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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 13 JUNE 2019

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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 13 JUNE 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation. Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation.

1) Extending the Right to Education (RTE) to younger children through early childhood education would be a welcome step. Elucidate.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question:

The article discusses how Extending the right to education to younger children would be a welcome step. The recent draft National education policy has envisaged this step.

Demand of the question:

This question is to analyse the significance of such a step and discuss the importance of having right to education for younger children.

Directive word:

ElucidateGive a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

Start with brief introduction on what is early childhood care and education.

Body

Have the following points discussed in the answer:

Discuss what is meant by ECCE, its importance.What are the present provisions for ECCE?Role of RTE – present conditions, what will be the consequences of extending it to ECCE?Explain the provisions given in draft national policy.

Economic  Growth: A  good  transportation system  is an important selling  point to communities that desire to attract development that provides for employment and growth of a city. If transport costs due to congestion increase, goods and services produced within that city tend to increase in costs  thus losing  competitiveness  in international  markets. Efficient  transportation access  is therefore  a very important  consideration as it  has a direct impact on  sound and sustainable economic growth and productivity. The cost of congestion in the Western Province of Sri  Lanka is over Rs 20,000 million per year (around 2 percent of Regional GDP). This includes the cost of productive time and wastage of fuel.   

Quality-of-Life: To some people, congested highways are a symptom of deteriorating quality-of-life-in a community.  The amount of time that is spent on commuting to and from work is also in reality, time that is taken away from social interactions or pursuit of activities that have a personal value and satisfaction.

Conclusion

Conclude by appreciating the steps being taken by the government in this direction.

Introduction:

According to UNICEF, early childhood is defined as the period from conception through eight years of age. Early childhood care and education (ECCE) is more than preparation for primary school. It aims at the holistic development of a child’s social, emotional, cognitive and physical needs in order to build a solid and broad foundation for lifelong learning and wellbeing. Target 4.2 of SDG 4 aims that by 2030, to ensure that all girls and boys have access to quality early childhood development, care and pre-primary education.

Body:

Significance of ECCE:

  • Early childhood is a time of remarkable growth with brain development at its peak.
  • During this stage, children are highly influenced by the environment and the people that surround them.
  • These years lay the foundations for her/ his learning and holistic development.
  • The pedagogical view is that the pre-school phase is crucial to stimulate a child’s curiosity and help her prepare for schooling at age six.
  • This will help reach better education outcomes.
  • Quality ECCE also helps reduce repetition and drop-out rates.
  • Positive outcomes are even more pronounced among children from vulnerable groups.
  • It helps promote human resource development, gender equality and social cohesion, and to reduce the costs for later remedial programmes.
  • An overview of 56 studies across 23 countries found impacts on health, education, cognitive ability, and emotional development

Draft NEP and ECCE:

  • The draft National Education Policy (NEP) developed by a committee chaired by K. Kasturirangan was shared for public comment.
  • The NEP proposal to infuse the existing child development schemes, which are primarily nutrition-oriented, with a learning component is in line with this thinking on holistic development.
  • The Policy projecting an expansion of the Right to Education Act to cover the three years of preschool before Class 1.
  • It suggests a new integrated curricular framework for 3 to 8-year olds with a flexible system based on play, activity and discovery, and beginning exposure to three languages from age 3 onwards.
  • The policy aims to provide High-quality early childhood care and education for all children between the ages of three and six by 2025.
  • This will be done within schools and anganwadis, which will take care of the overall well-being of the child.
  • These institutions will also provide similar support to families for children younger than three years of age—within their homes.
  • This policy will result in a massive positive multiplier effect on society.

Challenges:

  • One of the major issues of ECCE is the unavailability of trained teachers.
  • Only 12.7% schools comply with the law’s requirements, and at the pace seen since RTE became law in 2010, it will take decades to achieve full coverage.
  • Anganwadis are currently quite deficient in supplies and infrastructure for education.
  • As a result, they tend to contain more children in the 2-4 year age range and fewer in the educationally critical 4-6 year age range.
  • Anganwadis also have few teachers trained in or specially dedicated to early childhood education.
  • Private pre-schools often consist of formal teaching and rote memorisation with limited play-based learning.
  • Poor financial support to education has thwarted the progress, for instance, only 2.7% of GDP was alloted in 2017-18.
  • A 2017 study by the Ambedkar University showed that “a significant proportion of children in India who completed pre-primary education, public or private, did not have the needed school readiness competencies when they joined primary school.

