SECURE SYNOPSIS: 01 APRIL 2019

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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 01 APRIL 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic: Salient features of world’s physical geography.

1) What do you understand by Great Pacific Garbage? Discuss its environmental impact and  necessary measures to tackle the issue.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question:

The question is based on the concept of Great Pacific Garbage that is alarming the world the ill effects of Plastic pollution.

Key demands of the question:

The answer must provide for a brief discussion on the concept of Great Pacific Garbage and discuss in detail the impact of such debris in oceans on the ecosystem of Earth. One must also suggest what measures should be taken to tackle the issue.

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

In a few introductory lines explain what you understand by Great Pacific Garbage patch.

Body

Discuss the following aspects in the answer:

  • What is Great Pacific Garbage? – The Great Pacific Garbage Patch (GPGP), aka Pacific Trash Vortex, is an enormous collection of marine debris swirling in a gyre in the central North Pacific Ocean, well beyond recognized national boundaries. The patch extends over an imprecise area.
  • Explain the causal factors of it – 100% human. The plastics and debris in this region (and others) are all from human use, disposal, littering, dumping, etc. primary sources are improper waste disposal, management of trash, and manufacturing products.
  • Detail upon the impact of ecosystem – impact on the ocean ecosystem health and on marine animals, human health impacts, bioaccumulation etc.
  • What are the challenges in resolving it? What needs to be done? – need for coordinated environmental governance, dispute resolution mechanisms, need for adequate economic instruments, and adequate provisions for liability.

Conclusion

Conclude with significance of controlling the spread of the patch and curbing the rising menace of plastic pollution.

Introduction:

The Great Pacific Garbage Patch (GPGP) also described as the Pacific trash vortex, is a gyre of marine debris particles in the north central Pacific Ocean. It is located about halfway between Hawaii and California. It’s the largest accumulation zone for ocean plastics on Earth.

Body:

Great Pacific Garbage Patch:

  • Twice the size of Texas, the Great Pacific Garbage Patch stretches for hundreds of miles across the North Pacific Ocean and is one of the most frightening examples of just how much human activity is violating the planet.
  • Marine debris and pollution consisting mostly of plastic trash is accumulating in oceans around the world.
  • The patch is characterized by exceptionally high relative pelagic concentrations of plastic, chemical sludge, and other debris that have been trapped by the currents of the North Pacific Gyre.
  • Microplastics make up 94 percent of an estimated 1.8 trillion pieces of plastic in the patch. But that only amounts to eight percent of the total tonnage.
  • As it turns out, of the 79,000 metric tons of plastic in the patch, most of it is abandoned fishing gear—not plastic bottles or packaging drawing headlines today.

The causal factors of GPGP are:

  • The cause of GPGP is entirely due to human beings.
  • Merchant ships expel cargo, sewage, used medical equipment, and other types of waste that contain plastic into the ocean.
  • The largest ocean-based source of plastic pollution is discarded fishing gear (including traps and nets).
  • Continental plastic litter such as Food Wrappers & Containers, Bottles and container caps, Plastic bags, Straws and stirrers etc. enters the ocean largely through storm-water runoff.
  • Micro plastics (particles of less than 5 mm) such as those used in scrubbers and cosmetics
  • Unlike POPs (Persistent Organic Pollutants) or chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), Plastic pollution has received little attention in terms of international agreements.

Impact on marine and human life:-

  • Affects movement of marine organisms:
    • Ghostnets, a term coined to describe purposely discarded or accidentally lost netting, drift through the ocean, entangling whales, seals, and turtles.
    • An estimated 100,000 marine animals are strangled, suffocated, or injured by plastics every year.
  • Direct harm to species:
    • Of the 1.5 million Laysan albatrosses that inhabit Midway, nearly all are likely to have plastic in their digestive system.
    • Approximately one-third of their chicks die, and many of those deaths are due to being fed plastic by their parents.
    • Fish and whales may also mistake the plastic as a food source.
  • Indirect harm to species via the food chain:
    • Besides the particles danger to wildlife, on the microscopic level the floating debris can absorb organic pollutants from seawater, including PCBs, DDT, and PAHs.
    • These toxin-containing plastic pieces are also eaten by jellyfish, which are then eaten by fish. Many of these fish are then consumed by humans, resulting in their ingestion of toxic chemicals
  • Spreading invasive species:
    • Marine plastics also facilitate the spread of invasive species that attach to floating plastic in one region and drift long distances to colonize other ecosystems. Research has shown that this plastic marine debris affects at least 267 species worldwide.
  • Affects Food-chain:
    • Because the garbage blocks sunlight, algae is not growing as it should. With less algae, the entire food chain is experiencing a negative disruption.
    • In addition, the plastics floating in the ocean are leeching harmful chemicals into the water, which are likely entering the food chain.

