SECURE SYNOPSIS: 20 APRIL 2019
- April 27, 2019
- Posted by: InsightsIAS
- Category: SECURE 2019
SECURE SYNOPSIS: 20 APRIL 2019
NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.
Topic: Climate Change – geographical features and their location- changes in critical geographical features (including waterbodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.
1) Assessing geographic variability in heat wave vulnerability should become the basis for planning in India to tackle the brunt of Heat waves. Discuss the statement in the context of recent heat wave incidents often witnessed by the country.(250 words)
Why this question:
The question is in the context of onset of Heat waves in most parts of the country. The weather agencies have predicted that central and north-western India will bear the brunt of the sun, while heat waves have already struck several parts of the south India.
Key demands of the question:
The question expects us to first highlight that heat waves have become quite frequent. Thereafter, we need to examine the adverse socio economic and health impact of heat waves and analyze how India should deal with the problem by mainly focusing on policy that involves geographical mapping of vulnerability.
Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.
Structure of the answer:
Introduce by highlighting the condition of heatwaves in India.
The body of the answer should address the following dimensions:
- Explain the condition of heat waves currently facing the country.
- Discuss the causes and consequences.
- Highlight what should be India’s response – Identification of heat spots, Review occupational health standard, regulate safety of work force amid rising temperature. Etc.
- Then move on to discussing that policy focus should mainly be upon Assessing geographic variability in heat wave vulnerability . (half of your answer should focus on this aspect)
Conclude with significance of right policy direction to tackle the menace.
According to Indian Meteorological Department (IMD), Heat wave is considered if maximum temperature of a station reaches at least 40°C or more for Plains, 37°C or more for coastal stations and at least 30°C or more for Hilly regions.
Current Situation and the Geographical spread of Heat waves in India:
- India’s central and north-western parts are headed for a hotter than normal summer season, according to the IMD.
- The IMD declared that, “The April to June season’s average maximum temperatures are likely to be warmer than normal by 0.5 degree Celsius over most of the meteorological subdivisions from central India and some subdivisions from north-west India.”
- It said the maximum temperatures will be above normal by 0.5-1.0 degree Celsius in Haryana, Chandigarh, Delhi, west and east Uttar Pradesh, east Rajasthan, west and east Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Odisha, Gujarat, Madhya Maharashtra, Vidarbha, Marathwada, coastal Karnataka, north-interior Karnataka, Rayalaseema and Telangana.
- The heat waves have already struck many parts of the country. They started with Tamil Nadu, Rayalaseema, coastal Andhra Pradesh in early March.
- In late March, an unusual heat wave affected Kerala, taking weather forecasters by surprise. It has killed four people till date and almost 300 people have suffered from sun burns, according to media reports.
- Magnified effect of paved and concrete surfaces in urban areas and a lack of tree cover.
- Urban heat island effects can make ambient temperatures feel 3 to 4 degrees more than what they are.
- More heat waves were expected as globally temperatures had risen by an average 0.8 degrees in the past 100 years. Night-time temperatures are rising too.
- Higher daily peak temperatures and longer, more intense heat waves are becomingly increasingly frequent globally due to climate change.
- High intensity of UV rays in medium-high heat wave zone.
- Combination of exceptional heat stress and a predominantly rural population makes India vulnerable to heat waves.
- Heatwaves are associated with increased rates of heat stress and heat stroke, worsening heart failure and acute kidney injury from dehydration.
- Children, the elderly and those with pre-existing morbidities are particularly vulnerable.
- Promote the spread of diseases like cholera and dengue fever across endemic areas.
- Increased poverty due to failure of crops and reduced economic activities.
- India lost nearly 75 billion hours of labour in 2017 as a result of rising temperatures.
- This made sustained work increasingly difficult and negatively affecting workers’ output.
- The agriculture sector experienced the largest increase in labour loss.
- Almost 153 billion hours of labour were lost globally in 2017 due to heat, an increase of 62 billion hours from the year 2000.
- Agriculture sector was more vulnerable compared to the industrial and service sectors because workers there were more likely to be exposed to heat.
- Since 1990, every region of the globe has become steadily more vulnerable to extreme increases of heat.
