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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 29 APRIL 2019

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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 29 APRIL 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic : Role of women, The Freedom Struggle – its various stages and important contributors /contributions from different parts of the country.

1)Discuss the contributions of Dakshayani Velayudhan  with special emphasis with respect to formation of the Pulaya Mahana Sabha.(250 words)

Indianexpress

 

Why this question:

The article brings out the contributions made by  Dakshayani Velayudhan , a leader of the Depressed Classes, belonging to the Pulaya community.

It also highlights the formation of Pulaya Mahana Sabha and its contributions to the freedom movement.

Key demand of the question:

The answer has to discuss particularly the contributions of Dakshayani Velayudhan  and the evolution and significance of Pulaya Mahana Sabha.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin with importance of Dakshayani Velayudhan in the upliftment of the depressed classes.

Body:

  • Discuss – Dakshayani Velayudhan was an Indian parliamentarian and leader of the Depressed Classes. Belonging to the Pulaya community, she was among the first generation of people to be educated from the community.
  • She holds several distinctions including becoming the first woman from her community to wear an upper cloth, the first Scheduled Caste woman graduate in India, a science graduate, a member of the Cochin Legislative Council and of being one of nine female members of the Constituent Assembly of India.
  • Her contributions – Although a staunch Gandhian, Dakshayani sided with B R Ambedkar on many issues relating to the Scheduled Castes during the Constituent Assembly debates. She agreed with Ambedkar giving up the demand for separate electorates arguing instead for ‘moral safeguards’ and the immediate removal of their social disabilities. discussions on draft Article 11 in the constituent assembly.
  • Then move to discuss Pulaya Maha Sabha, contributions of it in Kerala and its spread to other parts of the country.

Conclusion:

Conclude by reasserting significance of such leaders.

Introduction:

Dakshayani Velayudhan was an Indian parliamentarian and leader of the Depressed Classes. Belonging to the Pulaya community, she was among the first generation of people to be educated from the community. She holds several distinctions including becoming the first woman from her community to wear an upper cloth, the first Scheduled Caste woman graduate in India, a science graduate, a member of the Cochin Legislative Council and of being one of nine female members of the Constituent Assembly of India.

Body:

Contributions:

  • Dakshayani forged her own path and stood up for the rights of women and people from oppressed castes.
  • Dakshayani strongly opposed reservation or separate electorates and worked towards a vision of India free of caste or community barriers.
  • Her two main objectives in constituent assembly was to make the assembly go beyond framing a constitution and offer people “a new framework of life”, and two, to use the opportunity to make untouchability illegal, unlawful, and ensure a “moral safeguard that gives real protection to the underdogs”.
  • She held that the assembly should offer the people a “new framework of life”.
  • Although a Gandhian, she agreed with Babasaheb Ambedkar on many issues. She also argued against appointment of governors anticipating friction between a state government and a governor appointed by another party at the Centre.
  • She spoke against excessive centralisation of power in the Constitution and argued for greater decentralisation.
  • She also suggested that the final draft of the Constitution be adopted following a ratification through a general election.
  • She again intervened during a discussion on draft Article 11 (Art 17 of the Constitution) which aimed at abolishing discrimination based on caste and making it punishable by law.
  • An unwavering supporter of a strong, common national identity for all residents of an independent India, she did not support separate electorates or reservations. Her main goal was creating an India free of caste or community barriers.
  • Her idea of moral safeguards rested on the idea that only an independent socialist republic could uplift, remove social disabilities.

Pulaya Mahajana Sabha:

  • Some of her own awareness was drawn from her household and family which played a role in founding the Pulaya Mahajana Sabha (1913).
  • It was formed to offer resistance to the day to day life of a Dalit, and which later became a platform of bringing Dalit life to the public.
  • The organisation found an ingenious way to defy the king’s order that proclaimed that no Dalit group could have a meeting in his land — they held their meeting on a row of catamarans anchored to an iron pole in the middle of the Vembanad lake.
  • By conducting the meeting on water, the group sent out a message of protest without actually disobeying the royal proclamation.
  • It was this historic Kayal Sammelanam (Meeting on the Backwaters) that later formed the basis for the name of Dakshayani’s memoirs, “The Sea Has No Caste”.
  • The idea of PMS spread to other states too over a period of time.