Measures to tackle plastic pollution:

  • Local actions are required for mitigating plastic pollution, using mechanisms such as bans on plastic bags, maximum daily limits for emissions into watersheds, and incentives for fishing gear retrieval.
  • Countries should come together to establish measurable reduction targets for plastic waste. A meaningful international agreement—one with clearly defined waste reduction targets is the need of the hour.
  • Effective policies must take into account all stages of the lifecycle of plastic—connecting producers to users and ultimately to waste managers.
  • Nonprofits like 5 Gyres are now pushing an agenda toward public awareness, corporate responsibility and the idea of a circular economy — an economy that focuses on keeping waste to a minimum while maximizing materials’ use.
  • Fossil fuel subsidies incentivise the plastic market. Hence, Countries should end fossil fuel subsidies. Annually, 4–8% of oil is used to produce raw plastic.
  • India has a major problem dealing with plastics, particularly single-use shopping bags that reach dumping sites, rivers and wetlands along with other waste.
  • The most efficient way to deal with the pollution is to control the production and distribution of plastics.
  • Banning single-use bags and making consumers pay a significant amount for the more durable ones is a feasible solution.
  • Enforcing segregation of waste will retrieve materials and greatly reduce the burden on the environment.
  • Waste separation can be achieved in partnership with the community, and presents a major employment opportunity.
  • Eco-friendly substitutes (cloth/paper/jute bags, leaves/areca leaf plates, paper straws) should be developed. For this, scientific and financial support (soft loans and subsidies) is required.

Conclusion:

Marine plastic pollution is a “planetary crisis,” and we should hope for a “Paris-style” global treaty aimed at tackling it. We cannot transform our world into a ‘plastic planet’. What is needed is collective public effort to stop plastic pollution and safeguard our ecosystem/biodiversity.


Topic-Salient features of world’s physical geography.

2) Volcanic eruptions in the tropics can trigger El Nino events and create a dramatic global impact on the climate . Comment.(250 words)

Economictimes

Why this question:

It is about analysing how volcanic eruptions can trigger El Nino events and thus impact global environment. The article captures the study focused on the Mount Pinatubo eruption –  the largest and best-documented tropical one in the modern technology period which ejected about 20 million tonnes of sulphur dioxide.

Read more at:

Demand of the question:

This question seeks to examine the role of volcanic eruptions on the phenomena of El Nino and their significant impact in climate change.

Directive word:

Commenthere we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

Start with brief introduction on the concept of El-Nino.

Body

Discuss the following points in detail:

  • The concept of El Nino
  • The link between volcanic eruption and El Nino.
  • Its impact on global climate.
  • Quote examples of recent El-Nino events that manifested volcanic eruption as the driving cause – Mount Pinatubo eruption.

Conclusion

Conclude with the fact that one cannot predict volcanic eruptions but one can be prepared with such pre known linkages.

Introduction:

El Niño is a naturally occurring phenomenon that is linked to a periodic warming in sea surface temperatures across the central and east-central Equatorial Pacific. El Niño is Spanish for “the boy child,” which is often used to refer to Jesus Christ, and the phenomenon earned this name because it typically occurs in December around Christmas. El Niño occurs every 2-7 years, and can last anywhere between nine months and two years.

Body:

El-Nino:

  • El Niño, an oceanic phenomenon usually occurs with Southern Oscillation, an atmospheric phenomenon. Together they are called El Niño Southern oscillation (ENSO).
  • El Nino is a climatic cycle characterised by high air pressure in the Western Pacific and low air pressure in the eastern.
  • In normal conditions, strong trade winds travel from east to west across the tropical Pacific, pushing the warm surface waters towards the western Pacific.
  • The surface temperature could witness an increase of 8 degrees Celsius in Asian waters.
  • At the same time, cooler waters rise up towards the surface in the eastern Pacific on the coasts of Ecuador, Peru, and Chile.
  • This process called upwelling aids in the development of a rich ecosystem.