State actions towards Heat waves assessing their geographic variations:
- Key element of many states response strategy has been enhancing health risk communications on the impact of heat waves and how citizens can take simple steps to reduce their exposure and protect their health.
- Andhra Pradesh:
- Andhra Pradesh has strong inter-agency coordination across multiple departments
- Andhra Pradesh has also set up 1168 stations approximately one for every hundred square kilometers for weather forecasting and modelling.
- It has developed a mobile app to disseminate information about heat waves and advice on precautionary steps; the app is available in English and Telugu.
- Telangana developed one of the first state-wide heat action plans in 2016.
- The state is now integrating the heat action plan with its action plan on climate change.
- The Telangana plan focuses on training district officials and health staff
- It has declared heat waves as a state specific disaster.
- It is developing local thresholds and analyzing vulnerability of communities in different parts of the state.
- Odisha’s activities focus on awareness raising, capacity building and training of healthcare staff, interagency coordination, and enabling provision of water for vulnerable communities.
- Various states and municipalities have introduced early warning systems, public awareness campaigns and increased training for medical professionals.
- Ahmedabad, Nagpur and Odisha have made pioneering efforts with respect to heat-health warning systems (HHWS).
- Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation (AMC) has adopted a heat action plan which necessitates measures such as building heat shelters, ensuring availability of water and removing neonatal ICU from the top floor of hospitals.
- Such warning systems include providing weather forecasts in advance, issuing warnings to people, providing readiness of emergency response systems, and preparing doctors and health facilities to handle a sudden influx of patients. Warnings facilitate people in taking appropriate actions against heat-related harm.
- Access to cool environments remains the mainstay of preventing heat stress:
- In rural areas, where electricity access is a challenge, supplementing power supply of primary health centres with solar-based systems should be undertaken. Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra and Tripura have already deployed such systems.
- In 2016, the National Disaster Management Agency prepared guidelines for state governments to formulate action plans for the prevention and management of heat waves, outlining four key strategies:
- Forecasting heat waves and enabling an early warning system
- Building capacity of healthcare professionals to deal with heat wave-related emergencies
- Community outreach through various media
- Inter-agency cooperation as well as engagement with other civil society organizations in the region.
- Advance implementation of local Heat Action Plans, plus effective inter-agency coordination is a vital response which the government can deploy in order to protect vulnerable groups.
- This will require identification of “heat hot spots”, analysis of meteorological data and allocation of resources to crisis-prone areas.
- The India Cooling Action Plan must emphasize the urgency and need for better planning, zoning and building regulations to prevent Urban Heat Islands.
- Provision of public messaging (radio, TV), mobile phone-based text messages, automated phone calls and alerts.
- Promotion of traditional adaptation practices, such as staying indoors and wearing comfortable clothes.
- Popularisation of simple design features such as shaded windows, underground water storage tanks and insulating housing materials.
Topic: Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries.
2) Compare and contrast Indian Constitution and French Constitution with respect to the attitudes of the general public and the political establishment and explain how they differ in each case. (250 words)
Why this question:
The question is straightforward and is about evaluating the attitudes of the general public and political establishments in Indian and the French constitution.
Key demand of the question:
The answer must explain the attitudes of political parties and the general public response towards their respective constitutional schemes, here one must compare and contract how the two set ups differ from each other and what are the similarities.
Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.
Structure of the answer:
Begin with importance of constitution.
- Discuss how the attitudes of the general public and the political establishment towards the constitutions are vastly different in the France and India.
- Then move on to explain the Scope of the two constitutions.
- Discuss specific contrasting features.
Conclude by stating how each scheme of constitution reflects the public sentiment and will .
The role of a constitution is to make certain that the government operates efficiently and in a fair and responsible manner. It does this in three ways:
- It holds the government to the law.
- It provides distinction of power so that no one part of the government is any more powerful than another.
- It provides a series of checks and balances so that when laws are made or amended, the government follows the correct procedure to pass a Bill.
Comparison between Indian and French constitution:
- Nature of constitution: France is a unitary semi-presidential republic country. The current constitution of France was adopted in 1958 and fifth in the row. India is a parliamentary democratic republic. Indian constitution was adopted in 1950 and has been the one serving the needs of Indians till date.