Conclusion:

Dakshayani was part of movements that called for the democratization of public spaces, education, work security, equality and abolition of caste slavery. Her work was an inspiration for her first cousin, K.R. Narayanan, who would become India’s first Dalit president.


Topic: Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.

2) Discuss the powers, functions and responsibilities of Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) in India. (250 words)

Polity by Lakshmikanth

Why this question:

The question is straight forward and direct from the static portions.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss powers, functions and responsibilities of Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) in India.

Directive word:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin by stating that the Constitution of India provides for an independent office of the Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG). CAG helps the parliament/state legislatures hold their respective governments accountable.

Body:

In brief discuss the following points –

  • The coming of CAG office into existence – The role of the CAG evolved in British India with Lord Canning initiating a major administrative drive before the Mutiny of 1857. In May 1858, for the first time, a separate department was set up with an Accountant General, who was responsible for accounting and auditing the financial transactions under the East India Company. After Mutiny, the British Crown took over and passed the Government of India Act 1858.

This laid the foundation stone of Imperial Audit. Sir Edward Drummond took charge in 1860 as the first Auditor General and the term ‘Comptroller and Auditor General of India’ was first used in 1884. Under the Montford Reforms of 1919, the Auditor General became independent of the government. The Government of India Act 1935 strengthened the position of the Auditor General by providing for Provincial Auditors General in a federal set-up.

  • Then discuss the Constitutional provisions of the CAG.
  • Explain the duties and powers, with limitations.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of CAG office.

Introduction:

The Constitution of India provides for an independent office of the Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG) in chapter V under Part V. The CAG is mentioned in the Constitution of India under Article 148 – 151. He is the head of the Indian Audit and Accounts Department. He is the guardian of the public purse and controls the entire financial system of the country at both the levels- the centre and state. His duty is to uphold the Constitution of India and the laws of Parliament in the field of financial administration.

Body:

Powers: CAG derives its audit mandate from different sources like:

  • Constitution (Articles 148 to 151)
  • The Comptroller and Auditor General’s (Duties, Powers and Conditions of Service) Act, 1971
  • Important Judgments
  • Instructions of Government of India
  • Regulations on Audit & Accounts-2007

Duties:

  • He audits the accounts related to all expenditure from the Consolidated Fund of India, Consolidated Fund of each state and UT having a legislative assembly.
  • He audits all expenditure from the Contingency Fund of India and the Public Account of India as well as the Contingency Fund and Public Account of each state.
  • He audits all trading, manufacturing, profit and loss accounts, balance sheets and other subsidiary accounts kept by any department of the Central Government and the state governments.
  • He audits the receipts and expenditure of all bodies and authorities substantially financed from the Central or State revenues; government companies; other corporations and bodies, when so required by related laws.

Functions:

  • He audits all transactions of the Central and state governments related to debt, sinking funds, deposits, advances, suspense accounts and remittance business.
  • He audits the accounts of any other authority when requested by the President or Governor e.g. Local bodies.
  • He advises the President with regard to prescription of the form in which the accounts of the Centre and states shall be kept.
  • He submits his audit reports relating to the accounts of the Centre to the President, who shall, in turn, place them before both the houses of Parliament.
  • He submits his audit reports relating to the accounts of a State to the Governor, who shall, in turn, place them before the state legislature.
  • He ascertains and certifies the net proceeds of any tax or duty and his certificate is final on the matter.
  • He acts as a guide, friend and philosopher of the Public Accounts Committee of the Parliament.
  • He compiles and maintains the accounts of state governments. In 1976, he was relieved of his responsibilities with regard to the compilation and maintenance of accounts of the Central government due to separation of accounts from audit.
  • He submits 3 audit reports to the President: audit report on appropriation accounts, audit report on finance accounts and audit report on public undertakings.

