception.
    • Compared to SAARC, BIMSTEC has greater trade potential as well. Among the member countries, India’s intra-BIMSTEC trade is around 3 percent of its total trade.
    • BIMSTEC regional grouping happens to have five nations that are also part of SAARC. The fact that this region is growing at 6.5% per annum, collectively comprises of 1.5 billion people, is the drive behind India’s focus being part of BIMSTEC.

Stakes for India in BIMSTEC:

  • BIMSTEC is the natural platform for India to implement its regional connectivity, Neighbourhood First and Act East policies.
  • BIMSTEC is important for free trade agreement, poverty alleviation, tourism, energy and climate change, and even counter-terrorism and disaster management.
  • BIMSTEC could allow India to push a constructive agenda to counter Chinese investments, and follow best practices for connectivity projects based on recognised international norms.
  • Myanmar and Thailand, have a crucial place for India’s ambitious connectivity plans for north-eastern region.
  • Myanmar is only Southeast Asian country India has a land boundary with.
  • India-Myanmar-Thailand highway is one of the key projects that figures in a big way in the government’s Act East policy

Way Forward:

  • The members need to work collectively towards making BIMSTEC a stronger, more effective and result-oriented organisation for achieving a peaceful, prosperous and sustainable Bay of Bengal Region.
  • BIMSTEC secretariat must be significantly empowered with more human and financial resources.
  • BIMSTEC will have to prioritize economic connectivity, which is the prerequisite for regional integration.
  • Need for upgrading cooperation in disaster management, terrorism, maritime security and transnational crime.
  • BIMSTEC weather and climate centre at Noida should be converted into a development centre on disaster manage
  • India can provide training to member states at its disaster management training centre in Nagpur.
  • India will need to take on an informal BIMSTEC leadership role and let its commitments lead by example.
  • Now is the time not just to deliberate, but also to deliver. Now is the time to translate promises into performance.

Topic:  Important International institutions, agencies and fora- their structure, mandate.

4) What is UN-Habitat programme? What are its objectives? Discuss with special emphasis on role played by India with respect to it.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question:

Question is straightforward and is about discussing the UN Habitat programme in detail. India has been elected to the Executive Board of the first UN-Habitat Assembly at the Plenary Session of the Assembly started on May 27, 2019 in Nairobi, Kenya. The special theme for the UN-Habitat Assembly is “Innovation for Better Quality of Life in Cities and Communities”.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss in detail the mandate, significance and objectives of the program and the role India has in it.

Directive word:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction:

write a few introductory lines on what is the programme about.

Body:

Answers must discuss the following aspects :

  • What is it? It is the United Nations agency for human settlements and sustainable urban development.
  • Objectives: To promote socially and environmentally sustainable towns & cities with the goal of providing adequate shelter for all.
  • Parent agency: It report to the UN General Assembly. It is also a member of the United Nations Development Group.
  • What are its mandate?
  • Role played by India – past to present?

Conclusion –

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

UN-Habitat is the United Nations programme working towards a better urban future. Its mission is to promote socially and environmentally sustainable human settlements development and the achievement of adequate shelter for all. Mandated by the UN General Assembly in 1978 to address the issues of urban growth, it is a knowledgeable institution on urban development processes and understands the aspirations of cities and their residents. India has been elected to the Executive Board of the first UN-Habitat Assembly.

Body:

Objectives:

  • UN-Habitat envisions well-planned, well-governed, and efficient cities and other human settlements, with adequate housing, infrastructure, and universal access to employment and basic services such as water, energy, and sanitation.
  • It is mandated by the United Nations General Assembly to promote socially and environmentally sustainable towns and cities with the goal of providing adequate shelter for all.
  • The mandate of UN-Habitat derives from the Habitat Agenda, adopted by the United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II) in Istanbul, Turkey, in 1996.
  • The twin goals of the Habitat Agenda are adequate shelter for all and the development of sustainable human settlements in an urbanizing world.
  • UN-Habitat reports to the United Nations General Assembly.