- Written constitution: Indian constitution is written and longest known in the world. Since French revolution, there have been four constitutions. The current one in force is the 5th and is a written constitution.
- Ease of Amendability: It is a mix of flexible and rigid measures in India as visible through the 103 constitutional amendments in 70 years of existence. Some of the amendments need special majority with approval of half of the states. In France, the constitution is rigid and needs special procedure where 60% of majority votes in both the houses of parliament is needed. Alternatively, President can call a national referendum on constitutional amendment.
- Nature of Federalism: In India, there is a federalism but with unitary bias also known as quasi-federalism. The constitution allows the central government to assume unitary powers in case of emergency. In France, it is a unitary federalism. The local governments are created and abolished by the central government only for administrative convenience.
- Type of Government: Indian constitution provides for a parliamentary form of government at both center and states. The parliamentary system is a Westminster model adopted from Britain. France has a quasi-presidential and quasi-prime ministerial. On one hand, it provides for a powerful president who is directly elected by people. On the other hand, there is a nominated council of ministers headed by prime minister which is responsible to the parliament.
- Sovereignty: In India, the people are sovereign. France has a parliament with limited powers vis-à-vis political executive. It can only make laws on those subjects which is mentioned in the constitution. On all other matters, the government is empowered to legislate by executive decree.
- President: president is a nominal head of state of Republic of India. The real executive is the council of ministers headed by the Prime minister. In France, President is the pivot of the constitution and occupies a dominant position as the real head of the state.
- Citizenship: Single citizenship for all of India. Possession of citizenship of other nation will lead to cancelation of Indian citizenship. Dual citizenship has been permitted in 1973.
India has borrowed constitutional features from the French constitution viz. the principles of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity which acts as a backbone to Indian pluralism.
Topic: Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries
Why this question:
The question is about evaluating the constitutional features of the two constitution and one must discuss how the two are different or similar in various aspects.
Key demand of the question:
The answer should enlist the features corresponding to the two constitutional schemes.
Structure of the answer:
Begin with definition of Federalism – A federation is a state having one central (federal) government acting for the whole country and several state governments existing side by side having control over their areas.
In brief discuss –
- Explain that in a federation, there is a division of powers between the central (federal) government and state government. Countries like USA, Switzerland, Australia, Canada, etc. have a federal form of government. The salient features of federalism include the existence of dual government at the central and state level, separation of powers, rigid and written constitution, supremacy of the constitution, independence of judiciary, etc.
- Provide for a comparison between Indian federalism and the USA federalism.
- Similarities between the federalism of US and India – Written Constitution, Bill of Rights and Fundamental Rights, Supremacy of the Federal or Union Government, Separation of powers, Powers of Checks and Balances etc.
Conclude that there are certain features of federalism which are common to both India and the USA. On the other hand, India and the USA differ in many aspects related to the federal character of their Constitution. However, both the US and the Indian Federalism despite having limitations are by and large successful.
Federalism is a system of government in which power is divided between a central authority and constituent political units. The Constitution of India establishes a federal structure to the Indian government, declaring it to be a “Union of States”. Indian model of federalism is called quasi-federal system as it contains major features of both a federation and union.
Similarities between the federalism of US and India:
- Written Constitution: The Constitution of both US and India is a written Constitution, which provides for a federal political structure where both the governments exercise their respective powers.
- Bill of Rights and Fundamental Rights: The US Constitution has given its citizens fundamental rights such as the right to equality, freedom, right against exploitation, freedom of religion, cultural and educational rights, right to property, and the right to Constitutional remedies etc. by means of ‘The Bill of Rights’, Part III of the Indian Constitution guarantees the fundamental rights of the people as given in Articles 14 to 34.
- Supremacy of the Federal or Union Government: In both the countries, the federal government works at the centre in which various states have acceded to. While both the Central as well as State Government is empowered to makes laws on subjects given in the concurrent list, the law enacted by the Federal or Union Government will prevail over the law enacted by the states on the same subject in case of dispute.