Way forward:

  • The Centre has to guarantee that in its totality, the Right to Education will encompass all schools bar those catering to minorities.
  • An expenditure of 6% of GDP on education will help transform the education sector.
  • The Centre has to play a leadership role to ensure that States, some of which have done a poor job of implementing the RTE Act, are persuaded to implement urgent reform.
  • State governments will have to fill teacher vacancies and ensure that the training of recruits is aligned to scientific, child-oriented teaching methods.
  • ECCE teacher training should be added as a skill gap in the list of National Skill Development Corporation to ensure that easy investment is available to produce efficient ECCE teachers.
  • Universal access to quality early childhood education is perhaps the best investment that India can make for our children’s and our nation’s future.

Conclusion:

The proposal to extend RTE’s scope to younger children through early childhood education is, however, wholly positive. The move suggested in the draft National Education Policy to put children three years and older in a stimulating nursery environment is a welcome logical measure. Education reform is vital to prepare for a future in which cutting-edge skills will be necessary for continued economic progress. Changes to the RTE Act that will prepare all children for a more productive schooling phase can help make India’s educational system morally fair and more egalitarian.

 


Topic: Development processes and the development industry- the role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders.

2) Discuss the role of NGOs in our society along with the Issues involved in their functioning. (250 words)

Indian polity by Lakshmikanth

Why this question:

The question is based on the static portions of the syllabus.

Key demands of the question:

Answer must discuss the role of NGOs in Indian society and the challenges that they face /issues involved in their functioning in detail along with suggestions as to how can we overcome and address such issues.

Directive word

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

In a few introductory lines explain  what are NGOs.

Body

Discuss the following :

  • What are NGOs and their key features –
  • As defined by the World Bank NGOs refers to not-for-profit organizations that pursue activities to relieve suffering, promote the interests of the poor, protect the environment, provide basic social services, or undertake community development.
  • These organizations are not a part of the government, have a legal status and they are registered the specific Act under which they have to be registered.
  • The term NGO in India denotes wide spectrum of organizations which may be non-governmental, quasi or semi-governmental, voluntary or non-voluntary etc.
  • Then move on to discuss their classification.
  • Explain their functioning and the challenges involved therein like – Accreditation remains a big challenge as it is very difficult to distinguish whether an organization wants to work for the cause or has been set up only for the purpose of receiving government grants.
  • Over dependence on funds from the government dilutes the willingness of NGOs to speak out against the government.
  • NGOs have acted as a cover for organized crime in past and are often seen as fronts for fundamentalist causes. Foreign funded NGOs have been responsible for organizing agitations and scuttling development projects in India.
  • NGOs are often seen as encroaching on centuries-old tradition and culture of the people, and lead to mass protest at times. Ban of Jallikattu, after the PIL by PETA is one such example.

Conclusion

Reassert their significance and conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

Non Governmental Organizations (NGO) are legally constituted organizations, operates independently from the government and are generally considered to be “non-state, non-profit oriented groups who pursue purposes of public interest”. The primary objective of NGOs is to provide social justice, development and human rights. NGOs are generally funded totally or partly by governments and they maintain their non-governmental status by excluding government representatives from membership in the organization.

Body:

Role of NGOs:

  • The Advocacy/Social Safety-Valve Role: Non-profit organisations play vital role in mobilizing public attention to societal problems and needs. They are the principal vehicle through which communities can give voice to their concerns.
  • Improving government performance: NGOs can broaden government’s accountability by ensuring government is responsive to citizens at large rather than to narrow sectarian interests. They also induce innovation and flexibility in policymaking by bringing their own independent expertise and research teams.
  • The Service Role: The non-profit sector acts as a flexible mechanism through which people concerned about a social or economic problem can begin to respond. It also caters to groups of the population who desire a range of public goods that exceeds what the government or society is willing to support.
  • Conflict Resolution: NGOs help in constructive conflict resolution. In the international arena Track II diplomacy (involving non-governmental bodies) plays a crucial role in creating an environment of trust and confidence.
  • Building Community Participation: The non-profit organisations offer alternative perspectives; and most importantly, the capacity to conduct a meaningful dialogue with communities, particularly those that are disadvantaged. They foster pluralism, diversity and freedom. Many NGOs work to preserve and promote India’s diverse culture. For example SPIC MACAY is a society for promoting Indian classical music and culture amongst youth.