Link between volcanic eruption and El Nino:

  • Large volcanic eruptions in the tropics can lead to El Nino event, notorious warming periods in the Pacific Ocean with dramatic global impact on the climate, says a new study.
  • The study used climate model simulations to show that El Niño tends to peak during the year after large volcanic eruptions, such as the one at Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines in 1991. It ejected about 20 million tons of sulfur dioxide.
  • Enormous eruptions trigger El Nino events by pumping millions of tonnes of sulfur dioxide into the stratosphere, which form a sulphuric acid cloud, reflecting solar radiation and reducing the average global surface temperature.
  • According to the study, sea surface temperature data since 1882 document large El Niño-like patterns following four out of five big eruptions: Santa María (Guatemala) in October 1902, Mount Agung (Indonesia) in March 1963, El Chichón (Mexico) in April 1982 and Pinatubo in June 1991.
  • Cooling in tropical Africa after volcanic eruptions weakens the West African monsoon, and drives westerly wind anomalies near the equator over the western Pacific, the study says.
  • The anomalies are amplified by air-sea interactions in the Pacific, favouring an El Niño-like response.
  • Climate model simulations show that Pinatubo-like eruptions tend to shorten La Niñas, lengthen El Niños and lead to unusual warming during neutral periods, the study says.

Concerns for India due to El-nino:

  • Extreme Weather events:
    • Normal or High rainfall in Eastern/Central Pacific, Drought or scant rainfall in western pacific/Asian region.
  • Disasters:
    • Forest fires in Indonesia leading to wiping out of Equatorial rainforest regions.
    • Heat-waves in India leading to deaths of people and fauna.
    • Water sources dry up leading to increased distress migration and climate refugees.
  • Economic impacts:
    • Agriculture dependent countries like India face huge losses due to drought conditions. Crop yields are affected leading to food inflation. To tackle food inflation, tweaks in monetary policies to make it tighter, leading to lesser available money supply.
  • Social Impacts:
    • A WHO Paper said that El Niño 2015-2016 is affecting more than 60 million people.
    • Rising temperatures and more variable rainfall patterns can often reduce crop yields, compromising food security.

Way Forward:

  • The government must expand the farm insurance cover and advice banks and financial institutions to settle crop insurance claims in the drought-hit areas without delay.
  • High quality seeds of alternative crops must be distributed among farmers in the drought-affected areas.
  • Technologies like drip and sprinkler irrigation, precision agriculture.
  • Monetary Control measures to tackle inflationary trends in country.
  • Financial support from global organizations for rehabilitation and rebuilding.
  • Disaster Response Forces to tackle floods and droughts.
  • Developing early warning systems and alerting the people much in advance.
  • Global co-operation to tackle the climate change which can further aggravate El- Niño and La- Niña conditions.

Topic: India and its neighborhood- relations.

3) The New foreign policy doctrine is manifesting a gradual shift from the fundamental non-aligned past of Nehruvian foreign policy. Illustrate. (250 words)

Hindustantimes

 

Why this question:

The article provides for a brief analysis of changing foreign policy directive of our country, how the foreign policy is gradually transforming from the Nehruvian doctrine to a newer dimension. Thus the question is important to ponder upon from the point of view of GS paper II.

Key demand of the question:

Analyse in  detail the shift in  Indian foreign policy and illustrate with current diverging policies with countries across the world.

Directive word:

Illustratemeans use examples; data, diagrams and charts to make it clearer (clarify by giving an example).

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Narrate a brief background of the context of the question  – salient features of the new policy.

Body:

In brief discuss –

  • Discuss the evolution of Indian foreign policy in brief.
  • Then move on to discuss the change in attitude that is posited in relations with India’s neighbors and partners, and incidental events that justify the gradual shift.
  • Quote example of India’s relations changing with Israel, United States, Japan , Australia, China, Russia and the recent incidences with Pakistan

Conclusion:

Conclude with what needs to be done, suggest way forward.  

Introduction:

India’s foreign policy, ever since independence, remained focused on the principles of peace, non-violence, non-alignment, anti-imperialism, anti-racism, anti-war etc, which are derived from the faith and ideals of human goodness, innate equality of the people, universal brotherhood, unity in diversity and secularism.