Role played by India with respect to UN Habitat:

  • India was unanimously elected as the President of the UN-Habitat in 2017, an organ of the United Nations’ Organisation (UNO) that promotes socially and environmentally sustainable human settlements across the world, after 10 years.
  • Currently, India has been elected to the Executive Board of the first UN-Habitat Assembly.
  • The nation’s global clout continues to grow significantly.
  • The various missions like AMRUT, SMART City mission, PMAY are addressing deficits in different kinds of infrastructure including affordable housing in a convergence mode. This is in line with the New Urban Agenda of UN-HABITAT
  • Climate change
  • Indian cities are prone to disasters and Responses to disasters in urban areas can promote greater resilience to future crises and support long-term development goals.
  • The need for resilient cities is recognised in the Sustainable Development Goals, the Paris Agreement for Climate Change, the Sendai Framework and in the New Urban Agenda (Habitat-III).

Conclusion:

As an inter-governmental policy-making and decision making body, the Governing Council of UN-Habitat seeks to promote integral and comprehensive approach to human settlements, assist the countries and regions in addressing human settlement problems and strengthen cooperation among all countries on human settlement issue.


Topic:  Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

5) The problem with the Indian economy is not “jobless” growth. It is the inadequacy and instability of incomes for millions. Critically Analyse.(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question:

The article discusses in detail the prevailing conditions of poverty amidst election promises made by prime Minister Modi stating there will be only two castes now: those who are poor and those who want to free them from poverty.

Key demands of the question:

The answer must analyse why there is poverty in our country and in what way it is not about the jobless growth in the country but about the instability in the incomes of the people.

Directive:

Critically analyzeWhen asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

In a few introductory lines explain the conditions of poverty in the country.

Body

The body of the answer has to capture the following aspects:

  • Discuss what you understand by jobless growth.
  • How is it related to poverty in India?
  • What makes Indian economy prone to jobless growth? what are the implications?
  • How is it not about joblessness but about income instability?
  • Take hints from the article to elaborate and conclude with significance.

Conclusion

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

A significant percentage of India’s poor are, in fact, employed even though they might not have regular jobs. With unemployment turning out to be a big challenge for the government currently, and rural areas in distress due to agriculture’s all-time-low economic returns, India has started debating employment seriously.

Body:

Jobless growth: In a jobless growth economy, unemployment remains stubbornly high even as the economy grows. This tends to happen when a relatively large number of people have lost their jobs, and the ensuing recovery is insufficient to absorb the unemployed, under-employed, and those first entering the workforce.

Jobless growth and poverty:

  • Problem is, our discussions usually centre around two solutions: create jobs through government spending on infrastructure and take up skill development that would offer some employability to the youth. Add to it the disproportionate focus on economic growth leading to job creation. These strategies are age-old, and are not in sync with job market characteristics. We have a high youth unemployment rate, and those who are employed are not able to lead a decent life.
  • 39 per cent of young workers in emerging and developing countries live in moderate and or extreme poverty. This means surviving on less than US $3.10/day. Worse, in emerging and developing countries, 16.7 per cent of young workers live on income below the extreme poverty threshold of US $1.90/day. (Global Employment Trends for Youth 2018 by the International Labour Organization (ILO)).
  • In developing countries, 95 per cent of employed youth are in informal sectors. In another discouraging trend, the ILO report says that youths are three times as likely as adults to be unemployed. “Globally, the ratio of youth to adult unemployment rates has changed very little in recent years, serving to illustrate the particularly disadvantaged situation of young people in the labour market.”
  • According to the Fifth Annual Employment-Unemployment Survey, 2015-16, with an increase in education levels across India, the unemployment rate has also risen in the age group of 18-29 years.
  • India’s employment is found primarily in informal sectors; a substantial percentage of it comes from daily wages in development projects and agriculture.
  • Their earnings are uncertain, and with very little wealth to fall back on, they easily slip back into poverty. This is the plight of small farmers, small entrepreneurs and workers in the informal sector of India.

Measures needed:

  • The most important is provision of universal social security. In a dynamic, market-based economy, in which enterprises will wax and wane and jobs will be insecure, citizens must have adequate social security to provide for various emergent requirements, especially breaks in income, health emergencies, and old-age pensions.
  • The political economy must be reformed with stronger associations at the bottom, such as collectives of small producers and unions of workers.
  • Collectives can provide resources that individual enterprises cannot afford, and associations and unions can give more bargaining power to people at the bottom to improve the terms of trade in their favour—the prices they get, and the wages they are paid.
  • Laws applying to small enterprises must be simplified and their implementation made easier. The burden of complicated and badly administered regulations is highest for small enterprises.
  • Labour laws and regulations are necessary, and their content improved and implementation eased. They must be reformed for faster and more inclusive growth.
  • Small enterprises provide more employment than large ones and will continue to provide most jobs and incomes in the economy.
  • Access to finance, access to markets, access to technology, fair prices, and reduction of harassment from authorities are their principal problems. They must be tackled.