Issues involved in NGO functioning:

  • Misappropriation of funds: Many NGOs don’t have sophisticated finance and legal teams, nor do they have the funds to conduct audits.
  • The issue of foreign funding: According to government data a total of 3,068 non-governmental organizations (NGOs) received foreign funding above Rs. 22,000 Cr in 2014-15. It is often said that foreign-funded NGOs tries to propagate the foreign propaganda to stall developmental projects. Example: Kudankulam Protest.
  • Non-accountable, non-transparent undemocratic functioning: CBI records filed in the Supreme Court show that only 10% of the total registered NGOs under the Societies Registration Act file annual financial statements.
  • Money Laundering: Corrupt or unscrupulous NGOs that receive foreign funds may serve as conduits for money laundering.
  • Accreditation remains a big challenge as it is very difficult to distinguish whether an organization wants to work for the cause or has been set up only for the purpose of receiving government grants.
  • Over dependence on funds from the government dilutes the willingness of NGOs to speak out against the government.
  • NGOs are often seen as encroaching on centuries-old tradition and culture of the people, and lead to mass protest at times. Ban of Jallikattu, after the PIL by PETA is one such example

Way Forward:

  • A National Accreditation Council consisting of academicians, activist, retired bureaucrats should be made to ensure compliance by NGOs.
  • There should be better coordination between Ministries of Home Affairs and Finance in terms of monitoring and regulating illicit and unaccounted funds.
  • A regulatory mechanism to keep a watch on the financial activities of NGOs and voluntary organizations is the need of the hour.
  • Citizens today are keen to play an active role in processes that shape their lives and it is important that their participation in democracy go beyond the ritual of voting and should include promotion of social justice, gender equity, inclusion etc.
  • The government should frame guidelines for their accreditation, the manner in which these organizations should maintain their accounts and the procedure for recovery in case they fail to submit their balance sheets.
  • Avoid tussle between Home Ministry and Finance Ministry by bringing the regulation of NGOs under one head.
  • General Financial Rules, 2005 have mandated a regulatory mechanism for the NGOs and a comprehensive law in line with these rules should be framed in no time.

Conclusion:

NGOs, Pressure groups and CSOs form the backbone of democracy. Democracy does not just revolve around elections but how rights of the citizens are protected and are allowed to hold power holders accountable. The state must respect the articulation of the politics of voice and not just the politics of the vote. The promises of democracy can only be realised through collective action in civil society. A democratic state needs a democratic civil society and a democratic civil society also needs a democratic state. They mutually reinforce each other.


Topic:  Development processes and the development industry- the role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders.

3) What are self-help groups? Discuss the critical role played by them in the rural development of India.(250 words)

Indian polity by Lakshmikanth

Why this question:

The question is about discussing self-help groups and their role in rural development.

Key demand of the question:

The question is straightforward and one must discuss the concept of self-help groups, their role in general and specific role in rural development in the country.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin with brief introduction on what are self- help groups.

Body:

Have the following dimensions covered in your answer –

  • Self Help Groups are groups of 10-20 people in a locality formed for any social or economic purpose. Most of the SHGs are formed for the purpose of better financial security among its members. SHGs can exist with or without registration. SHGs in India often work in association with Banks (SHG – Bank Linkage Programme).
  • The same is basis of Indian Micro finance Model too. SHG – Bank Linkage was started in India in 1992 under the guidelines of NABARD and Reserve Bank of India.
  • Discuss their origin in brief.
  • Role played by self-help groups in general, then move onto discussing their role in rural development.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

A self-help group (SHG) is a village-based financial intermediary committee normally consist of 10–20 local women or men.  When the formal financial system fails to help the needy, then small groups volunteer to cater to the needs of the financially weak by collecting, saving and lending the money on a micro scale.  SHGs have gained wide recognition in most developing countries in Asia where their presence is quite pervasive

Body:

SHG Movement in India:

  • The concept evolved over decades and was pioneered by Noble laureate Mohammad Yunus as Self Help Groups (SHGs) in 1970s.
  • SHG movement in India gained momentum after 1992, when NABARD realised its potential and started promoting it.
  • NABARD’s SHG-Bank Linkage Program (SBLP) connected group members to formal financial services.
  • Over the last two decades, the SBLP has proven to be a great medium for social and economic empowerment for rural women.
  • India has witnessed state-led promotion of SHGs through a three-tiered architecture of community institutions at group, village and cluster le
  • In 1999, Government of India, introduced Swarn Jayanti Gram Swarojgaar Yojana (SGSY) to promote self-employment in rural areas through formation and skilling of SHGs.
  • The programme evolved as a national movement in 2011 and became National Rural Livelihoods Mission (NRLM).
  • The programme was renamed in November 2015 as Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana (DAY –NRLM).
  • DAY –NRLM now covers 100 million families through 8.5 million SHGs with savings deposit of approx. INR 161 billion.
  • State government initiatives such Kudumbasree in Kerala and Jeevika in Bihar.

Role of SHGs in India:

  • SHGs have played an important role in enabling financial inclusion in rural areas.
  • It has financially empowered women within the family and in local community.
  • SHGs have the required social and financial capital to expedite India’s economic growth.
  • The Social capital of SHGs could be an asset for solving various social issues in India e.g. gender based discrimination, dowry system, casteism etc.
  • There are many successful cases where SHG women have come together to close liquor shops in their village.
  • They also act as a delivery mechanism for various services like entrepreneurial training, livelihood promotion activity and community development programs.
  • Study shows that women in SHGs are more likely to save on a regular basis, have formal loans and scored more on average on the empowerment index.
  • They can act as an intermediary to provide financial services in their community

Way forward:

  • Government programs can be implemented through SHGs.
  • This will not only improve the transparency and efficiency but also bring our society closer to Self-Governance as envisioned by Mahatma Gandhi.
  • Constant and enduring structural handholding support from the self-help group promoting institutions (SHPIs).
  • Employment in the large unorganised sector can be improved if banks channelise funds through the self-help groups (SHGs)
  • Linking the SHG members to other social security schemes like Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana, Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana and Atal Pension Yojana.
  • Womenfolk must play a crucial role in achieving open defecation free (ODF) villages, participate in the planting and protection of sapling.
  • Frequent awareness camps can be organised by the Rural Development department authorities to create awareness about different schemes.
  • Periodic capacity-building of all members, to make the group the collective.
  • With the Government’s focus on digital financial inclusion, investing in training of group members for transition towards technological platforms.
  • It is important to invest in providing the right kind of support to maximize the impact these groups can have on livelihoods.
  • Emphasising SHG movement on women’s entrepreneurship as an engine of growth in rural India.
  • There should not be any discrimination among members based on caste, religion or political affiliations.

Extra information:

Case Study: The Power of Kudumbasree

Workers of the Kudumbasree poverty eradication and women empowerment programme played a big role in clean-up in the Kerala’s flood hit areas. Around 4, 00,000 women of Kudumbasree self-mobilised across the State to do relief work. The secular composition of Kudumbasree acts as a facilitator for the secularisation of public spaces. The community farms run by Kudumbasree groups are acknowledged as a critical avenue for the rejuvenation of agricultural production in Kerala. Kudumbasree training courses are quite comprehensive and include women’s rights, knowledge of constitutional and legal provisions, training in banking practices, and training in skills to set up micro-enterprises. The Kudumbasree model can be implemented across India, with the same secular and gender-sensitive spirit.


Topic:  Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.

4) What Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) summit means for India’s global and regional interests? Discuss in the light of recent yet to be held meet of SCO at Bishkek. (250 words)

Indianexpress

 

Why this question:

The article captures the significance of Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) summit for India.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must evaluate in detail Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) summit and its significance for India in terms of global and regional interests.

Directive word:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction:

In a few introductory lines discuss the context of the question.

Body:

Answers must discuss the following aspects –

  • What kind of a grouping is the SCO?
  • Under what circumstances did India enter the SCO?
  • How does membership of the SCO help India?
  • How does global geopolitics play out for SCO and India?
  • Significance to India.