Responsibilities:

  • His duty is to uphold the Constitution of India and laws of Parliament in the field of financial administration.
  • The accountability of the executive (i.e., the council of ministers) to the Parliament in the sphere of financial administration is secured through audit reports of the CAG.
  • The CAG is an agent of the Parliament and conducts an audit of expenditure on behalf of the Parliament.
  • Therefore, he is responsible only to the Parliament.
  • The CAG has more freedom with regard to the audit of expenditure than with regard to the audit of receipts, stores, and stock. ―Whereas in relation to expenditure he decides the scope of the audit and frames his own audit codes and manuals, he has to proceed with the approval of the executive government in relation to rules for the conduct of the other audits.
  • The CAG has to ascertain whether money shown in the accounts as having been disbursed was legally available for and applicable to the service or the purpose to which they have been applied or charged and whether the expenditure conforms to the authority that governs it.
  • In addition to this legal and regulatory audit, the CAG can also conduct the propriety audit, that is, he can look into the wisdom, faithfulness and economy ‘of government expenditure and comment on the wastefulness and extravagance of such expenditure.
  • However, unlike the legal and regulatory audit, which is obligatory on the part of the CAG, the propriety audit is discretionary.

Conclusion:

CAG helps the parliament/state legislatures hold their respective governments accountable. He is one of the bulwarks of the democratic system of government in India. It is for these reasons Dr. B R Ambedkar said that the CAG shall be the most important Officer under the Constitution of India and his duties are far more important than the duties of even the judiciary.


Topic : Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.

3) Explain the Powers of Union Public Service Commission with special focus on its advisory powers.(250 words)

Polity by Lakshmikanth  

Why this question:

The question is straightforward and from static portions based on the theme of Union Public Service Commission.

Key demands of the question:

The answer must discuss Powers of Union Public Service Commission with special focus on its advisory powers.

Directive word

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the  particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

Introduce with a brief on significant role played by Union Public Service Commission. 

Body

The body of the answer should address the following dimensions:

  • Discuss that UPSC is a central agency that has great responsibility for conducting examinations pertaining to Civil Services, Engineering Services, Defense Services, and Medical Services. It also conducts Economic Service, Statistical Service, and Police Forces examination.
  • Explain the Constitutional Provisions.
  • Discuss Functions of Union Public Service Commission.
  • Explain advisory powers of the UPSC in detail – It can give advises to the President and the governors of any State of the following affairs:
  • On all matters related with the appointment of the civil services of the governments.
  • The evaluation of the standard and efficiencies of the candidates for appointment, promotion or transfer in all civil posts.
  • On all matters regarding the discipline and punctuality of the employees of All India Services.
  • Affairs associated with the demands and benefits of employees working under the All India Civil Services and injured while on duty.
  • Whether the payment or expenditure for any work of an employee of All India Civil Services will be borne by the consolidated fund of India.
  • Regarding discipline and promptness in government functions of paying compensation to a government employee if he suffers any problem or financial loss due to the negligence on the part of the government, matters related with the punishment measures of those employees who have violated discipline or of all matters related with the interest of the government employees working under the central government.

Conclusion

Conclude with significance of UPSC.

Introduction:

The Union Public Service Commission is India’s premier central recruiting agency. It is responsible for appointments to and examinations for All India services and group A & group B of Central services. The Department of Personnel and Training is the central personnel agency in India. Established on 1 October 1926 as Public Service Commission, it was later reconstituted as Federal Public Service Commission by the Government of India Act, 1935; only to be renamed as today’s Union Public Service Commission after the independence.

Body:

Constitutional Provisions:

  • Article-315: Public Service Commissions for the Union and for the States.
  • Article-316: Appointment and term of office of members.
  • Article-317: Removal and suspension of a member of a Public Service Commission
  • Article-318: Power to make regulations as to conditions of service of members and staff of the Commission.
  • Article-319: Prohibition as to the holding of offices by members of Commission on ceasing to be such members.
  • Article-320: Functions of Public Service Commissions.
  • Article-321: Power to extend functions of Public Service Commissions
  • Article-322: Expenses of Public Service Commissions
  • Article-323: Reports of Public Service Commissions

Powers of UPSC:

Main power of Union Public Service Commission is its advisory power. It can give advises to the President and the governors of any State of the following affairs:

  • On all matters related with the appointment of the civil services of the governments.
  • The evaluation of the standard and efficiencies of the candidates for appointment, promotion or transfer in all civil posts.
  • On all matters regarding the discipline and punctuality of the employees of All India Services.
  • Affairs associated with the demands and benefits of employees working under the All India Civil Services and injured while on duty.
  • Whether the payment or expenditure for any work of an employee of All India Civil Services will be borne by the consolidated fund of India.
  • Regarding discipline and promptness in government functions of paying compensation to a government employee if he suffers any problem or financial loss due to the negligence on the part of the government, matters related with the punishment measures of those employees who have violated discipline or of all matters related with the interest of the government employees working under the central government.