Conclusion:

Informal employment shouldn’t be equated with non-job status. Rather, the strategy should be to maximise decent job creation in these sectors. When we talk about skill development, we usually don’t consider the skills being employed in informal sectors by workers as legitimate skills. Instead, we tend to force them into a new set of skills that they have to start with afresh. This might lengthen the process of job creation and employment. To sum up, we need to think anew about the way we create jobs.


Topic :  Citizen’s charter

6) What do you understand by the Citizen’s Charter? Highlight its importance in the Governance of developing nation like India?(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question:

Question is about discussing the  meaning and scope of citizen’s charter and then also discuss about its essential components while highlighting iits significance in governance systems.

Key demand of the question:

Analyse in detail the project and Significance of the project and how it can prove to be a significant turning points in the conservation efforts of such endangered animals.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

write a few introductory lines about the citizen’s charter. E.g Citizen’s Charter is a document which represents a systematic effort to focus on the commitment of the Organization towards its Citizens in respects of Standard of Services, Information, Choice and Consultation, Non-discrimination and Accessibility, Grievance Redress, Courtesy and Value for Money.

Body:

In brief discuss –

  • Start by discussing what is citizen’s charter?
  • Discuss its various components.
  • Explain how it can help in better governance of countries like India, explain using suitable examples.

Conclusion:

based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

Introduction:

A Citizens’ Charter represents the commitment of the Organisation towards standard, quality and time frame of service delivery, grievance redress mechanism, transparency and accountability. The concept of Citizens Charter enshrines the trust between the service provider and its users.

                Department of Administrative Reforms and Public Grievances in Government of India (DARPG) initiated the task of coordinating, formulating and operationalising Citizen’s Charters.

Body:

The basic objective of the Citizens Charter is to empower the citizen in relation to public service delivery.

The salient features of a Citizen’s Charter are:

  • Agreed and published standards for service delivery;
  • Openness and information about service delivery;
  • ‘Choice’ and Consultation with users;
  • Courtesy and helpfulness in service delivery; and
  • Provision of redressal of grievances.

Importance of Citizen’s charter in the Governance of developing nation like India:

  • To make administration accountable and citizen friendly.
  • To ensure transparency.
  • To take measures to improve customer service.
  • To adopt a stakeholder approach.
  • To save time of both Administration and the citizen

Conclusion:

Citizen’s Charter is playing a prominent part in ensuring “minimum govt & maximum governance”, changing the nature of charters from non-justiciable to justiciable & adopting penalty measures that will make it more efficient & citizen friendly.


Topic: Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions.

7) Define trust and explain the natural outcome of having trust in a relationship. Use an example of a situation that a student may encounter in a professional institution to illustrate your point.(250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon publications

 

Why this question:

The question is straightforward and is about discussing the virtue of trust and its significance.

Key demand of the question:

Discussion should be about vital role that trust as a virtue has in a any relationship.

Directive word:

Elucidate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In a few introductory lines explain what you understand by Trust.

Body:

Such questions are best explained with examples, use case study as demanded by the question and elaborate. Discuss the importance of Trust as a value centric to building key relations.

Conclusion:

Conclude with what should be the way forward.

Introduction:

Ethics and trust are inextricably linked. Trust refers to reliance on the integrity, ability, or character of a person. Trust relationships exist at many levels: between two people, among members of a team, between teams, within an organization, between workers and management and even within an entire system, like the financial system or the air traffic control system.

Body:

Outcome of trust in a relationship:

  • In any relationship, people have to be able to trust each other.
  • This means being honest with the other person in the relationship.
  • Having trust in a relationship also means proving to each other that you are reliable, responsible, and dependable.
  • Trust is an important component of any healthy relationship. If your relationship lacks trust, it’s hard to get close to the other person and to rely on him or her for support.
  • In a trusting relationship, you should be able to share information with your partner without worrying that he or she will share it with others or gossip about it.
  • Trust eventually leads to the third building block:

You can give your own example here.

Conclusion:

Trust is essential for social cohesion and well-being as it affects governments’ ability to govern and enables them to act without having to resort to coercion. Consequently, it is an efficient means of lowering transaction costs in any social, economic and political relationship