Body:

However, in recent times, especially since the NDA Government came to power in 2014, commerce, trade and security have taken prominent positions. Not non-alignment but alignment with all has been the maxim of India’s foreign policy and the country is reaching out to several nations like Fiji and Israel to fulfil its diplomatic needs.

The shift in the foreign policy:

  • India’s foreign policy is currently focused on improving relations with the neighbouring countries in South Asia.
  • Engaging extended neighbourhood in the Southeast Asian region and other major global powers. In pursuit of this, the Prime Minister has made several official visits to countries like Bhutan, Nepal, Japan, the United States, Myanmar, Australia, Fiji, Israel among many others.
  • Through ‘fast track diplomacy’, which means adopting a policy that is proactive, strong and sensitive; and ‘paradiplomacy’, where states and cities are encouraged to forge special relations with other countries or federal states of another country or even cities of their interest in order, India has pursued a very dynamic and unique policy to pursue its desired goals.
  • However, the main objective of the foreign policy has been promotion of trade; maintaining security; promoting transit facility among member states; sprucing infrastructure and enabling connectivity
  • Through ‘neighbourhood first’ policy, more emphasis has been given to our immediate neighbours. Indeed, maintaining relations with immediate neighbours has been a priority for the current Government.
  • India has entered into several Memorandum of Understanding and agreements to encourage cooperation in regional issues like trade, connectivity, infrastructure and transit facility among the member states of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (Saarc).
  • Greater people-to-people contact; better connectivity; and commercial linkages within the region are the core issues discussed in the SASEC, BIMSTEC summit due to non-functionality of SAARC.
  • To play more proactive role in the Southeast Asian region, India follows the ‘Act East’ Similarly, India has also initiated the ‘link West’ policy to ensure energy security, trade and employment linkages with the West Asian countries. E.g.: LEMOA, QUAD grouping.
  • With the U.S. designating India as a Major Defence Partner, it is one India’s closest strategic partners today. In 2016, India had signed the Logistics Exchange Memorandum of Agreement with the U.S. which gives both sides access to designated military facilities for refuelling and replenishment.
  • In 2014, the U.S. replaced Russia as India’s largest defence supplier, and the Russians started negotiating arms sales with Pakistan that same year.
  • With the European countries, India has increased collaboration in the cultural, economic, social, technological and military realms. India is promoting its ambitious Make in India programme in a bid to make the country a manufacturing hub in the US, Russia, Germany and China with cooperation in areas of natural resource, trade and terrorism.
  • Under Arab pressure, India had maintained distance from Israel for decades but it is now seeing advantages in a complementary relationship with Israel. In a historic visit to Israel last year, the first ever by an Indian Prime Minister added a new chapter in India’s foreign policy.
  • Israel has been a global leader in water and food systems, which are two critical fields that India needs to upgrade. India wants to strengthen its manufacturing base and is looking to do so with technologies coming from Israel.

Conclusion:

We have moved forward from our traditional foreign policies, namely Non-Aligned Movement and Panchsheel treaty to a more proactive trade and security-oriented foreign policy. ‘Act East’ policy, ‘neighbourhood first’, ‘link West’ and ‘Connect Central Asia’ policy are practical manifestations of it. Globalisation and liberalisation are the realities of the present times and India is currently more focused on crucial areas like trade, economy, energy, security, terrorism.


       

Topic: Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests.

4) Critically analyse Africa as the rising China’s sphere of influence.(250 words)

Economictimes

Why this question:

Sino-African relations are a vibrant, two-way dynamic in which both sides adjust to policy initiatives and popular perceptions emanating from the other. China is both a long-established diplomatic partner and a new investor in Africa. Chinese interests on the continent encompass not only natural resources but also issues of trade, security, diplomacy, and soft power. Thus it is necessary for us to examine the rising China’s sphere of influence in Africa.

Key demand of the question:

The question expects us to critically analyse the rising influence of China in Africa and its effects.

Directive word:

Critically analyzeWhen asked to analyse, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin with brief introductory lines on the current engagements of China in Africa.