However the government is not bound to take advises of the Union Public Service Commission in regard to the issues of making reservation in services for the schedule caste, schedule tribe and other backward communities or for making some special provision and privileges for making such reservations for them under Act 335 under the constitution of India.

Conclusion:

Being a constitutional authority, UPSC is amongst the few institutions which function with both autonomy and freedom, along with the country’s higher judiciary and lately the Election Commission.


TopicGovernment policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

Utilization of public funds, challenges of corruption.

4) “It is not power that corrupts but fear. Fear of losing power corrupts those who wield it and fear of the scourge of power corrupts those who are subject to it.” Critically analyse the statement in the light of Indian political scenario and the rising menace of corruption.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question:

The article gives a detailed account of  corruption in India , it provides for analysis of how the governments of the past till present have been ignorant of the menace of corruption and that there is absolutely no evidence of any check on everyday corruption that impacts the delivery of services to people.

Demand of the question:

The answer must evaluate in detail the corruption incidences with example, the lacunae on the policy and legislation front and what needs to be done to make India corruption free.

Directive word:

Critically analyzeWhen asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

Start with few facts/ stats highlighting the scenario.

Body

  • Discuss how there have been consistent attacks on anti-corruption laws and institutions.
  • For e.g. – In 2015, the government proposed amendments to the Prevention of Corruption Act. The amendment Bill, which was later approved by Parliament, narrows down the definition of corruption, increases the burden of proof necessary for punishing the corrupt, and makes things more arduous for whistle-blowers.
  • strengthening of the shield available to officials accused of corruption.
  • Investigating agencies have been barred from even initiating an inquiry or investigation into allegations of corruption without prior approval from the government.
  • undermining of the autonomy of the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI).
  • Issues associated with Lokpal law etc.
  • Discuss how Corruption in India is not limited to collusive high-level scams. Even petty corruption, affects the delivery of basic services and rights to people, is rampant.
  • Explain what needs to be done to overcome the issue.


Conclusion

Highlight the importance of strong political will to take necessary steps to curb the menace of corruption.

Introduction:

Corruption in India is not limited to collusive high-level scams. Petty corruption, which affects the delivery of basic services and rights to people, is rampant. This especially impacts the poor and marginalized, who are most dependent on public provisioning of rations, pensions, health, and education. Serious cases of several big corruptions have surfaced in the last five years, including banking frauds and the Rafale deal. The popular sentiment that helped the incumbent Government in the 2014 general election was resentment against corruption in public life.

Body:

Corruption in India:

  • According to the Transparency International’s Corruption Perception Index, India is ranked 76 out of 167 nations
  • India’s ranking increased from 81st in 2017 to 78 in 2018. India had slid from 79th rank in 2016.
  • The annual Kroll Global Fraud Report notes that India has among the highest national incidences of corruption (25%).
  • The same study also notes that India reports the highest proportion reporting procure­ment fraud (77%) as well as corruption and bribery (73%).

Consistent attacks on anti-corruption laws and institutions:

Central Bureau of Investigation:

  • Recent months have witnessed a brazen undermining of the autonomy of the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI).
  • To insulate the organisation from government influence, the selection and transfer of the CBI Director is vested in a committee comprising the Prime Minister, the Leader of the Opposition in the Lok Sabha, and the Chief Justice of India.
  • However, the government, without consulting the selection committee, removed the erstwhile CBI Director Alok Verma and appointed an Interim Director, M. Nageswara Rao.
  • Although the Supreme Court eventually struck down these decisions as being illegal, it was not before the credibility of the institution was seriously eroded.