- Separation of powers: Both US and Indian Constitutions provides for separation of powers among three institutions namely executive, legislature and judiciary. Each division is empowered with a separate power.
- Powers of Checks and Balances: Though there is a clear-cut separation of powers between executive, legislature and judiciary in both countries, still there can be overlapping of these powers. There are chances of abuse of power or arbitrariness. Thus, there is a need for a system of ‘checks and balances’ prevalent in both countries.
Differences between the federalism of US and India:
- Form: While India has holding together federation where power is shared among various state and they derive their power from Indian constitution. USA has coming together federation where independent states come together to form a big unit and sacrifice some powers
- In India, there is indestructible union with destructible states while in USA, there is indestructible union with indestructible states.
- Citizenship: In India, there is single citizenship i.e. no separate citizenship of states but in USA, there is a dual citizenship states i.e. citizenship of states as well.
- Head of the state: In India, it is nominal and appointed by the centre while in USA, head of state is real and elected by the people.
- Residuary powers: In India, there are vested to centre while in USA, same are given to states.
- Constitution: In India, there is single constitution while in USA, every state has their own constitution.
- Judicial system: In India, there is integrated judiciary while in USA, state and union level has separate jurisdiction.
- Federation: In India, there is federal polity with union bias whereas in USA, there is equal federal with rigid division of power.
- Representation of upper house: In India, it is based on the population of states for e.g. UP has 31 members while Sikkim has only 1. But, in USA, equal representation is given to all states irrespective of population.
- Flexibility: Indian constitution is flexible in term of amending federalism power for e.g. Renaming state, redefining state boundaries while USA constitution is rigid.
Thus, it can be concluded that there are certain features of federalism which are common to both India and the USA. On the other hand, India and the USA differ in many aspects related to the federal character of their Constitution. However, both the US and the Indian Federalism despite having limitations are by and large successful.
Topic : Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.
Why this question:
The article discusses the viewpoint of USA’s policy of “Indo pacific strategy”. Thus it is necessary for us to analyse how the region is important for countries surrounding it and it is not anymore just about the countries like China and their growth.
Demand of the question:
The answer must evaluate Indo-Pacific strategy – the role being played by each stakeholder involved differently and in what way US’s strategy differs and hinges on Sino – Indian differences. One must re assert that the region is not anymore about China’s growth alone but is also about all countries involved therein.
Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.
Structure of the answer:
Start by explaining the Indo pacific region and its significance.
- Bring out the significance of Indo-Pacific strategy in general
- Explain how the strategy differs from the perspective of each country.
- Narrate the background of Sino Indian differences.
- How Indo-Pacific region has been associated with China’s growth.
- Discuss the emergence of other smaller countries and their role in changing dynamics.
Conclude with way forward.
Indo-Pacific region is a multi-polar region, contributing more than half of the world’s GDP and population. Countries falling in the direct hinterland of the vast Indian and Pacific oceanic expanse are termed ‘Indo-Pacific countries’. The attributes of the Indo-Pacific are also highly appealing. The region comprises at least 38 countries that share 44 percent of world surface area and 65 per cent of world population, and account for 62 per cent of world–GDP and 46 per cent of the world’s merchandise trade.
China’s growth in Indo-Pacific region:
- The Belt and Road Initiative lacked transparency and is aimed at fulfilling China’s own security and strategic interests rather than promoting economic development.
- Chinese investment and activities are undermining sovereignty and economic stability in the region and will also encounter global vision of a free and open Indo-Pacific.
- China’s aggression and debt trap diplomacy, which impinge sovereignty, is going to test Indian diplomacy.
- China is trying to hegemonize the open seas which goes against the rules-based order.
- China is very active in India’s maritime space but takes a different view when it comes to the South China Sea considered as “Beijing’s Lake”.
- In many cases, Chinese investment has harmed rather than helping the economic wellbeing of communities within the region by burdening the governments with unsustainable debts and funding projects that have no commercial job creation value
The regional countries in the Indo-pacific region are also adopting independent foreign policy approaches in line with the global rules based order.
- India appears to have set a long-term plan during which it will build its capabilities—economic and military strength, network of military facilities and agreements to access military facilities in countries across the Indo-Pacific, expanding economic and military ties.