Conclusion –

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, also known as the Shanghai Pact, is a Eurasian political, economic, and military organisation which was founded in 2001 in Shanghai. SCO assumes greater importance after entry of India and Pakistan. Recently the Shanghai Cooperation Organization Summit was held in Bishkek in Kyrgyzstan. Prime Minister Modi introduced the acronym HEALTH ( ‘H’ for Healthcare Cooperation, ‘E’ for Economic Cooperation, ‘A’ for Alternate Energy, ‘L’ for Literature and Culture, ‘T’ for Terrorism free society and ‘H’ for Humanitarian Cooperation)

Body:

SCO’s significance for India:

  • The invite for the Prime Minister Modi’s swearing-in ceremony to the current chair of SCO has signalled India’s desire to increase its engagement with the organisation.
  • The SCO’s significance for India lies in economics and geopolitics with the Eurasian states.
  • SCO is a potential platform to advance India’s Connect Central Asia policy.
  • The SCO would also be a new channel to enhance bilateral ties with China and Russia.
  • The SCO member states occupy the huge landmass adjacent to India’s extended neighbourhood where India has both economic and security imperatives.
  • Importance of SCO-Afghanistan Contact Group to stabilise Afghanistan.
  • SCO membership provides India a vital counter to some of the other groupings it is a part of.
  • The SCO provides the only multilateral platform for India to deal in close proximity with Pakistan and Afghanistan
  • India is likely to get greater access to major gas and oil exploration projects in Central Asia.
  • India must aim to further enhance connectivity, given the existing strong cooperation bilaterally with existing member countries.
  • Sectors such as education, tourism and even medical tourism, can be focused upon to further strengthen the SCO platfor

SCO Bishkek Declaration:

  • Terrorism, regional cooperation and the future of Afghanistan were major themes at the 2019 Shanghai Cooperation Organisation’s Heads of State summit in Bishkek.
  • The SCO member states also urged the global community to work towards a consensus on adopting the Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism (CCIT).

Way Forward:

  • Increase cooperation between SCO and other multilateral organisations.
  • Need to increase economic cooperation among SCO member states.
  • Focus on illegal drug trafficking, cooperation in information technology, environment, healthcare and sports.
  • Strengthen the fight against terrorism, extremism, drug trafficking and organised crime among others.
  • Increasing awareness of our shared cultures can help boost tourism.
  • If India is not able to exploit the economic potential of the region, it will be a missed opportunity.
  • Chahbahar port and Ashgabat agreement should be utilized for a stronger presence in Eurasia besides a clear focus on operationalising INSTC.

Topic:  Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources, issues relating to poverty and hunger.

Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes.

5) Discuss the key features and objectives of National Programme for prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases and strokes (NPCDCS).(250 words)

Reference

Why this question:

A meeting to review the status of National Programme for prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases and strokes (NPCDCS) was held recently. Thus, it is important for us to analyse the program from the examination point of view.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss in detail the objectives and features of the NPCDCS.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In a few introductory lines discuss the context of the question.

Body:

  • In brief discuss the following points:
  • About the programme – National Programme for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases and Stroke (NPCDCS) was launched in 2010 in 100 districts across 21 States, in order to prevent and control the major NCDs.
  • The main focus of the programme is on health promotion, early diagnosis, management and referral of cases, besides strengthening the infrastructure and capacity building.
  • Discuss in detail the key features.

Conclusion:

Conclude with what more needs to be done.

Introduction:

India is experiencing a rapid health transition with a rising burden of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCD) surpassing the burden of Communicable diseases like water-borne or vector-borne diseases, TB, HIV, etc. Consequently, National Programme for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases and Stroke (NPCDCS) was launched in 2010 in 100 districts across 21 States, in order to prevent and control the major NCDs. The main focus of the programme is on health promotion, early diagnosis, management and referral of cases, besides strengthening the infrastructure and capacity building. A meeting to review the status of NPCDCS was held recently.

Body:

Objectives of NPCDCS:

  • Health promotion through behavior change with involvement of community, civil society, community based organizations, media etc.
  • Opportunistic screening at all levels in the health care delivery system from sub- centre and above for early detection of diabetes, hypertension and common cancers. Outreach camps are also envisaged.
  • To prevent and control chronic Non-Communicable diseases, especially Cancer, Diabetes, CVDs and Stroke.
  • To build capacity at various levels of health care for prevention, early diagnosis, treatment, IEC/BCC, operational research and rehabilitation.
  • To support for diagnosis and cost effective treatment at primary, secondary and tertiary levels of health care.
  • To support for development of database of NCDs through Surveillance System and to monitor NCD morbidity and mortality and risk factors.