Prevention of Corruption Act

  • Amendments to the Prevention of Corruption Act narrows down the definition of corruption, increases the burden of proof necessary for punishing the corrupt, and makes things more difficult for whistle-blowers.
  • Investigating agencies have been barred from even initiating an inquiry or investigation into allegations of corruption without prior approval from the government.
  • Effectively, this empowers political masters to decide whether they wish to allow a corruption inquiry against a government employee or not
  • The amendments have done away with the offense of abuse of position by a public servant unless the element of bribery is established.
  • This frustrates people’s’ ability to fight corruption in cases which may not involve the payment of a bribe.
  • Also, cases involving gratification are often impossible to trace as they may be deferred in the form of post-retirement benefits or paid through clandestine off-shore accounts.
  • Currently, there is no domestic legislation in India which can punish the acts of international bribery i.e. the acts of bribery committed by foreign public officials.

Lokpal Act:

  • The Lokpal law was enacted to set up an independent and empowered anti-corruption ombudsman, who would work without fear or favour to tackle cases of big-ticket corruption involving high-level government functionaries.
  • The BJP government failed to take the necessary steps to appoint a Lokpal for nearly five years.
  • To ensure the independence of the Lokpal, the law provides for a balanced selection committee, including the recognised Leader of the Opposition.
  • After the 2014 general election, no one was recognised as the Leader of the Opposition.

Whistleblower’s protection act:

  • Government has failed to promulgate rules and operationalize the Whistle Blowers Protection Act, 2014. Whistle-blowers, who speak truth to power by exposing corruption and wrongdoing, continue to be denied protection.
  • Many Right to Information (RTI) users who have exposed corruption have been killed.

Right to Information Act:

  • The RTI Act, one of the most effective tools to fight corruption and abuse of power, has been under constant attack by the government.
  • In 2018, the government proposed regressive amendments to undermine the independence of information commissions. These were eventually abandoned due to public pressure.
  • Lack of coordination between various investigation agencies is another shortfall of anti-corruption legislation. The lack of coordination results into acquittal of the accused.

Measures needed:

  • Legislation for an effective mechanism to hold officials accountable was introduced in Parliament in the form of a Grievance Redress Bill in 2011. Unfortunately, it lapsed with the dissolution of the Lok Sabha in 2014 and needed to be reintroduced.
  • Mere enacting anti-corruption laws are not enough. There must be a strong agency to implement those Acts effectively and prevent corruption in public life.
  • The collective effort of the legislature along with a proactive approach taken by the judiciary may be very helpful in bringing some positive results in the context of prevention of corruption.
  • It is the need of the hour to bring Central Bureau of investigation and other Central and State investigation agencies out of control of the government so that a fair investigation may be brought out and the culprit may be punished as per the provisions of law.
  • There should be a comprehensive package to fight against corruption. The government must strengthen existing laws like whistle blower protection act, lokpal act etc.
  • The government should also address the regulatory concerns in Competition act, the companies act, income tax etc.
  • Government must ensure citizen participation and transparency in decision making to eradicate corruption.
  • There should be an equal focus on judicial reform and police reform to create deterrence.

Topic: Achievements of Indians in science & technology, Indian Economy.

5) The economy that Biotechnology is bringing with it, is like soothing balm for the recession-hit world economy. Discuss with its relevance to India. (250 words)

Reference

why this question:

The Article discusses how biotech has arguably emerged as a preferred investment sector. Money is pouring in and analysts are sure the sector will maintain its blue chip status in the coming years as well.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the progress that Biotechnology is making exponentially and how its contribution to the economy is becoming significant day by day.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction:

Introduce briefly the context of the question.

Body:

  • Take cues from the article, use facts and reports to justify how Biotech has been progressively  performing.
  • The Indian Biotechnology sector is one of the major knowledge based sectors in India and is contributing significantly to shaping India’s rapidly growing economy.
  • Discuss the market size – based on a network of nearly three hundred national laboratories and about an equal number of universities. The national laboratories operate under various departments or agencies of the Government of India, predominantly the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), the Department of Science and Technology and the Department of Biotechnology, among others.
  • Discuss the government initiatives to boost the sector – examples –
  • The Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of India and RIKEN, Japan’s largest research organisation have signed memorandums of understanding (MoU) to launch joint research programs in the fields of biology, life sciences and material sciences.
  • UK Trade and Investment (UKTI) and the Association of Biotech Led Enterprises (ABLE) have signed a MoU to encourage and develop collaborative opportunities between Indian life sciences organisations and the UK.
  • The Drugs Controller General of India has approved Biocon Ltd to market its biosimilar ‘Trastuzumab’ developed jointly with the US drug-maker Mylan, for treating breast cancer. “This is a major milestone for both partners as it is the world’s first biosimilar trastuzumab to be accorded regulatory approval,” said Ms Kiran Mazumdar Shaw, Chairperson and Managing Director, Biocon.
  • The Government of India plans to set up National Institute of Biotic Stress Management for addressing plant protection issues will be established at Raipur, Chhattisgarh.
  • Conclude with significance.

Conclusion –

Conclude with how India’s biotechnology industry is expected to play a key role in sustaining future growth.

Introduction:

Fifteen years after it rose and went limp, the biotech sector, globally, as well as in India has seen a bull run of sorts. In January this year, some 10 healthcare companies went public on the NASDAQ. Meanwhile, India has become the world’s 12th biggest biotechnology economy having the second highest number of USFDA-approved plants. Biotechnology will help developing countries accomplish things that they could never do.

Body:

Indian Biotechnology Scenario:

  • In India, the world’s 12th biggest biotechnology economy and having the second highest number of US Food and Drugs Administration (USFDA) – approved plants, the industry is not only excited at the revival in the US but also about its domestic prospects.
  • The Indian bioeconomy grew to $4.3 billion at the end of the 2013 financial year, up from $530 million in 2003, according to BioSpectrum, a widely-read trade publication in India.
  • Though concentrated in Hyderabad and Bengaluru, there are units sprouting across the country; currently some 350 companies are in operation.
  • The bio-pharmaceutical sector, which includes vaccines, medical devices and stem cells, is the main driver of India’s biotechnology growth, generating close to 63 per cent of the industry’s total revenue in 2013.

Biotechnology has the following relevance in India:

  • Environment:
    • Biotechnology can be used to tackle environmental issues like deforestation and air pollution
    • Biotechnology can help in finding out the level of Particulate Matter 2.5 in the air,
    • The benefit of environmental biotechnology helps us to avoid the use of hazardous pollutants and wastes that affect the natural resources and the environment.
    • Biotech can address India’s hunger problem:-
    • Latest innovations in biotechnology that fortify major staples with micro nutrients like vitamin A, zinc and iron can be game changers for hunger problem in India.
  • Applications of Biotechnology in Medicine
    • Biotechnology techniques are used in medicine for diagnosis and treating different diseases. It gives opportunities for the people to protect themselves from dangerous diseases.
    • The field of Biotechnology, genetic engineering has introduced techniques like gene therapy, recombinant DNA technology and polymerase chain reaction which use genes and DNA molecules to diagnose diseases and insert new and healthy genes in the body which replace the damaged cells
    • Genetic modification in mosquitoes can solve the problems of epidemic diseases such as dengue and malaria
  • Applications of Biotechnology in Agriculture
    • Biotechnology has played major role in agriculture by altering genes, studying and cloning various crops in order to provide better quality products of foods ultimately improving our lives.
    • Potential advantages that biotechnology can confer across a wide range of agricultural applications are in areas such as livestock management, storage of agricultural products and sustaining current crop yields, while reducing the use of fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides.
    • Biotechnology offers a very promising alternative to synthetic foods and an improvement on conventional plant-breeding technologies. Combined with other advanced agricultural technologies, it offers an exciting and environmentally responsible way to meet consumer demand for sustainable agriculture.
  • Application of Biotechnology in Food Processing
    • Biotechnology has a major application in the food sector.
    • It helps in improving the edibility, texture, and storage of the food; in preventing the attack of the food, mainly dairy, by the virus like bacteriophage
    • It produces antimicrobial effect to destroy the unwanted microorganisms in food that cause toxicity
    • It prevents the formation of mycotoxins and degradation of other toxins and anti-nutritional elements present naturally in food.