Body:

  • Narrate the context of the question, provide for a backgrounder – Chinese President Xi Jinping enfolded his Europe tour earlier this week, which saw Italy signing up for China’s Belt and Road Initiative. What was evident was European concern over China’s spreading influence, riding allied on investment, particularly in Africa.
  • Explain how China’s interests have been in energy and infrastructure, besides mines, with little backward or forward linkages in the host economy of Africa.
  • Explain the flux in African condition – Debt, if unserved, can lead to Chinese takeover of assets.
  • Role of India in such a scenario.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward

Introduction:

China is not new to Africa but the change over the decades in its relations with the continent is as revolutionary as China’s own internal revolution. Chinese President grabbed headlines by announcing a hefty $60 billion package for Africa towards end of 2018. According to the South African President Cyril Ramaphosa, China’s relationship with Africa is now entering “the golden age”.

Body:

China’s interests in Africa:

  • China is Africa’s largest trading partner since 2008 with goods worth $170 billion being traded in 2017.
  • Trade volume of the US and Africa is not even one-third of that amount.
  • About 70 percent of Africa’s exports to China are crude oil and another 15 percent is raw materials, mostly minerals.
  • Some fifteen African oil and mineral exporters have large trade surpluses with China while more than thirty others have sizeable trade deficits.
  • According to Xinhua, Xi committed China to eight major initiatives in the next three years and beyond in industrial promotion, infrastructure connectivity, trade facilitation and green development.
  • China is already involved in a slew of infrastructure connectivity plans in Africa, ranging from the upgradation of the Nairobi-Mombasa railway to the building of Bagamayo port and they have enhanced their presence in other countries as well.
  • China also committed itself to offer vocational training for 1,000 high-end technical personnel and provide 50,000 government scholarships and an equal number of opportunities for young Africans to participate in seminars and workshops in China.
  • China is also setting up a China-Africa peace and security fund which will provide free military aid to the African Union and a number of security assistance programmes will be taken up in the areas of UN peacekeeping, fighting piracy and counter-terrorism.

Concerns raised over China’s African relations:

  • Unidirectional trade:
    • The direction of the trade has been one way — raw material and unprocessed goods flow from Africa to China, while cheap manufactured goods flow the other way.
  • Vulture Capitalism:
    • Beijing’s focus in Africa has been in energy and infrastructure, besides mines, with little backward or forward linkages in the host economy. Debt, if unserviced, can lead to Chinese takeover of assets.
    • In the garb of providing net security, China established military base at Djibouti to further promote her Belt and Road Initiative.
    • China provides labour from her own people, this is reducing the job opportunities for the locals and their socio-economic conditions are worsening.
  • Human rights issues:
    • China has invested in the oil industry of South Sudan and some years ago it had to evacuate some 350 Chinese oil workers because of instability there.
    • In 2011, China had to evacuate 35,000 people from Libya, and more recently from Yemen. All this has led to the Chinese setting up their first overseas military base in Djibouti.
    • China’s role in southern Africa has prompted a growing backlash especially after the labourers were killed in many projects like in Zambia.
  • Meddling in the internal affairs:
    • Its involvement in the Zimbabwe coup against President Mugabe in 2017 remains murky.

Options for India:

  • New Delhi cannot match China’s investment and aid, but it is working along other options. One of these is the Asia Africa Growth Corridor, an Indo-Japanese venture that seeks to promote connectivity and economic relations with Africa.
  • New Delhi’s biggest challenge has been its inability to deliver on the promises that it makes. India must promptly work on this front.
  • The objective is to be to promote south-south cooperation and boosting trade and investments between India and Africa across key sectors such as Agriculture, Renewable Energy, Education & Skill Development, Healthcare, Information Technology, IT enabled Services and so on.
  • India must look beyond energy and infrastructure. It must encourage companies to invest in Africa, expanding value-added processing plants to reduce dependence on imports of finished goods, boost employment and promote a stronger business culture.
  • New Delhi must work with partners — France, Germany, UK and Japan — providing a viable alternative to China.
  • The term ‘Indo-Pacific’ is a recognition of India’s pivotal role in establishing trading regimes and rules-based maritime freedom of navigation, and noted that Africa “counts” on India to play a very important part strategically and politically for the same.

Conclusion:

Working with allies, India must leverage its historic ties with Africa and its shared colonial past to essay a development pathway that is based on partnership and mutual benefit, especially in education, training and measures to counter climate change, reduce poverty and boost agriculture.


Topic:  Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment. developing new technology.

5) “Owing to the unparalleled transformation in the world of work, there are numerous transformational challenges that are bound to occur” Discuss the persistent future challenges in the world of work with the advent of the automation.(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question:

The article captures the analysis of  recently released report by the International Labour Organization (ILO) that dwells on automation and employability aspects .

