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[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 13 April 2019

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[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 13 April 2019

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Tomorrow’s Static Topic: Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.


 

General Studies – 2


Topic: Indian Constitution– historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.

1) The historic leap of faith taken in granting universal adult suffrage democratized Indian governance in inconceivable ways. Analyse. (250 words)

Livemint

Why this question:

The article talks about democratic evolution of right to vote and its significance as a weapon to bring about large-scale social reconstruction.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must cover a detailed discussion on  the evolution of universal adult suffrage and its role in democratizing Indian governance.

Directive word:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly narrate the historical coming of universal adult suffrage.

Body:

Discussion should have the following aspects  :

  • Evolution of voting as a right in Indian history.
  • Importance of Universal adult suffrage and its recognition.
  • Take cues from the article and discuss Ambedkar’s struggle with emphasis on social reconstruction that necessitated adult franchise.
  • Discuss the principles that formed the backbone of universal adult franchise in becoming part of the Constitution.
  • Bring out how it democratized today’s governance system .

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance of leaders and the fact that universal adult franchise played a key role in changing fate of India.


Topic :Devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.

2) The 73rd and 74th Constitutional amendments have remained as unfinished agenda. How does it hinder the accomplishment of economic democracy? Examine.(250 words)

Why this question:

The question is with respect to local self-government – The 73rd and 74th Constitutional amendments that provided for devolution of power to Panchayats and Municipalities and the lacunae posed by it.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must analyse why the local self-government systems in India have remained an unfinished agenda and thus failing the goal of economic democracy.

Directive:

ExamineWhen asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly narrate the significance of the 73rd and 74th Constitutional amendments.

Body:

The discussion should have the following points :

  • The first half should discuss the 73rd and 74th Constitutional amendments, their evolution, characteristic features.
  • Discuss what factors lead to the lacunae – the Act containing mandatory and discretionary provisions and thus how devolution of powers and finances up to local level have remained an unfinished agenda in India.
  • Discuss other factors too – issues of Subjects shared by local bodies, taxation related autonomy , inefficient devolution etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with how vision of these amendments can be made real by proper political will and true deliberation and power devolution in  a responsible manner.


Topic :  Devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.

3) Independence of local level institutions in a democracy are the true barometer of governance. Discuss.(250 words)

 

Why this question:

The question is in the context of independence of local level institutions and their significance in bringing good governance.

Key demands of the question:

The answer must discuss whether the new social and political order calls for a reorganization and whether there is any guarantee for effective administration.

Directive :

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

Introduce by underlining fundamentals of democracy and the role of local institutions in it.

Body

Discussion should revolve around how the independence of local self-governing institutions will ensure better functioning of democracy and good governance. Explain Governance and good governance concept, elements associated, role of Local government  in promoting decentralization, how it can act as an effective tool for ensuring a greater match of the administrative agenda with expectations of the people.

Conclusion

conclude your answer with significance of local institutions in bringing good governance.

 


Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Education, Human Resources.

4) Can weeding out corruption help higher education, when there is a mismatch between number of aspirants and the number of opportunities that are available? Critically analyse .(250 words)

Epw

Why this question:

The question is in the context of corruption involved in higher education system of India and vis-vis the incongruity between number of aspirants and the number of breaks that are available for students.

Demand of the question:

Discussion should focus mainly on two aspects – 1. Corruption in higher education system of India. 2. Lack of opportunities to students for jobs and any inter relationship between the two if any.

Directive word:

Critically analyzeWhen asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

one can start by highlighting the current education system and the alarming picture of corruption in it.

Body

The question must analyse the corruption scenario in the higher education system – explain how corruption has invaded whole systems of higher education and threatens the reputation of research products and graduates, regardless of their guilt and innocence.

  • sale of fake degree certificates of well-established universities and the operation of institutions that provide degrees with hardly any period of study, commonly known as degree mills.
  • involvement of fraudulent recruitment agents, universities graduating poorly qualified or unqualified, widespread plagiarism, cheating and exploitation.
  • Corruption is also suspected among faculty and senior administrators who may clandestinely negotiate any number of benefits for themselves.
  • Examples – Vyapam scam

Then move on to relating it to lack of opportunities and thus the desperation of students to obtain degrees.

Conclusion

Base on your opinion conclude with a balanced reasoning and suggest what should be done to overcome the menace.


Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation. Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

5) Discuss the achievements made by Namami Gange programme. How was it different in its approach from the previous policies aimed at cleaning Ganga?(250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question:

Recently  the National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG) was awarded the distinction of “Public Water Agency of the Year” by Global Water Intelligence at the Global Water Summit in London. Thus it becomes necessary for us to examine the achievement.

Key demand of the question:

The question is about analyzing the significance of Namami Gange programme and the achievements made by it, one has to analyse what policy changes led to the success of program over the other past programs that aimed at same goal.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In a few introductory lines brief upon the background.

Body:

The question must discuss the following points :

  • about the program – is an umbrella programme which integrates previous and currently ongoing initiatives by enhancing efficiency, extracting synergies and supplementing them with more comprehensive & better coordinated interventions. Government of India is supplementing the efforts of the state governments in addressing the pollution of river Ganga by providing financial assistance to the states
  • Salient features of Namami Gange programme.
  • Method of implementation – entry level, medium term activities and long term activities that makes it different from other programs.
  • How it happened to be an integrated mission for Ganga rejuvenation, a comprehensive multi-sector intervention with multi-stakeholder involvement that adopted a basin-based approach etc.
  • Compare it with previous programs.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance of such programs.


General Studies – 3


Topic :Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation

6) Critically analyse  India’s Domestic Climate Policy. Suggest solutions to overcome the current concerns associated with it.(250 words)

Epw

Why this question:

the article provides for a critical analysis of India’s domestic climate policy  and highlights how it is fragmented and brings out the deficiencies it has on clarity front.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must  critically examine India’s Domestic Climate Policy, the lacunae it has and suggest what needs to be done to overcome these issues.

Directive word:

Critically analyzeWhen asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction:

write a few introductory lines about India’s current Climate Policy.

Body:

Answers must discuss in detail the following points :

    • Features of India’s Domestic Climate Policy.
    • What are the issues associated?  – disjointed institutional architecture, lack of environmental governance, Issues with the enforceability of global climate agreements etc.
    • Failures of policies – causes and consequences. Take cues from the article.
  • suggest what should India do? – need for a comprehensive policy document with a new vision, new policy must include stakes from incorporates inputs from policymakers, natural and social scientists, the academic community, civil society and communities from across the country, prospect for future research and deliberation. Etc.

Conclusion –

Conclude with optimism and suggest way forward.


General Studies – 4


Topic : Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.

7) What do you understand by cognitive dissonance?  Discuss examples of civil servants facing such a dissonance.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question:

The question is to analyse the concept of cognitive dissonance and its applicability in public services.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss briefly what you understand by cognitive dissonance, why is it necessary to reduce cognitive dissonance. Provide for some examples /case studies where civil servants have faced dissonance and what is ideal to be done in such situations.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Brief upon importance of cognitive dissonance and control necessary over it.

Body:

First provide for theory of cognitive dissonance – as presented by  Festinger. That Cognitive dissonance is a sense of internal anxiety that is experienced when a person holds two inconsistent cognitions.

Discuss how No individual can completely avoid dissonance. So people have to cope with dissonance.

According to Festinger, the desire to reduce dissonance would be determined by the importance of the elements creating the dissonance; the degree of influence the individual believes he or she has over the elements and the rewards that may be involved in dissonance.

Such answers are best explained with examples – A police officer who believes in nonviolence has to take decision of Lathi charge or using pellet guns to disperse crowd faces such cognitive dissonance.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance and necessity of values such as high emotional intelligence, high morals to overcome situations of cognitive dissonance.


Topic: Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships.

8) Compare and contrast Deontological ethics  and Consequentialism. (250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon publications

Why this question:

The question focuses on different approaches of ethical evaluation.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must provide for a detailed analysis involving comparison and contrast of the two philosophies of ethics namely – Deontological ethics  and Consequential ethics .

Directive:

Compare and contrast provide for a detailed comparison of the two types, their features that are similar as well as different. One must provide for detailed assessment of the two.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

One can start by defining the two types- Deontological ethics  and Consequential ethics.

Body:

The question is straightforward , one has to define specific feature of each school of ethics – Deontological ethics  and Consequential ethics, respective features, differences and provide for comparison that both are necessary and are to be applied situationally. Discuss how Consequentialism is significantly different from Deontology.

Explain the different types in each school with examples.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance of the two schools.



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

We suggest you to Compliment Secure with Insights Daily Current Affairs to comprehensively cover Mains GS Syllabus

 

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