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[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 15 April 2019

[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 15 April 2019

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Tomorrow’s Static Topic: Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.


General Studies – 1


Topic:  population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies. Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

1) Social and employment policies affect migration but can have different impacts according to location and circumstances. Analyse.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question:

The article is in the light of recently released 2018 State of Food and Agriculture report by FAO that has asserted water availability, through its effect on crop production, influences migration. Thus it becomes necessary for us to examine the changing factors that are affecting migration trends.

Key demand of the question:

Discussion should focus upon the changing factors affecting the trends in migration from conventional factors of Social and employment policies to location and circumstantial causes.

Directive word:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Introduce by stating few facts on migration trends across the world.

Body:

In brief discuss –

  • Discuss the highlights of  2018 State of Food and Agriculture report.
  • New factors affecting migration – Water availability of a region, crop patterns of a country or a region within a country, food insecurity due to severe drought conditions.
  • Discuss the effect of Social and employment policies too and how they work in tandem with above mentioned factors.
  • Suggest what needs to be done.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward – suggest policy measures to address . 


General Studies – 2


Topic:Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.

2) CAG is instrumental in securing accountability of the executive to the parliament in the sphere of financial administration. Explain. List the constitutional provisions to ensure the independence of the CAG.(250 words)

Indian Polity by Lakshmikant, D D Basu

why this question:

The question is direct from the static portions of GS paper II, it tends to evaluate role of CAG in ensuring accountability of executive to the parliament in financial administration.

Key demands of the question:

The answer must bring out in what way CAG is responsible for bringing accountability of the executive to the parliament with respect to financial administrative decisions. One has to as well discuss constitutional provisions that ensure the independence of the CAG.

Directive word

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the  particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

Introduce by highlighting how executive is accountable to the Parliament in a parliamentary democracy.

Body

The body of the answer should address the following dimensions:

  • CAG is the guardian of the public purse.
  • Financial Accountability and CAG.
  • The CAG submits three audit reports to the President, namely, audit report on appropriation accounts, audit report on finance accounts and audit report on public undertakings.
  • The Public Accounts Committee examines public expenditure not only from legal and formal point of view to discover technical irregularities but also from the point of view of economy, prudence, wisdom and propriety to bring out the cases of waste, loss, corruption, extravagance, inefficiency and nugatory expenses.
  • discuss how parliament enforces financial accountability upon executive with the help of PAC and the role of CAG in it.
  • Conclude by enumerating the constitutional provisions for ensuring independence of the CAG.

Conclusion

Conclude with significance of CAG in Indian polity and administration.


Topic : Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.

3) What makes the principle of federalism of Indian constitution unique compared to the other constitutions of the world ? Discuss.(250 words)

Indian Polity by Lakshmikant, D D Basu

why this question:

The question is about discussing the concept of Federalism in India and justifying as to what makes it different from other constitutions with federal features.

Demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the Emergence of Federalism and its Evolution in India, what makes it different from other countries and provide for a detailed analysis of what makes it different from others.

Directive word:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

Start by explaining what you understand by Federalism.

Body

Discuss the following aspects –

  • The history of Federalism in India and the Federal Scheme under the present-day Constitution of India.
  • Postmodern Philosophy in Different Nations: Meaning, Definition, and Features of Federalism. – Two sets of government constitutionally coordinate, Division of powers between center and units, A federal court as a guardian of the constitution; and Supremacy of the constitution which is rigid.
  • Constitutional Character of Federalism in India
  • Judicial Character of Federalism in India
  • What makes it different – comparison with other countries
  • Challenges to Federal Character of India with recent examples

Conclusion

Conclude with Present and Future of Federalism in India.


Topic :  Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

4) Public policy shouldn’t be shaped in an ethical vacuum. Discuss in the context of current battle of political parties racing for a win in elections.(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question:

The article discusses in detail how Political parties should institute a culture of examining what a policy decision implies by way of ethics. It highlights the importance of public policy that must be centered around by ethical backing.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the current context of elections in detail, the political manifesto being propagated to bank on votes which is purely lacking ethical grounds.

Directive word:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction:

Introduce by highlighting the significance of public policy.