Key demand of the question:

The answer must provide for a detailed analysis of the impact of automation directly and indirectly on Job scenario. The report titled “Changing Business and Opportunities for Employer and Business Organizations” by ILO needs to be analyzed in detail.

Directive word:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction:

write a few introductory lines about the job scenario in India.

Body:

Answers must discuss the following aspects :

  • Have a discussion on how Robotic automation is having the greatest impact, replacing low skilled jobs and simple assembly tasks and thus affecting employability factor and shrinking jobs in the economy.
  • Discuss what Jobs are impacted by automation?
  • Indian context of the situation – take cues from the article and quote the findings of the report.
  • What needs to be done – focus on skilling, education system etc.

Conclusion –

Conclude with way forward, assert that with changing lifestyle, evolution of technology India needs to gear up with its policies directed for employment and skilling.

Introduction:

India is in the midst of a massive jobs crisis. The unemployment rate has reached a 45-year high (6.1%) in 2017-18 as per leaked data from the Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS) report of the National Sample Survey Office (NSSO). According to the PLFS report, the unemployment problem is especially aggravated in India’s cities and towns. Aside from unemployment, there is employability crisis too in India as per a recently released ILO report.

Body:

The increasing Automation is threatening the jobs:

  • According to the International Labour Organisation (ILO), 60 per cent of the formal employment in India relies on “middle-skill” jobs, including clerical, sales, service, skilled agricultural, and trade-related work, all of which are prone to automation.
  • For instance, In the case of India, 51.8% of activities can be automated. Japan and Thailand run the risk of 55.7% and 54.8%, respectively, of their activities being automated. Over 40% of activities can be automated across the world.
  • Similarly, an American medical school tested IBM’s AI technology Watson to analyse 1,000 cancer diagnoses. In 99% of the cases, Watson was able to recommend treatment plans that matched the suggestions of well-renowned oncologists.
  • As the world gets more competitive, as manufacturing gets more competitive, it will use more automation, robotics, technology.
  • New technologies like AI and Robotics improve the functional efficiency drastically than manual methods. Thus large industries will increasingly shift towards the automation in the quest of higher productivity.
  • Automation threatens to impact women more than men, suggests the report. It points out that woman “are a large component of the workforce in retail, business processing outsourcing and textiles/clothing/footwear”. This is primarily because automation threatens sectors where women form a major part of the workforce.
  • Information technology (IT), IT-enabled services (ITeS) and security services, followed by banking, will be the first sectors to feel the heat, wherein manual transactions and processing jobs will become obso Huge numbers of services jobs in these sectors will be made redundant as a few lines of code will be able to perform the same tasks efficiently and effectively, according to PeopleStrong , a HR solution firm.

Measures to tackle the crisis:

  • Upskilling and Reskilling as part of the present jobs to cater the need of the industries.
  • Incentivizing and encouraging automation in sectors where it is critically necessary.
  • Focusing on increasing the efficacy and efficiency of Micro, Small and Medium scale industries.
  • Government needs to be inept in creating new employment-generating sectors and reform existing ones at a time when machines are systematically cutting down the workforce requirements in the principal labour-generating triumvirate of manufacturing and services sectors.
  • Need to bring structural changes in employment-stagnated areas like Textile, cotton industries to increase employment opportunities in these areas.
  • Government needs to bring more and more workers under formal economy so that they enjoy benefits of social security provided by government and companies.
  • The concept of “smart” work and demand for specific skills must be encouraged in universities to redesign higher education and training and the state to facilitate job-market transition.
  • Futuristic ideas such as livelihood insurance and universal basic income presuppose state capacity to tax and distribute the additional income generated should be pondered upon.

Conclusion:

Automation has economy-wide implications at the macro level and workplace-level implications at the micro level for the worker. The fourth industrial revolution is in progress, India must re-skill workers, rethink social policy, and examine the employment potential of new sectors such as care economy in the long-term.


Topic : Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.

6) Holistic overview of the linkages between the different components of energy is the need of the hour to flip the ratio between fossils and renewables in the energy basket of emergent India. Discuss. (250 words)

Indianexpress

 

Why this question:

The article evaluates the pressing needs of re assessing India’s energy directive to ensure future security of energy basket.