Key features of NPCDCS:

Health promotion, awareness generation and promotion of healthy lifestyle:

  • Given that the major determinants to hypertension, obesity, high blood glucose and high blood lipid levels are unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, stress and consumption of tobacco and alcohol, awareness will be generated in the community to promote healthy life style habits.
  • For such awareness generation and community education, various strategies will be devised /formulated for behavior change and communication by inter personal communication (IPC), involvement of various categories of mass media, civil society, community based organization, panchayats/local bodies, other government departments and private sector.
  • The focus of health promotion activities will be on:
    • Increased intake of healthy foods
    • Salt reduction
    • Increased physical activity/regular exercise
    • Avoidance of tobacco and alcohol
    • Reduction of obesity
    • Stress management
    • Awareness about warning signs of cancer etc.
    • Regular health check-up
  • Screening and early detection:
    • Screening and early detection of non-communicable diseases especially diabetes, high blood pressure and common cancers would be an important component.
    • The suspected cases will be referred to higher health facilities for further diagnosis and treatment.
    • Common cancers (breast, cervical and oral), diabetes and high blood pressure screening of target population (age 30 years and above,) will be conducted either through opportunistic and/or camp approach at different levels of health facilities and also in urban slums of large cities.
    • The screening of the urban slum population would be carried out by the local government/municipalities in cities with population of more than 1 million.
    • The ANMs will be trained for conducting screening so that the same can be also conducted at sub centre level. Each district will be linked to nearby tertiary cancer care (TCC) facilities to provide referral and outreach services. The suspected cases will be referred to District Hospital and tertiary cancer care (TCC) facilities.
  • Timely, affordable and accurate diagnosis.
  • Access to affordable treatment.
  • Establishment/Strengthening of Health infrastructure
    • Community health centers and district hospitals would be supported for prevention, early detection and management of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases and Stroke.
    • Support would be provided for establishing NCD clinics and strengthening laboratory at Community health centers and district hospitals.
    • Financial support for the essential contractual staff such as doctors and nurses at these units would also be provided under the programme.
  • Human Resource development:
    • Under NPCDCS, health professionals and health care providers at various levels of health care would be trained for health promotion, NCD prevention, early detection and management of Cancer, Diabetes, CVDs and Stroke.
  • Miscellaneous services:
    • Financial support would be provided to district and CHC/FRU/PHC for procurement of screening devices, essential drugs, consumables, transport of referral cases as per the details annexed for treatment of Cancer, Diabetes, CVDs and Stroke.

Conclusion:

The NCDs disproportionately affect the poor, impoverish families, and place a growing burden on health care systems. A majority of cancers and CVDs can be prevented and treated if diagnosed at an early stage. The NPCDCS is a step in the right direction.


Topic:  Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

6) Who are PVTGs? Discuss the issues related to their protection and statutory rights given to them.(250 words)

Vikaspedia

Why this question:

The question intends to discuss the PVTGs and issues related to their protection of rights.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the concept of PVTGs, issues concerning them, challenges involved and suggest solutions to the same.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In a few introductory lines appreciate the need for classifying tribals into PVTGs.

Body:

  • PVTGs are more vulnerable among the tribal groups. Due to this factor, more developed and assertive tribal groups take a major chunk of the tribal development funds, because of which PVTGs need more funds directed for their development.
  • Discuss the significance of classifying them.
  • What are the challenges posed by them?
  • Explain the issues related to their protection and statutory rights given to them.

Conclusion:

Conclude by reasserting significance of protecting them.

Introduction:

Tribal communities are often identified by some specific signs such as primitive traits, distinctive culture, geographical isolation, shyness to contact with the community at large and backwardness. Along with these, some tribal groups have some specific features such as dependency on hunting, gathering for food, having pre-agriculture level of technology, zero or negative growth of population and extremely low level of literacy. These groups are called Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs). 75 tribal groups have been categorized categorized by Ministry of Home Affairs as PVTGs. PVTGs reside in 18 States and UT of A&N Islands.

