Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.
Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.
4) Discuss the key proposals of the National Mineral Policy 2019. Does it ensure environmentally and socially responsible mining? Critically analyse.(250 words)
Why this question:
The question is about evaluation of the recent government’s National Mineral Policy 2019. The effects of policy on social and environmental aspects.
Key demand of the question:
The answer must discuss at length the key features of the policy, its certain effects upon social and environmental aspects. One is expected to critically analyse these two aspects in detail and give a firm opinion along with suggestions as to what needs to be done.
Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.
Critically Analyse – When asked to ‘analyse’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.
Structure of the answer:
Narrate a brief background of the context of the question – salient features of the policy.
In brief discuss –
- Key features of National Mineral Policy (NMP) – increase the production of major minerals by 200 per cent in 7 years, massive increase of domestic mineral production and reducing trade deficits in the mineral sector in the next 7 years, business-friendly policy etc.
- What do you understand by responsible mining – discuss the social and environment factor.
- Issues associated with mining – issues of unscientific mining, poor track records of environmental and social performance, and high instances of illegal activities. The regulatory environment, and capacity and accountability of our authorities.
- Impact on social aspect – displacement of tribal pockets, Community concerns, Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement etc.
- Environmental aspect – Environmental pollution, critically fragile ecological areas, Exclusive Mining Zones, clearance systems etc.
Conclude with what needs to be done, suggest way forward.