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Topic: Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and their location- changes in critical geographical features (including waterbodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.
1) ”Rising Climate change guarantees coral reef extinction in coming 100 years”. Discuss(250 words)
Why this question:
The question is in the context of critical impact of climate change on Coral ecosystem of the world.
Key demands of the question:
The answer must provide for a detailed discussion on the causative factors especially related to climate change that are severely affecting the coral ecosystems of the world.
Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.
Structure of the answer:
In a few introductory lines explain the significance of coral reef ecosystem and importance of efforts to conserve them.
Discuss the following aspects in the answer:
- Coral reefs harbor the highest biodiversity of any ecosystem globally and directly support over 500 million people worldwide, mostly in poor countries.
- Discuss what are the issues associated – Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, rise in temperature leading to unprecedented mass coral bleaching events etc.
- Why are they important ? – They are among the most threatened ecosystems on Earth, largely due to unprecedented global warming and climate changes, combined with growing local pressures.
- Over the last three years, reefs around the world have suffered from mass coral bleaching events as a result of the increase in global surface temperature caused by anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions.
- According to UNESCO, the coral reefs in all 29 reef-containing World Heritage sites would cease to exist by the end of this century if we continue to emit greenhouse gases under a business-as-usual scenario.
- Limiting global average temperature to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels in line with the Paris Agreement provides the only chance for the survival of coral reefs globally.
- What can be done?
Conclude with significance of the ecosystem and criticality of the situation and necessity to save them from extinction.