Body:

Issues related to their protection:

  • Incoherency in identification: The process of identification of PVTG adopted by the states differs in its methods. The spirit of the direction made by MoTA was loosely considered as a result there has been no uniform principle adopted in identifying the PVTGs.
  • Outdated List: The Anthropological Survey of India observes that the list of PVTG is overlapping and repetitive. For example, the list contains synonyms of the same group such as the Mankidia and the Birhor in Odisha, both of which refer to the same group.
  • Lack of baseline surveys: The Anthropological Survey of India observed 75 PVTGs, base line surveys exists for about 40 groups, even after declaring them as PVTGs. Lack of baseline surveys hinder effective implementation of welfare schemes
  • Unequal Benefits from welfare schemes: In some cases, a PVTG receives benefits only in a few blocks in a district, while the same group is deprived in adjacent blocks. For example, the LanjiaSaora are recognized as a PVTG across Odisha but the micro-projects are established only in two blocks. The rest of the Lanjia Saora are treated among the Scheduled Tribes (STs) and do not receive benefit from these projects.
  • Impact of developmental projects: In 2002, a Standing Committee formed by the MoTA to review the ‘Development of Primitive Tribal Groups,’ shared that the tribal people, especially PVTGs, are worst affected by developmental projects like dams, industries and mines.
  • Denial of land rights: PVTGs have faced systematic alienation from their resources due to conservation purposes-declaration of Reserved Forests and Protected Forests. For example: In 2009, 245 Baiga families were forced out from the Achanakmar Tiger Reserve, when it was notified so under the Project Tiger
  • Livelihood issues: Due to shrinking forests, environmental changes and forest conservation policies, their Non Timber Forest Produce (NTFP) collection is affected. They lack awareness about market value of NTFP and are exploited by middle men.
  • Health Issues: PVTGs suffer from many health problems like anaemia, malaria; gastro-intestinal disorders; micro nutrient deficiency and skin diseases due to poverty, lack of safe drinking water, bad sanitation, lack of health services, superstition and deforestation. Uncontacted tribal group such as the Sentinelese tribe of Andaman are also at the very high risk of contracting diseases in case of contact with outsiders
  • Illiteracy: Though literacy rate among many PVTGs have increased over the past years, it still remains low at 30-40%. Further, poor female literacy is a major concern
  • Vulnerabilities of tribes in Andaman and Nicobar: The fragile tribal communities have been facing expropriation of their ecosystem by outsiders. The outside influences are impacting their land use patterns, use of the sea, overall biodiversity leading to material and non-material changes.

Protection and Statutory rights given to them are:

  • The Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006 (FRA) has a special section regarding the 75 PVGTs and the Act recognises forest and habitat rights of PVTGs.
  • Provisions of the Panchayats (Extension to the Scheduled Areas) Act, 1996 (PESA): It extends Scheduled Areas of India under the purview of national framework of Panchayat. However, this act is not applicable to Jammu and Kashmir, Nagaland, Meghalaya and Mizoram and certain other areas including scheduled and tribal areas.
  • The Sentinelese and other aboriginal tribes of the Andaman& Nicobar Islands are protected under The Andaman and Nicobar (Protection of Aboriginal Tribes) Regulation, 1956
  • Under the Foreigners (Restricted Areas) Order, 1963, the Andaman & Nicobar Islands are a “Restricted Area” in which foreigners with a restricted area permit (RAP) can stay.
  • The habitats of the PVTGs of Andaman and Nicobar Island is protected Tribal Reserve under the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Protection of Aboriginal Tribes) Regulation, 1956

Way forward:

  • Along with the Census, a proper survey should be conducted to comprehensively capture the data on PVTGs- population enumeration, health status, nutritional level, education, vulnerabilities etc. This would help implement welfare measures better
  • Of the 75 PVTGs, those groups whose population is declining should be clearly identified and survival strategy should be devised
  • PVTGs threatened with relocation of wildlife areas or development projects should be identified and actionable strategies should be devised to prevent the same
  • It is important to recognise the innate connection between PVTGs and their lands and habitats. Therefore, a rights-based approach for development of PVTGs should be adopted
  • Effective, preventive and curative health systems should be developed to address the health issues plaguing PVTGs
  • A massive exercise in creating awareness about PVTG Rights, amongst communities, officials and civil society groups, is needed. It is important to respect their culture, traditions, beliefs and sustainable livelihoods.
  • The government needs to revamp its priorities towards protecting the indigenous tribes of A&N islands from outside influence. India needs to sign the 1989 convention of the ILO, and implement its various policies to protect the rights of the indigenous population.
  • The Government must make efforts to sensitise settlers and outsiders about PVTGs of Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Topic: Security challenges and their management in border areas

7) Discuss the need for Defense reforms in India. In what way do you think the coming of Minister for security in the Cabinet going to prove to be a gamechanger?(250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question:

The article discuses about forging national security, what way Defense reforms should be a priority, the most vital being the creation of a Chief of Defense Staff.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must first discuss the current conditions of defense system in India, need for reforms and how the coming of minister of security is a positive step in the right direction.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In a few lines discuss the importance of national security.