Key demand of the question:

One is expected to discuss the present scenario of India’s energy basket viz. the renewable vs non-renewable equation. What should India’s stand be to move forward with sustainable energy future.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Brief upon the current energy situation of India, use facts and quote reports.

Body:

Discuss the following aspects :

  • Explain in short the Energy situation , projection of India’s energy future.
  • Discuss the challenges – energy demand will move on an upward curve; indigenous supplies will fail to keep pace with this increase in demand; energy imports will rise in absolute and relative terms, and, the environment will face increasing stress. More specifically, coal will dominate, oil and gas will have significance; renewables, whilst on a rising trend, will account for a relatively inconsequential share and air pollution, depleting water tables and extreme weather conditions will presage ecological collapse.
  • Conclude what needs to be done and suggest way forward in terms of – policy measures, holistic overhaul of the energy policy, need for energy revolution etc.

Conclusion:

Re-assert the significance of the need for sustainable energy and need for facilitation of a holistic overview of the linkages between the different components of energy (oil, gas, coal, renewables, nuclear, hydro, bio, non-commercial)

Introduction:

India has its goal of achieving 175GW from renewable energy sources. In the INDC goals submitted under Paris Deal, it aims to achieve about 40 percent cumulative electric power installed capacity from non-fossil fuel based energy resources by 2030.

Body:

India’s current energy mix:

                India’s thermal coal base, which still provides over 60 per cent of the country’s overall electricity generation, is still growing. India is the third largest emitter of green house gases – around 2.3 Giga tons annually.

CaseStudy: BP’s most recent energy outlook published just a few weeks back. It avers that in 2040, fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) will account for between 70-75 per cent of India’s primary energy consumption — down from approximately 90 per cent today. Of that, coal will account for 45 per cent (down from the current 55 per cent); oil 20 per cent (down from 30 per cent today) and natural gas at the same levels as today of around seven per cent. Renewables market share will increase to 15 per cent up from the current 3-4 per cent. Consequently, India will import 95 per cent of its oil requirements; 60 per cent of its gas requirements and 30 per cent of its coal requirements (despite the fact that it contains the fifth largest deposits of coal in the world). India will meet its Paris commitments to reduce GHG emissions by 35 per cent in 2035 relative to 2005. But, given this level of fossil fuel consumption, it will be one of the largest absolute emitters of pollutants in the world.

Challenges faced to adopt renewable energy:

  • Huge Dependency on Coal:
  1. Individual level:
  • Roughly 15-20 million people in the coal belt are dependent on the coal industry, either directly or indirectly, for their livelihood.
  • Jobs in the renewable energy sector will not be coming to the coal belt in large numbers.
  1. Industry level:
  • Over 50 power plants in the country are dependent on the coal from Central India belt.
  • According to the Integrated Energy Policy prepared by the Planning Commission of India, even under a least coal usage scenario, coal will supply more than 40% of the primary commercial energy even in 2031-32.
  • The Union Cabinet recently approved a new hydroelectricity policy that, among other things, included large hydro projects within the ambit of renewable energy. However, DISCOMS are reluctant sign Power Purchase Agreements (PPAs) Hydro Power due to higher tariff, particularly, in the initial years.
  • The major commercial deterrents for the private developers are high capital cost and long payback period due to high gestation period which may also create issues in financing.
  • The other issue related to Hydropower projects is financing and evacuation. Hydro Power projects are capital-intensive and financing them for long such as 20 years is really a challenge.
  • The costs of transitioning to renewables — whether calculated in terms of the sunk costs of stranded thermal power assets or the creation of transmission and distribution infrastructure to overcome the problem of “intermittency” (the sun does not shine all the time; nor does the wind blow with regularity) are huge.
  • There are technological (like storage or carbon sequestration) and regulatory (conservation norms, emissions standards) issues to overcome before clean energy can be brought to scale.

Way forward:

  • Holistic approach:
    • India must stop looking energy sector from a disaggregated picture and encourages a siloed approach to energy governance.
    • A general equilibrium macro model is required that captures linkages (between fuel usage, electricity, mobility, industry, and agriculture, on the one hand, and, ecology on the other) and enables decision-makers to consider the systemic implications of changes in one or more of these variables.
  • Appropriate institutional structures of decision-making:
    • The current structure of multiple “energy” ministries (petroleum, coal, renewables, power, atomic) should be collapsed into one omnibus Ministry of Energy and Environment.
    • This will enable integrated decision making; it will also provide a platform for collaborative public-private and constructively “disruptive” innovation.
    • Besides, it will also bring sustainability to the fore of policy.
  • Legislation:
    • The government should use its newly derived mandate to legislate an “Energy and Environment Security” Act.
    • The purpose should be to engage the public in the larger debate on how to weaken if not break the current unhealthy nexus between economic growth, energy demand and environmental degradation.
    • It should be to elevate the objective of wreaking an energy “discontinuity” into a national priority.