- With opening of economy, India has been connecting with its Indian Ocean neighbours and major maritime powers of the world.
- With impetus to Blue Economy, there has been a new reliance on the sea for energy and mineral resources.
- India has been engaging with regional actors on bilateral as well as multilateral framework.
- From Look East policy, there has been a graduation towards engage East policy with growing economic relations with the ASEAN, China, Japan and Australia.
USA, Japan and Australia:
- US administration is pushing the Free and Open Indo-Pacific (FOIP) strategy as its major economic initiative.
- From the US perspective, members would include its military partners in the Asia-Pacific region, such as Japan and Australia, as well as a major strategic partner like India, whom the US recognises as a defence partner.
- India’s inclusion in the US FOIP is inevitable, given the US’ visualising of Indo-Pacific as a geography engulfing the Indian Ocean.
- Japan, Australia and India are clearly the three most important strategic allies of the US in Asia.
- Any US plan to counterbalance Chinese influence particularly the ambitious Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) requires the active support of all the three countries.
- Australia judges that the United States’ long-term interests will anchor its economic and security engagement in the Indo–Pacific. Most regional countries like South Korea, Vietnam clearly consider a significant US role in the Indo–Pacific as a stabilising influence.
- Being in the center of the Indo-Pacific region creates stress for the ASEAN countries regarding the way they relate to major powers.
- The ASEAN has always looked at the involvement of major powers as a measure of the region’s importance.
- While New Delhi and Tokyo have identified regional cooperation across the Indo-Pacific as a major objective of their bilateral partnership, cooperation with ASEAN remains at the heart of their Indo-Pacific approach.
Way Forward for India:
- Economically and strategically, the global centre of gravity is shifting to the Indo-Pacific. If the region’s stakeholders don’t act now to fortify an open, rules-based order, the security situation will continue to deteriorate—with consequences that are likely to reverberate worldwide.
- With joint military exercises, India will develop interoperability and standard operating procedures, which will help in any joint military operation or even possibly a military alliance in the future.
- The Quad Security cooperation among Japan, India, the US and Australia is increasingly plausible. The time has come to proactively further this cooperation to ensure prosperity and stability in the whole of Indo-Pacific.
- Groups like ASEAN and APEC will have to collectively approach China. Standing up to it and physically stopping illegal Chinese construction will gain international attention and the sympathy and backing of major powers.
India is already assuming her responsibilities in securing the Indo-Pacific region. A strong India-US partnership can anchor peace, prosperity and stability from Asia to Africa and from the Indian Ocean to the Pacific. It can also help ensure security of the sea-links of commerce and freedom of navigation on seas.
Why this question:
The question is in the context of increasing energy demands across the globe and amidst such a situation the only better solution is to have a mix of energy for sustainability.
Key demand of the question:
The answer must discuss the current scenario of energy crisis in the globe and in what way energy mix offers a key solution to the problem.
Structure of the answer
Introduce by highlighting the alarming situation of energy crisis.
- Discuss energy sustainability – the way we use it needs to be efficient, sustainable and whenever possible, renewable.
- Why is there a need to for focusing on energy mix for sustainable energy for our future.
- Explain how increased share of renewable energy in the global mix of energy sources need to be focused.
Conclude with way forward.
Energy availability, economic growth and sustainable development are grossly inseparable. Generating adequate power has been a major challenge for most countries across the globe. Energy is vital to every aspect of the socio-economic life. Increasing energy sources ensures energy security, which also enhances sustained growth in all sectors of the economy.
Energy plays a vital role as an enabler for improving quality of life. Its links to other sectors such as water, climate, health, and agriculture must be strengthened through integrative policies. Without energy, attainment of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development is at risk.
Energy mix means how final energy consumption in a given geographical region breaks down by primary energy source. It includes fossil fuels (oil, natural gas and coal), nuclear energy, waste and the many types of renewable energy (biomass, wind, geothermal, water and solar). These primary energy sources are used to generate electricity, provide fuel for transportation, and heat and cool residential and industrial buildings.
Sustainability is defined as the usage as per present requirements without hampering the needs of the future.
