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Mosquirix: World’s first Malaria vaccine

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Topics Covered:

  • Issues related to health.
  • Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes.

 

Mosquirix: World’s first Malaria vaccine

 

What to study?

For prelims and mains: malaria- causes, spread, symptoms and treatment, about mosquirix.

 

Context: African Nation, Malawi will be undertaking large scale pilot tests for the world’s most advanced experimental malaria vaccine in a bid to prevent the disease. The vaccine has been recommended by WHO for pilot introduction in selected areas of 3 African countries- Ghana, Kenya and Malawi.

 

 

About Malaria:

 

  • caused by the infectious Plasmodium
  • Spread: Female Anophelesmosquitoes deposit parasite sporozoites into the skin of a human host.
  • Malaria is a leading cause of human morbidity and mortality. Despite huge progress in tackling the disease, there are still 212 million new cases of malaria and 430,000 malaria-related deaths worldwide each year according to the World Health Organisation (WHO). Most cases (80%) and deaths (90%) were in sub-Saharan African.

 

World’s first vaccine against a parasitic disease: Mosquirix:

  • RTS,S, known by its trade name Mosquirix, uses antibodies to target proteins presented by sporozoites (such as the circumsporozoite protein of  falciparum)to enhance the immune system and help prevent the parasite from infecting the liver.
  • Mosquirix is also engineered using a hepatitis B viral protein and a chemical adjuvant to further boost the immune response for enhanced effectiveness.

 

India’s efforts in this regard:

 

  • India’s progress in fighting malaria is an outcome of concerted efforts to ensure that its malaria programme is country-owned and country-led, even as it is in alignment with globally accepted strategies.
  • At the East Asia Summit in 2015, India pledged to eliminate the disease by 2030. Following this public declaration, India launched the five-year National Strategic Plan for Malaria Elimination. This marked a shift in focus from malaria “control” to “elimination”. The plan provides a roadmap to achieve the target of ending malaria in 571 districts out of India’s 678 districts by 2022.

 

 

Durgama Anchalare Malaria Nirakaran (DAMaN) initiative:

 

  • Among states, Odisha’s Durgama Anchalare Malaria Nirakaran (DAMaN) initiative is significant.
  • The initiative aims to deliver services to the most inaccessible and hardest hit people of the State. The initiative has in-built innovative strategies to combat asymptomatic malaria.
  • The programme is jointly implemented by Indian Council of Medical Research-National Institute of Malaria Research (ICMR-NIMR), National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP), Odisha and Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV).

 

Sources: the Hindu.