Conclusion:

IPCC’s special report on global warming warned that limiting global warming to 1.5 degrees would require rapid, far reaching and unprecedented changes in all aspects of society. India must speedup her efforts to shift towards renewable energy to meet her socio-economic goals in a sustainable manner.


Topic: Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

7) Evaluate laws, rules, regulations are conscience as source of ethical guidance. (250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon

 

Why this question:

The question is about evaluation laws, rules, regulations and conscience as source of ethical guidance

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss in detail the significance of ethical guidance and role played by rules, laws, regulations and most importantly the conscience .

Directive:

EvaluateWhen you are asked to evaluate, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidences.  You have to appraise the worth of the statement in question. There is scope for forming a personal opinion here.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In a few introductory lines define what you understand by Ethical guidance.

Body:

Explain the meaning of ethical guidance, why is it important, what are the factors that influence ethical guidance etc. Then move on to discuss the role played by different rules, regulations , legal provisions, legislations and how they define ones ethical guide.  Then discuss the role of conscience; define what is it? How it guides ethics in an individual ?etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of conscience in public services. And how each of the elements – rules, laws etc. have their own role in determining the ethics of an individual.

Introduction:

Ethical guidance is the way in which humans go about in their actions. Ethics helps a person to choose between the right and wrong action. Human conduct is chiefly guided by Laws, rules, regulations and Conscience.

Body:

               

LAW: According to Thomas Aquinas, Law is an ‘ordinance of reason directed towards common good and promulgated by the one who cares for the community.’ He sees law as a command, a directive which should be reasonable and directed towards common good and not satisfy private interests of a few individuals. It can be divided into Eternal (Divine) Law, Human Law and Natural Law. The Legislature is responsible.

Example: Motor Vehicles Act is a Law.

 

RULES: Within the jurisdiction of Law, rules are made. Rules are the norms for implementation of the Law. If Law is the skeletal structure, then Rules are the life-blood of it. The Executive is responsible.

Example: Traffic rules under Motor Vehicles Act

 

REGULATIONS:  Laws and Rules become the basis for controlling behaviour of humans, so that they can behave in a desirable way. This act of controlling behaviour is known as Regulation.

Regulation is essence of governance and quality of regulation determines the

  • Quality of human behaviour
  • Quality of goods and services
  • Quality of peace & harmony.
  • Quality of Development.
  • Innovation.
  • Strength of Society.

Example: Food products and their regulation by FSSAI; Business, trade & commerce regulation by SEBI.

CONSCIENCE: It is the inner voice of a person which guides the right and wrong. Conscience aims to make moral decisions in ‘overwhelming forces of inescapable situations’ despite the risk of adverse consequences. If conscience goes, then everything collapses, conscience is central to our identity and it is as component in the moral decisions making process.

Example: Concept of Enlightenment, Nirvana etc. are associated with highest stage of development of human Conscience. Gandhiji’s civil disobedience movement was true to his conscience although it broke the law.

Differences between each other            

  • The main difference between rules and laws is the consequences associated with breaking them. While each is developed to invoke a sense of order, fair play, and safety, the weight of a law is much heavier than the weight of a rule. Laws are like the legal version of rule.
  • Rules are flexible while the laws and regulations are fixed. Also rules are broader in scope when compared to laws and regulations.
  • Law is an external source of guidance where as conscience is a product of internal process.
  • Most of the laws, rules and regulations have their roots in Conscience.
  • A person may escape from breaking a law he can never escape himself from his conscience when he does an unethical action. Example: Marital Rape.
  • Laws represent collective aspirations of the society where as conscience is a product of socialisation.
  • Ethical guidance provided by law and conscience may not always be same which could be a cause for ethical dilemma. Example: Death Penalty

Conclusion:

                Laws, Rules, Regulations and Conscience together guide the conduct of humans in a society. The conscience however guides the other three.