Current Energy mix scenario:
- 80% of today’s energy mix is fossil-based, and fossil energy will remain important, a reality that makes it imperative to address the environmental footprint of fossil fuels urgently.
- oil, gas and coal were the primary energies most used worldwide, although renewable, with hydropower on top, has been increasingly used and implemented.
- The current Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) widely fail to meet a 2⁰C temperature objective let alone the Paris agreement’s goal of keeping warming temperatures well below 2⁰C.
- Since fossil fuels and producing, transporting, using energy are key components of most countries’ economic development and contribute about three-quarter of global greenhouse gas emissions.
- No single energy resource can sustainably meet the energy demands of any country.
- Energy consumption is expected to increase dramatically over the next 50 years as the world’s population grows and developing countries become more
Energy mix and sustainability:
- With environmental requirements for zero or low CO2 emission sources and the need to invest in a sustainable energy mix, new energy sources must be
- Integrating all exploitable energy sources is a viable way of achieving stability in energy supply
- Energy mix certainly has the ability to harness all possible sources of energy and reduce the dependence on fossil fuels. This in turn reduces the pollution level.
- Energy mix can always support the energy requirements in a greener manner.
- All energy sources, including renewables, nuclear and high efficiency fossil fuel with carbon capture and storage (CCS), must be considered along with new business models and significant improvements in energy efficiency and productivity to ensure that the energy needed for sustainable development is available and affordable.
Challenges of Renewable energy:
- Renewables (wind, wave, solar, hydro) offer long-term, clean energy reserves but they have a low energy density, leave a large environmental footprint and their fluctuations in time require storage systems and back-up power plants.
- Nuclear fission offers a proven alternative but generates long-lived radioactive waste that requires transportation and re-processing
- Solar farms and Wind energy farms need huge swathes of land where acquisition becomes an issue.
- Issues of transmission, storage, distribution to end users are major hindrance still.
- Storage and the cost shall be key determinants for sustainability of renewables.
- Support distributed and off-grid generation systems, as well as the adoption of storage technologies
- Green energy is the way forward but it is not likely to end the need for coal-based thermal plants in world.
- The dependence of coal-based thermal power plants will continue for at least the next couple of decades.
- Hence, it would not be advisable to promote it at the cost of pushing thermal power plants to become unviable on account of renewable energy options.
- The two have to co-exist and supplement each other.
- It is important to ensure that climate resilience is fully integrated into planning energy infrastructure and investments that are at risk from climate change and variability.
Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.
6) Has the Coastal Regulation Zone Notification, 2018, diluted India’s only protection system for the fragile ecology by opening it up to realtors and large-scale development projects? Critically analyse.(250 words)
Why this question:
The article captures in detail the analysis of recently released Coastal Regulation Zone Notification, 2018, it discusses in what way it has diluted India’s only protection system for the fragile ecology and opened it up to realtors and large-scale development projects.
Key demand of the question:
The answer must explain the significance of conserving coastal ecosystem and discuss specific impacts of the Coastal Regulation Zone Notification, 2018 on the same.
Critically analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.
Structure of the answer:
Introduce with context of the question – the Coastal Regulation Zone Notification, 2018.
- Explain in brief present conditions of coastal ecology of India.
- Discuss the salient features of the notification.
- Analyse the pros and cons.
- Discuss the systematic violations the regulation brought in – use cues from the article.
- What changes need to be done – policy level? Individual level and societal level.
Conclude with importance of conserving coastal zones and their ecology.
Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) under the Environment Protection Act, 1986, issued the Coastal Regulation Zone notification for regulation of activities in the coastal area. It has revoked some of its stringent provisions to permit the expansion of development activities into the environmentally sensitive areas (ESAs), hitherto deemed inaccessible by law.
The coastal land up to 500m from the High Tide Line (HTL) and a stage of 100m along banks of creeks, estuaries, backwater and rivers subject to tidal fluctuations, is called the Coastal Regulation Zone(CRZ).
The Salient features of the CRZ 2018: Many significant relaxations of development controls along the coastline.
- Relaxed regulations:
- There is a considerable reduction of the CRZ limits and the no-development zone (NDZ) area.