Body:

  • The answer must centre around Ethical public policy making , what should be its components, features to ensure strong social safety net and  continuous improvement in regulations as well as social and welfare conditions.
  • The answer must explain recent examples to justify varying from – demonetization, “National Mission” focused on sunrise technologies, AI or Internet of Things etc.
  • Students must take cues from the article and come up with lacunae and solutions to suggest.

Conclusion –

Emphasize the importance of ethics in public policy making and suggest a way forward.

 


General Studies – 3


Topic :Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation

5) Discuss the provisions related to protection of Wetlands in India . Critically examine the importance of coastal livelihood programmes in the context of protection of Wetlands. (250 words)

Reference

Vikaspedia

Why this question:

The Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute (CMFRI) and the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) recently signed an MoU to map, validate and protect smaller wetlands in the coastal region and restore them through coastal livelihood programmes.

Key demand of the question:

In the context of the article , answer must discuss various provisions related to protection of Wetlands in India ranging from policies to programmes .

One must also examine the importance of coastal livelihood programme in the same context.

Directive word:

Critically ExamineExamineWhen asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin with importance of protection of wetlands.

Body:

  • One can start with Wetlands in India: Significance, Threats & Conservation.
  • Discuss policy environment and associated schemes – Ramsar Convention, National Wetland Conservation Programme (NWCP), The Central Wetlands (Conservation and Management) Rules, role of Central Wetlands Regulatory Authority (CWRA), National Plan for Conservation of Aquatic Ecosystems (NPCA) etc.
  • Discuss importance of coastal livelihood programmes and their significance in managing wetlands. Quote examples.

Conclusion:

Conclude by stating how wetlands jurisdiction is diffused and falls under various departments like agriculture, fisheries, irrigation, revenue, tourism, water resources and local bodies. To counter these, management of wetlands has to be an integrated approach in terms of planning, execution and monitoring. Effective tie-ups of trained academicians and professionals, including ecologists, hydrologists, economists, watershed management specialists, planners and decision makers must be linked with local expertise for overall management of wetlands.


General Studies – 4


Topic : Codes of Ethics, Codes of Conduct

6) Ethical codes are merely conceals. Shiny on the outside but hollow on the inside. Critically analyse. (250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon publications.

Why this question:

The question is about analyzing the effect of Ethical codes and importance of their validity.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must explain how ethical codes need backing to be in action and in lack of such backing they can become mere veneer and hollow in action.

Directive word:

Critically analyzeWhen asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Introduce with importance of ethical codes in public services and in general.

Body:

Explain the following –

  • What you understand by ethical codes.
  • How are they different from code of conduct.
  • Importance of code of ethics in organizations, public services etc.
  • Discuss what needs to be done to ensure effective working of Ethical codes.

Conclusion:

Re-assert the significance of Ethical codes and that they are of no use without necessary support systems.


Topic: Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.

7) Discuss the utilitarian contract theory of Kautilya and also explain how it appealed to the moral motivation. (250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon publications

Why this question:

The question is based on utilitarian contract theory of Kautilya.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must first elaborate on what is utilitarian contract theory of Kautilya. How he did not talk about the permanent income hypothesis but contemplated on attaining a permanent state of bliss. Kautilya extended the traditional conceptual framework to deal with ethical issues arising out of the new realities of his time.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the  particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Throw light on kautilya’s philosophy of ethics.

Body:

present Kautilya’s ideas on contracts and property.

  • Findings – Kautilya implicitly proposes a labor theory of property.
  • He devised economic laws related to contracts, property and tort, which promoted economic efficiency and encouraged ethical behavior.
  • Research limitations/implications – Current approaches ignore the role of ethics in designing legal rules for promoting economic efficiency.
  • Practical implication – Unless laws are designed to encourage and promote ethical conduct optimum economic efficiency is unlikely to be achieved. Originality/value – Kautilya advocated a contract theory (between the ruler and the ruled), which was utilitarian in nature, however, unlike Bentham, he still appealed to the moral motivation.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance of such theories.



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

We suggest you to Compliment Secure with Insights Daily Current Affairs to comprehensively cover Mains GS Syllabus

 

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