Government initiatives to boost the sector:

  • The Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of India and RIKEN, Japan’s largest research organisation have signed memorandums of understanding (MoU) to launch joint research programs in the fields of biology, life sciences and material sciences.
  • UK Trade and Investment (UKTI) and the Association of Biotech Led Enterprises (ABLE) have signed a MoU to encourage and develop collaborative opportunities between Indian life sciences organisations and the UK.
  • The Drugs Controller General of India has approved Biocon Ltd to market its biosimilar ‘Trastuzumab’ developed jointly with the US drug-maker Mylan, for treating breast cancer. “This is a major milestone for both partners as it is the world’s first biosimilar trastuzumab to be accorded regulatory approval,” said Ms Kiran Mazumdar Shaw, Chairperson and Managing Director, Biocon.
  • The Government of India plans to set up National Institute of Biotic Stress Management for addressing plant protection issues will be established at Raipur, Chhattisgarh.

Conclusion:

Every new drug discovery or drug approval not only draws cheers from millions of victims of debilitating diseases but also adds value to biotechnology companies. In a complex play of scientific progress and market forces, the biotechnology industry is recording growth that can rival the information technology industry boom of the 1990s. India with its young workforce and a potential market for the end-products can look out for a bright future in the biotechnology sector.


Topic :  Security challenges and their management in border areas; linkages of organized crime with terrorism.

6) Do you think terror has religion ? Analyse with recent examples where terrorism has been often related to religion. (250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question:

The article discusses how religion is often associated with terrorism.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must thus evaluate the theme of religious terrorism, recent incidences, cause driving them and discuss what should be done to overcome it.

Directive word:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In a few lines brief about the recent incidences where terror attacks where associated with religion.

Body:

  • Discuss the concept of Religious terrorism- one that is carried out based on motivations and goals that may have a predominantly religious character or influence.
  • Then move on to explain how terrorism is usually understood as the use or threat of violence to further a political cause. There is no universally agreed definition of terrorism making it a difficult object to quantify.
  • The visualization below shows the annual number of terrorist attacks globally and by country:
  • Take cues from the article – discuss examples ranging from Pragya Thakur – Malegaon case to the recent attacks in Australia in the mosque.
  • What should be the way forward to overcome?

Conclusion:

Conclude by suggesting road ahead to curb terrorism.

Introduction:

Terrorism involves violence against public, with a   political   or   religious   desire. Terrorist  acts  are  organized  so  as  to  attract  large  attention.  Terrorists use acts of violence for frightening the group of peoples or pressuring the Government to   do or not do something. Terrorism is now an international phenomenon. The recent incidents of terrorism seen in Christchurch mosque attacks, Srilanka Church attacks show terrorism is religion fuelled.

Body:

Religious terrorism is terrorism carried out based on motivations and goals that may have a predominantly religious character or influence. Religious terrorism consists of acts that terrify, the definition of which is provided by the witnesses – the ones terrified – and not by the party committing the act; accompanied by either a religious motivation, justification, organization, or world view. Religion is sometimes used in combination with other factors, and sometimes as the primary motivation. Religious terrorism is intimately connected to current forces of geopolitics.

Example: the terror inflicted by ISIS is chiefly motivated by the fact of setting up an Islam Caliphate across the world over a period of time. There have been incidents of radicalization of youths from the world, increased incidents of lone-wolf attacks who are self-inspired by the ISIS ideology.

In the similar fashion, there have been incidents of attacks on mosque as seen in Christchurch. The terrorism unleashed by right wing outfits in India as seen in the Malegaon blast.

However, we cannot completely attribute terrorism to religious factors by considering the above examples. There are multiple other causes like socio-economical factors leading to arms as seen in Naxalism in India, racism leading to violence and terrorism as seen in Church attacks in USA, geo-political factors as seen in Pakistan state sponsored terrorist acts in India, political factors to create fear in the civilians as seen in Saddam Hussein and Kim Jong Un’s reign in Iraq and North Korea respectively, ethno-national factors as seen in the North-East Indian states.

 The terrorism is offlate taking new forms like Cyber-terrorism, Space-terrorism, Bio-terrorism and nuclear terrorism.