- The classification of coastal zone areas is done according to the density of population.
- For densely populated areas under CRZ – III A, no development zone has been reduced from 200 m to 50 m. This will help meet affordable housing needs for rural areas and other development activities.
- Boost to Strategic projects:
- For the setting up of “strategic projects,” for defence and public utilities, even the most ecologically critical areas that fall under the CRZ-I classification have not been excluded.
- Example: Sagarmala project : It consists of a series of commercial ventures envisaged at an outlay of ₹ 8.5 trillion
- Environmental Protection:
- To address pollution in coastal areas, setting up of treatment facilities have been made permissible activities in CRZ-I B area subject to necessary safeguards.
- CRZ limit of 20 m for islands has been maintained intact.
- Distribution of Powers:
- States will also have the authority to grant clearances and approve proposals for urban (CRZ-II) and rural (CRZ-III) areas.
- Only such projects which are located in Ecologically Sensitive Areas (CRZ-I) and CRZ-IV will require the necessary clearance from the Union Ministry.
- Boost to Tourism:
- The notification also permits temporary tourism facilities such as shacks, toilet blocks, change rooms, drinking water facilities etc. in beaches. Such temporary tourism facilities are also now permissible in NDZ of the CRZ-III areas.
- The new notification may “boost tourism in terms of more activities, more infrastructure and more opportunities and will certainly go a long way in creating employment opportunities in various aspects of tourism”.
The draft rules have diluted the regulations for fragile coastal economy:
- Environmental impacts:
- The lack of factoring in the effects of climate change on sea levels and well-demarcated hazard line in the new CRZ rules can lead to huge costs.
- The large-scale intrusion of commercial and industrial activities into the fragile coastal territories, the new CRZ policy would upset the prevailing human–ecological balance.
- In coastal cities, such as Mumbai and Chennai, increasing urbanisation, changes in land use patterns, encroachments along the coast, construction of coastal roads, and unabated pollution have caused irreversible damage to low-lying areas, water-bodies, and the sea.
- Studies have shown that the impact of these processes has led to a decline in fish catch and landings over time. Other problems of algal bloom, beaching of the whales, increased plastic pollution is on rise.
- Rapid urbanisation and industrialisation has turned the coasts into convenient dumping grounds. This directly affects the bio-diversity of the coastal zones.
- Social impacts:
- With increased commercial and industrial activities in coastal areas, there will be further degradation of marine ecosystems. This will disrupt the livelihoods of resource-dependent populations, especially artisanal fishers living off the coasts.
- Coastal erosion and the hazards posed by the rising sea level due to climate change have already endangered the lives of populations inhabiting low-lying areas across the globe.
- The concerns of the fishers is seen to be in conflict with those of other interest groups that seek to corner profits from unfettered use and commercialisation of coastal resources and commons.
- The impact on the fisheries sector is huge as it employs about 8 million people and generates Rs. 48,000-Rs. 75,000 crores for the economy.
- This adversely affected livelihoods, especially of small-scale artisanal fishers, resulting in their increasing alienation, while also leading to the widening of inequalities within society.
- Promoting the business agendas of other interest groups at the cost of fisher livelihoods would further impoverish a community that already has been pushed to the margins of an unequal society.
- Land grabbing by private and government actors has been the norm. These actors forget that this space is the common property of coastal villages, towns and cities, and public beaches
- The new draft CRZ notification has major recommendations that will boost tourism development in coastal areas of the country, which remains untapped due to stringent regulatory framework.
- The relaxations/amendment proposed in the CRZ Notification, 2018 shall, however, come into force only after the respective Coastal Zone Management Programme (CZMP) framed to the CRZ Notification, 2011 have been revised/updated by the States/UTs, as per the provisions of the CRZ, 2018 Notification and approved by the Ministry of Environment, Forest & Climate Change.
- The government says that the new rules will benefit coastal communities. But fears persist that although the changes are being packaged as pro-poor and pro-tourism, the concerns of the latter will override those of communities.
India’s coasts are already facing grave threats due to climate change events such as intensive, frequent and unpredictable cyclones and erosion. The relaxation of the CRZ rules in order to boost economic development, albeit necessary, must be done keeping in mind the sustainability of the fragile ecosystems.