Body:

The answer must discuss the following:

Explain the issues around India’s national security and defense, the measures taken to address them ranging from setting up of Defense Planning Committee (DPC) to creation of national security strategy, international defense engagement strategy.

Then move on to discuss the concerns in dealing with security issues.

Bring out the positives of having created a dedicated minister for security, its significance.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward as to how the country is in need of defense reforms and this is a right step in the right direction.

Introduction:

The state of India’s national security and defence is getting worse than before and are in a dire need of reform. With the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor rapidly taking shape, the China-Pakistan embrace has got much tighter as has the convergence between China and Russia. China has intensified military engagements with several South Asian and Indian Ocean region states. Keeping in light all these there is a great necessity for India to reform its defence forces.

Body:

The need for defence reforms in India is due to the following challenges:

  • Military planning:
    • It is hamstrung by lack of a clearly articulated and integrated military strategy. In such a situation, the three wings of the military are left to devise their own strategies and military philosophies, which could end up being at cross purposes with each other.
    • The reasons that can be ascribed to this state of affairs is the absence of military expertise at the apex level of national security and defence matters, exacerbated by non-institution of the appointment of Chief of Defence Staff to coordinate defence policy and strategy more meaningfully.
  • Centralisation:
    • There are concerns that appointing NSA to SPG would lead to further centralisation of decision making.
    • The post of the NSA is also not a legally-mandated one and he has no parliamentary accountability.
  • Line of Control:
    • Overall violence in Jammu and Kashmir and ceasefire violations on the Line of Control reached a 14-year high in 2017, and did not subside in 2018.
    • There are far more attacks on security forces and security installations in J&K, and militant recruitments and violence against civilians in the State are rising at an alarming rate.
  • Neighbourhood policy:
    • Though the government claims that the surgical strikes of 2016 gave a befitting response to Pakistan, it hardly made any significant gains in reality.
    • A report of the Parliamentary Standing Committee on External Affairs recently revealed that the Chinese forces are back in the Doklam plateau with more force.
    • The report goes on to fault the government for continuing with its conventionally deferential foreign policy towards China.
    • India’s neighbourhood policy holds a clear absence of vision on how to balance, engage and work with the many great powers in the regional and the broader international scene.
  • Defence preparedness:
    • India spends close to $50 billion annually on defence and yet might still be ill-equipped to fight the wars of the modern age, especially in the neighbourhood.
    • India also suffers from almost non-functional higher defence organisation and the defence policy doesn’t hold any political oversight or vision.
  • Defence management:
    • There is little conversation between the armed forces and the political class, and even lesser conversation among the various arms of the forces.
    • Our doctrines, command structures, force deployments and defence acquisition continue as though each arm is going to fight a future war on its own.
  • Institutional lacuna:
    • In India, talk of appointing a Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) has died down and the key post of military adviser in the National Security Council Secretariat (NSCS) remains vacant.
    • The NSC almost never meets and the National Security Advisory Board, initially set up to seek ‘outside expertise’ on strategic matters, has become a space for retired officials.
  • Modernisation:
    • The state of modernisation and domestic defence industry in the country are in a sorry state.
    • Under the present system, where the ratio of revenue to capital expenditure in defence is roughly 65:35%, any serious attempt at modernisation would be impossible.

Minister of Security:

  • The prime minister has added a sixth member to his Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) known as “Minister for Security”.
  • The CCS currently comprises ministers of home, defence, finance, external affairs and Security, headed by Prime Minister.
  • The new minster is granted a full-fledged cabinet minister rank.

Significance of Minister of Security:

  • It reduces the burden of Minister of Defence to an extent.
  • It increases the accountability
  • The present NSA’s credentials and expertise in the fields of internal security and intelligence as well as the affairs of our “near abroad” are well-known and his elevation could be the key to ensuring that focus is retained on national security.

Conclusion:

There is clearly a need to view national security through a narrower prism and evolve a less ambitious doctrine that focuses on matters directly related to defence and security. It must provide strategic guidance to the military within clearly defined national aims and objectives.