Conclusion:

Thus, we can conclude that terror has no religion. All religions preach the ideals of peace and harmony, brotherhood among the people. A few anti-social elements are using religion as a veil of terrorism. However, deep down there will be many other factors leading to such cruel acts.


Topic : Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance.

7) Rising mob protest and violence demands effective Emotional Intelligence from civil servants on ground. Suggest measures for strengthening emotional intelligence in civil servants for their effective applications in such cases. (250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon publications.

Why this question:

The article highlights the need for emotional intelligence by the civil servants to handle crowd violence and protests made by them.

Demand of the question:

The answer must evaluate need of emotional intelligence by the civil servants on ground to understand the sentiments of the mob and the resonating reasons behind them opting to protests and violence to provide for an effective and peaceful solution to the situation.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

Start by explaining  – what you understand by emotional intelligence.

Body

  • Discuss what you understand by EI – the ability to recognize your and other people’s emotions; and manage them in better manner.
  • What are the benefits of EI ? – Helps you control your own negative emotions. Then you can focus more on work than on mood, your productivity/efficiency/quality of work improves. Helps you make better decisions, perform under stress and against heavy-odds, deal with uncertainty and change in personal and professional life. Otherwise “He who spends time regretting the past loses the present and risks the future.
  • Discuss how can one develop EI ?
  • Give examples to substantiate your answer better.

Conclusion

Reassert the significance of such virtues in public servants.

Introduction:

Emotional intelligence or EI is the ability to understand and manage your own emotions, and those of the people around you. Emotional intelligence is the ability to perceive emotions, to access and generate emotions so as to assist thought, to understand emotions and emotional knowledge, and to reflectively regulate emotions so as to promote emotional and intellectual growth.

Body:

Importance of EI during mob protests and violence:

  • Social responsibility: When a leader cares about others, he is not a centre of attention and keeps everyone in the loop by making their intentions known.
  • Stress tolerance: To stay focused, stress should be managed and it involves own reactions to stress or the reactions of others to the stress. Employees with high EQs are more likely to listen, reflect, and respond to constructive criticism
  • Impulse control: Independent people evaluate the alternatives and initiate the work by taking appropriate action by executing the right options. People who manage their impulses avoid being distracted and losing control of the situation. Emotionally intelligent employees are more likely to keep their cool under pressure
  • Optimism: Optimistic people have a target that they’re aiming toward. These people are confident in their ability to carry out the required actions and meet the target by looking for successful solutions to problems.
  • Negotiation: For being able to empathize and be creative in finding win-win solutions will consistently pay off to all the stakeholders involved.

Measures for strengthening emotional intelligence in civil servants

  • Modern organizations now offer learning and development that is explicitly labelled as “emotional intelligence” or “emotional competence” training.
  • In support, their leaders create and manage a working environment of flexibility, responsibility, standards, rewards, clarity, and commitment.

Implementing emotional intelligence training and overall culture in an organisation is done in four phases:

Preparation: Assessing the organization’s needs; Assessing personal strengths and limitations; Providing feedback with care; Maximizing learner choice; Encouraging participation; Linking learning goals to personal values; Adjusting expectations; Gauging readiness;

Training: Once the organisation has plans in place, Phase Two is where it should start training. It should plan on:

  • Fostering a positive relationship between the trainer and the learner
  • Maximizing self-directed change
  • Setting clear goal
  • Breaking those goals into manageable steps
  • Maximizing opportunities to practice emotional intelligence
  • Providing frequent feedback on that practice
  • Relying on experiential, hands-on methods
  • Building in support for your staff
  • Using models of desirable behaviour
  • Enhancing insight into emotions and thought patterns
  • Preventing relapse by preparing people for mental slips

Transfer: Phase Three is all about transferring and maintaining the skills learned. Make sure you build in opportunities for:

  • Encouraging use of the skills learned on the job.
  • Providing an organizational culture that supports learning.

Evaluation: Finally, Phase Four is focused on evaluating the change that has come about from training. In this phase, the organisation should be conducting ongoing evaluation research.

Conclusion:

Governance in modern times is becoming increasing complex with affective components of behaviour having a major role to play. Intelligence quotient alone can’t solve majority of problems an administrator faces, use of emotional intelligence is a must for better public service delivery as well as redressal.