Topic : Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration
Ethics by Lexicon publications.
Why this question:
The question is based on the concept of principles of public life as recommended by Nolan committee.
Key demand of the question:
The answer must elaborate on of principles of public life as recommended by Nolan committee.
Structure of the answer:
Define what are the basic principles of public life as recommended by the committee on standards in public life .
- Discuss the seven principles in detail as given below –
- Selflessness – Holders of public office should act solely in terms of the public interest.
- Integrity – Holders of public office must avoid placing themselves under any obligation to people or organizations that might try inappropriately to influence them in their work. They should not act or take decisions to gain financial or other material benefits for themselves, their family, or their friends. They must declare and resolve any interests and relationships.
- Objectivity – Holders of public office must act and take decisions impartially, fairly and on merit, using the best evidence and without discrimination or bias.
- Accountability – Holders of public office are accountable to the public for their decisions and actions and must submit themselves to the scrutiny necessary to ensure this.
- Openness – Holders of public office should act and take decisions in an open and transparent manner. Information should not be withheld from the public unless there are clear and lawful reasons for so doing.
- Honesty – Holders of public office should be truthful
- Leadership – Holders of public office should exhibit these principles in their own behaviour. They should actively promote and robustly support the principles and be willing to challenge poor behaviour wherever it occurs.
One should explain the above principles with examples and justify the answer.
Conclude with significance of such norms in public life .
Citizens expect public servants to serve the public interest with fairness and to manage public resources properly. Following cases of corruption and misuse of office all over the world, most advanced countries have prescribed a Code of Ethics for public servants.
Nolan, in his famous report of Committee of standards of Public life in Britain gave seven principles of standards in public life and it is universally applicable to everyone in public life, public officials can and should be punished for transgressing them without needing detailed explanations about the principles.
Seven Principles of Public Life are:
- Holders of public office should take decisions solely in terms of the public interest. They should not do so in order to gain financial or other material benefits for themselves, their family, or their friends.
- g.: Lal Bahadur Shastri used to fast once a week to save grains for poor people of the country and he gave a call for the nation to follow it. Thousands of people started fasting to make hunger free nation. He is seen as epitome of selflessness in the public domain.
- Holders of public office should not place themselves under any financial or other obligation to outside individuals or organisations that might influence them in the performance of their official duties.
- g.: The public officers must not hold office of profit. They must not conduct any beneficial business outside of their office or inside on their personal interest. Suspension of 20 AAP MLAs is seen against their integrity.
- In carrying out public business, including making public appointments, awarding contracts, or recommending individuals for rewards and benefits, holders of public office should make choices on merit.
- g.: when public servants carry out the business like appointment, bidding, awarding in all those work their perception must be unbiased. They have to choose appropriate person to all those work on the basis of real merit.
- Holders of public office are accountable for their decisions and actions to the public and must submit themselves to whatever scrutiny is appropriate to their office.
- g: Public servants are in charge of the public money, they should be careful about spending every single penny and give an account of how the money was spent.
- Holders of public office should be as open as possible about all the decisions and actions that they take. They should give reasons for their decisions and restrict information only when the wider public interest clearly demands.
- g: the issue of political party not under ambit of RTI goes against the principle of openness.
- Holders of public office have a duty to declare any private interests relating to their public duties and to take steps to resolve any conflicts arising in a way that protects the public interest.
- g.: APJ Abdul Kalam, ex- President of India led a very frugal life. He never used public vehicles for his private life. This kind of clean hand is much needed in public office to envision a new India.
- Holders of public office should promote and support these principles by leadership and example.
- g.: Sardar Patel led the Bardoli satyagraha in 1928 from the front. He was the first to field arrest which influenced many more people to join the movement.
These principles apply to all aspects of public life. The Committee has set them out here for the benefit of all who serve the public in any way. If you are selfless and honest, you will be making decisions which are in the interests of the organisation, putting aside any personal interest and acting objectively and independently. Organisations which are open have been shown to have more stakeholder involvement in the planning process, leading to enhanced public service.